Gospel harmony

This article is about attempts to merge, or harmonize, the Christian canonical gospels. For harmony in Christian Gospel music, see Gospel music.

A gospel harmony is an attempt to compile the Christian canonical gospels into a single account.[1] This may take the form either of a single, merged narrative, or a tabular format with one column for each gospel, technically known as a "synopsis", although the word 'harmony' is often used for both.[1] Harmonies are constructed to establish a chronology of events in the life of Jesus depicted in the canonical gospels, to better understand how the accounts relate to each other, or to establish events in the life of Jesus.[2]

The construction of harmonies has always been favoured by more conservative scholars. Students of higher criticism, on the other hand, see the divergences between the Gospel accounts as reflecting the construction of traditions by the early Christian communities.[3] In the modern era, attempts to construct a single story have largely been abandoned in favour of laying out the accounts in parallel columns for comparison, to allow critical study of the differences between them.[4]

The earliest known harmony is the Diatessaron by Tatian in the 2nd century and variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages.[5][6] The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of Gospel harmonies and the parallel column structure became widespread.[7] At this time visual representations also started appearing, depicting the Life of Christ in terms of a "pictorial gospel harmony", and the trend continued into the 19th–20th centuries.[8][9]


A Gospel harmony is an attempt to collate the Christian canonical gospels into a single gospel account.[1] Gospel harmonies are constructed and studied by scholars to establish a coherent chronology of the events depicted in the four canonical gospels in the life of Jesus, to better understand how the accounts relate to each other, and to critically evaluate their differences.[2][4]

One approach to harmonizing consists of merging the stories into a single narrative, although as John Barton points out, it is impossible to construct a single account from the four Gospels without changing the individual accounts.[10] This approach, almost as old as the gospels themselves, has largely been abandoned in the modern era.[4] Another approach is that of rationalisation – attempting to show that inconsistencies between Gospel accounts are only apparent, an approach Barton says is associated, in the English-speaking world at least, with fundamentalism.[10] A major problem with harmonizing the accounts is that events are often described in a different order – the Synoptic Gospels, for instance, describe Jesus overturning tables in the Temple at Jerusalem in the last week of his life, whereas the Gospel of John only records a counterpart event towards the beginning of Jesus's ministry. Harmonists must either choose which they think is correct, or conclude that separate events are described. Lutheran Theologian Andreas Osiander, for instance, proposed in Harmonia evangelica (1537) that Jesus must have been crowned with thorns twice, and that there were three separate episodes of cleansing of the Temple.[11] A similar problem arises with the centurion whose servant is healed, at a distance. In the Matthew Gospel he comes to Jesus,[12] in the Luke version he sends Jewish elders.[13] Since these are clearly describing the same event, the harmonist must decide which is the more accurate description.[14][15]

The modern view, based on the broadly accepted principle that the Gospels of Matthew and Luke were written using the Gospel of Mark as a source, seeks to explain the differences between the texts in terms of this process. For example, the Mark Gospel describes John the Baptist as preaching the forgiveness of sins, a detail which is dropped by Matthew, perhaps in the belief that the forgiveness of sins was exclusive to Jesus.[16]

The terms harmony and synopsis have been used to refer to approaches that aim to achieve Gospel harmony, although they are different approaches.[1] Technically, a "harmony" weaves together sections of scripture into a narrative, merging the four Gospels. There are four main types of harmony: radical, synthetic, sequential and parallel.[1] A "synopsis", much like a parallel harmony focuses on key events and brings together similar texts or accounts in parallel format, usually in columns.[1] Harmonies may also have a visual form and be undertaken to create narratives for artistic purposes, as in the creation of picture compositions depicting the Life of Christ.[8]

To illustrate the concept of parallel harmony, a simple example of a "synopsis fragment" is shown here, consisting of just four episodes from the Passion.[17] A more comprehensive parallel harmony appears in a section below.

Event Matthew Mark Luke John
Crown of thornsMatthew 27:29Mark 15:17John 19:2–5
Blood curseMatthew 27:24–25
Carrying the crossMatthew 27:27–33Mark 15:20–22Luke 23:26–32John 19:16–17
Crucifixion of JesusMatthew 27:34–61Mark 15:23–47Luke 23:33–54John 19:18–38

Unlike the example above, a textual approach to harmony does not use tables and columns but combines the verses in the gospels into a merged narrative, producing a piece of text longer than any individual gospel.[2]

The gospels accounts show a great deal of overall similarity, but the scholarly process for constructing a detailed harmony is complicated by issues of text or the uniqueness of material in each Gospel.[1] Specific issues at times resists distillation into a single harmonized chronology, as the variety of readings that appear in multiple harmony efforts attests. An example is determining whether Jesus cursed the fig tree before or after the Cleansing of the Temple.[1] However, the construction of harmonies remains an important element of biblical study and to gain a better understanding of the Gospel accounts of the life of Jesus.[1]

Early Church and Middle Ages

6–7th-century use of the Eusebian Canons to organize the contents of the gospels in the London Canon Tables.

Tatian's influential Diatessaron harmony which dates to about AD 160 was perhaps the very first harmony.[1][5][18] The Diatessaron reduced the number of verses in the four gospels from 3,780 to 2,769 without missing any event of teaching in the life of Jesus from any of the gospels.[1] Some scholars believe Tatian may have drawn on one or more noncanonical Gospels.[19] The Gospel of the Ebionites, composed about the same time, is believed to have been a gospel harmony.[20]

Variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages, e.g. Codex Sangallensis (based on the 6th century Codex Fuldensis) dates to 830 and has a Latin column based on the Vulgate and an Old High German column that often resembles the Diatessaron, although errors frequently appear within it.[6] The Liege harmony in the Limburg dialect (Liege University library item 437) is a key Western source of the Diatessaron and dates to 1280, although published much later.[6][21] The two extant recensions of the Diatessaron in Medieval Italian are the single manuscript Venetian from the 13th or 14th century and the 26 manuscript Tuscan from the 14–15th century.[6][21]

In the 3rd century Ammonius of Alexandria developed the forerunner of modern synopsis (perhaps based on the Diatessaron) as the Ammonian Sections in which he started with the text of Matthew and copied along parallel events.[1][22] There are no extant copies of the harmony of Ammonius and it is only known from a single reference in the letter of Eusebius to Carpianus.[22] In the letter Eusebius also discusses his own approach, i.e. the Eusebian Canons in which the texts of the gospels are shown in parallel to help comparison among the four gospels.[22]

In the 5th century, Saint Augustine wrote extensively on the subject in his book Harmony of the Gospels.[23] Augustine viewed the variations in the gospel accounts in terms of the different focuses of the authors on Jesus: Matthew on royalty, Mark on humanity, Luke on priesthood and John on divinity.[24]

Clement of Llanthony's One from Four was considered an improvement on previous canons at the time,[25] although modern scholars sometimes opine that no major advances beyond Augustine emerged on the topic until the 15th century.[7] Throughout the Middle Ages harmonies based on the principles of the Diatessaron continued to appear, e.g. the Liege harmony by Plooij in Middle Dutch, and the Pepysian harmony in Middle English.[21][22] The Pepysian harmony (Magdalene college, Cambridge, item Pepys 2498) dates to about 1400 and its name derives from having been owned by Samuel Pepys.[21]

15th–20th centuries

Cover of Branteghem's 1537 visual Gospel harmony, Antwerp[26]

In the 15th and the 16th centuries some new approaches to harmony began to appear, e.g. Jean Gerson produced a harmony which gave priority to the Gospel of John.[22] On the other hand John Calvin's approach focused on the three synoptic Gospels, and excluded the Gospel of John. [27][28]

By this time visual representations had also started appearing, for instance the 15th-century artist Lieven de Witte produced a set of about 200 woodcut images that depicted the Life of Christ in terms of a "pictorial gospel harmony" which then appeared in Willem van Branteghem's harmony published in Antwerp in 1537.[8][26] The importance of imagery is reflected in the title of Branteghem's well known work: The Life of Jesus Christ Skillfully Portrayed in Elegant Pictures Drawn from the Narratives of the Four Evangelists[26]

The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of Gospel harmonies. In this period the parallel column structure became widespread, partly in response to the rise of biblical criticism.[7] This new format was used to emphasize the trustworthiness of the Gospels. It is not clear who produced the very first parallel harmony, but Gerhard Mercator's 1569 system is a well-known example.[7][29] In terms of content and quality, Johann Jacob Griesbach's 1776 synopsis was a notable case.[7][29]

At the same time, the rise of modern biblical criticism was instrumental in the decline of the traditional apologetic gospel harmony. The Enlightenment writer, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, observed:

Oh that most excellent Harmony, which can only reconcile two contradictory reports, both stemming from the evangelists, by inventing a third report, not a syllable of which is to be found in any individual evangelist![30]

W. G. Rushbrooke's 1880 Synopticon is at times considered a turning point in the history of the synopsis, as it was based on Markan priority, i.e. the assumption that the Gospel of Mark was the first to be written.[7] Thirteen years later, John Broadus used historical accounts to assign priorities in his harmony, while previous approaches had used feasts as the major milestones for dividing the life of Christ.[7]

Towards the end of the 19th century, after extensive travels and study in the Middle East, James Tissot produced a set of 350 watercolors which depicted the life of Christ as a visual Gospel harmony.[9] Tissot synthesized the four Gospels into a singular narrative with five chapters: "the Holy Childhood, the Ministry, Holy Week, the Passion, and the Resurrection". He also made portraits of each of the four evanglists to honor them.[31]

In the 20th century, the Synopsis of the Four Gospels by Kurt Aland[32] came to be seen by some as "perhaps the standard for an in-depth study of the Gospels."[7] A key feature of Aland's work is the incorporation of the full text of the Gospel of John.[7] John Bernard Orchard's synopsis (which has the same title)[33] was of note in that it took the unusual approach of abandoning Markan priority and assuming the synopics were written in this order: Matthew, Luke, Mark.[7]

A parallel harmony presentation

For a visual representation of the events, please see: Gospel harmony gallery

The following table, containing events for which there is also a Wikipedia article, is an example of a parallel harmony, based on the list of key episodes in the Canonical Gospels. The order of events, especially during the ministry period, has been the subject of speculation and scholarly debate. While this harmony compares the work of several scholars, other harmonies may differ substantially on the placement of some events. The episode structure within the table is based on Edward Robinson's A Harmony of the Gospels in Greek[34] as well as Steven L. Cox and Kendell H Easley's Harmony of the Gospels.[35]

Event Type Matthew Mark Luke John
1Pre-existence of ChristmiscellaneousJohn 01:01–18
2Genealogy of JesusnativityMatthew 01:01–17Luke 03:23–38
3Birth of John the BaptistnativityLuke 01:05–25
4AnnunciationnativityLuke 01:26–38
5Visitation of MarynativityLuke 01:39–56
6Birth of JesusnativityMatthew 01:18–25Luke 02:01–07
7Annunciation to the shepherdsnativityLuke 02:08–15
8Adoration of the shepherdsnativityLuke 02:16–20
9Circumcision of JesusnativityLuke 02:21
10Infant Jesus at the TemplenativityLuke 02:22–38
11Star of BethlehemnativityMatthew 02:01–02
12Visit of the MaginativityMatthew 02:03–12
13Flight into EgyptnativityMatthew 02:13–15
14Massacre of the InnocentsnativityMatthew 02:16–18
15Herod the Great's deathmiscellaneousMatthew 02:19–20
16Return of the family of Jesus to NazarethyouthLuke 02:39–39
17Finding Jesus in the TempleyouthLuke 02:41–51
18John the BaptistmiscellaneousMark 01:01–08
19Ministry of John the BaptistmiscellaneousMatthew 03:01–12John 01:19–34
20Baptism of JesusmiscellaneousMatthew 03:13–17Mark 01:09–11Luke 03:21–22John 01:29–39
21Temptation of JesusmiscellaneousMatthew 04:01–11Mark 01:12–13Luke 04:01–13
22Marriage at CanamiracleJohn 02:01–11
24Jesus & NicodemusministryJohn 03:01–21
25Return of Jesus to GalileeministryMatthew 04:12–12Mark 01:14–14John 04:01–03
26Exorcism at the Synagogue in CapernaummiracleMark 01:21–28Luke 04:31–37
27The Growing SeedparableMark 04:26–29
28Hometown rejection of JesusministryMatthew 13:53–58Mark 06:01–06Luke 04:16–30
29First disciples of JesusministryMatthew 04:18–22Mark 01:16–20John 01:35–51
30Miraculous draught of fishesmiracleLuke 05:01–11
31BeatitudessermonMatthew 05:02–12Luke 06:20–23
32Young Man from NainmiracleLuke 07:11–17
33The Two DebtorsparableLuke 07:41–43
34The Lamp under a BushelparableMatthew 05:14–15Mark 04:21–25Luke 08:16–18
35Expounding of the LawsermonMatthew 05:17–48Luke 06:29–42
36Seventy DisciplesministryLuke 10:01–24
37Discourse on ostentationsermonMatthew 06:01–18
38Parable of the Good SamaritanparableLuke 10:30–37
39Jesus at the home of Martha and MaryministryLuke 10:38–42
40The Lord's PrayerministryMatthew 06:09–13Luke 11:02–04
41The Friend at NightparableLuke 11:05–08
42The Rich FoolparableLuke 12:16–21
43Samaritan Woman at the WellministryJohn 04:04–26
44The Birds of HeavenministryMatthew 06:25–34Luke 12:22–34
45Discourse on judgingsermonMatthew 07:01–05Luke 06:41–42
46Discourse on holinesssermonMatthew 07:13–27
47The Test of a Good PersonsermonMatthew 07:15–20
48The Wise and the Foolish BuildersparableMatthew 07:24–27Luke 06:46–49
49Cleansing a lepermiracleMatthew 08:01–04Mark 01:40–45Luke 05:12–16
50The Centurion's ServantmiracleMatthew 08:05–13Luke 07:01–10John 04:46–54
51Healing the mother of Peter's wifemiracleMatthew 08:14–17Mark 01:29–34Luke 04:38–41
52Exorcising at sunsetmiracleMatthew 08:16–17Mark 01:32–34Luke 04:40–41
53Calming the stormmiracleMatthew 08:23–27Mark 04:35–41Luke 08:22–25
54Gerasenes demonicmiracleMatthew 08:28–34Mark 05:01–20Luke 08:26–39
55Paralytic at CapernaummiracleMatthew 09:01–08Mark 02:01–12Luke 05:17–26
56Calling of MatthewministryMatthew 09:09Mark 02:13–14Luke 05:27–28
57New Wine into Old WineskinsparableMatthew 09:17–17Mark 02:22–22Luke 05:37–39
58Daughter of JairusmiracleMatthew 09:18–26Mark 05:21–43Luke 08:40–56
59The Bleeding WomanmiracleMatthew 09:20–22Mark 05:24–34Luke 08:43–48
60Two Blind Men at GalileemiracleMatthew 09:27–31
61Exorcising a mutemiracleMatthew 09:32–34
62Commissioning the twelve ApostlesministryMatthew 10:02–04Mark 03:13–19Luke 06:12–16
63But to bring a swordministryMatthew 10:34–36
64Messengers from John the BaptistministryMatthew 11:02–06Luke 07:18–23
65Paralytic at BethesdamiracleJohn 05:01–18
66Lord of the SabbathministryMatthew 12:01–08Mark 02:23–28
67Man with withered HandmiracleMatthew 12:09–13Mark 03:01–06Luke 06:06–11
68The Lord's PrayerministryMatthew 06:09–13Luke 11:02–04
69Exorcising the blind and mute manmiracleMatthew 12:22–28Mark 03:20–30Luke 11:14–23
70Parable of the strong manparableMatthew 12:29–29Mark 03:27–27Luke 11:21–22
71Eternal sinministryMatthew 12:30–32Mark 03:28–29Luke 12:08–10
72Jesus' True RelativesministryMatthew 12:46–50Mark 03:31–35Luke 08:19–21
73Parable of the SowerparableMatthew 13:03–09Mark 04:03–09Luke 08:05–08
74The Birds of HeavenministryLuke 12:22–34
75The TaresparableMatthew 13:24–30
76The Barren Fig TreeparableLuke 13:06–09
77An Infirm WomanmiracleLuke 13:10–17
78Parable of the Mustard SeedparableMatthew 13:31–32Mark 04:30–32Luke 13:18–19
79The LeavenparableMatthew 13:33–33Luke 13:20–21
80Parable of the PearlparableMatthew 13:44–46
81Drawing in the NetparableMatthew 13:47–50
82The Hidden TreasureparableMatthew 13:52–52
83Rejection of JesusministryMatthew 13:53–58Mark 06:01–06Luke 04:16–30
84Beheading of St. John the BaptistministryMatthew 14:06–12Mark 06:21–29
85Feeding the 5000miracleMatthew 14:13–21Mark 06:31–44Luke 09:10–17John 06:05–15
86Jesus' walk on watermiracleMatthew 14:22–33Mark 06:45–52John 06:16–21
87Healing in GennesaretmiracleMatthew 14:34–36Mark 06:53–56
88Discourse on DefilementsermonMatthew 15:01–11Mark 07:01–23
89Canaanite woman's daughtermiracleMatthew 15:21–28Mark 07:24–30
90Deaf mute of DecapolismiracleMark 07:31–37
91Feeding the 4000miracleMatthew 15:32–39Mark 08:01–09
92Blind Man of BethsaidamiracleMark 08:22–26
93Confession of PeterministryMatthew 16:13–20Mark 08:27–30Luke 09:18–21
94Transfiguration of JesusmiracleMatthew 17:01–13Mark 09:02–13Luke 09:28–36
95Boy possessed by a demonmiracleMatthew 17:14–21Mark 09:14–29Luke 09:37–49
96Coin in the fish's mouthmiracleMatthew 17:24–27
97Bread of Life DiscoursesermonJohn 06:22–59
98The Little ChildrenministryMatthew 18:01–06Mark 09:33–37Luke 09:46–48
99Man with dropsymiracleLuke 14:01–06
100Counting the CostparableLuke 14:25–33
101The Lost SheepparableMatthew 18:10–14Luke 15:04–06
102The Unforgiving ServantparableMatthew 18:23–35
103The Little ChildrenministryMatthew 18:01–06Mark 09:33–37Luke 09:46–48
104The Lost CoinparableLuke 15:08–09
105Parable of the Prodigal SonparableLuke 15:11–32
106The Unjust StewardparableLuke 16:01–13
107Rich man and LazarusparableLuke 16:19–31
108The Master and ServantparableLuke 17:07–10
109Cleansing ten lepersmiracleLuke 17:11–19
110The Unjust JudgeparableLuke 18:01–08
111Pharisees and the PublicanparableLuke 18:09–14
112Jesus and the rich young manministryMatthew 19:16–30Mark 10:17–31Luke 18:18–30
113Jesus and the woman taken in adulteryministryJohn 08:02–11
114The Workers in the VineyardparableMatthew 20:01–16
115Jesus predicts his deathministryMatthew 20:17–19Mark 10:32–34 (Mark 08:31 Mark 09:31)Luke 18:31–34
116The Blind at BirthmiracleJohn 09:01–12
117Son of man came to serveministryMatthew 20:20–28Mark 10:35–45
118The Good ShepherdministryJohn 10:01–21
119Blind near JerichomiracleMatthew 20:29–34Mark 10:46–52Luke 18:35–43
120Raising of LazarusmiracleJohn 11:01–44
121Jesus and ZacchaeusministryLuke 19:02–28
122Palm SundayministryMatthew 21:01–11Mark 11:01–11Luke 19:29–44John 12:12–19
123Cleansing of the TempleministryMatthew 21:12–13Mark 11:15–18Luke 19:45–48John 02:13–25
124Cursing the fig treemiracleMatthew 21:18–22Mark 11:12–14
125Authority of Jesus QuestionedministryMatthew 21:23–27Mark 11:27–33Luke 20:01–08
126The Two SonsparableMatthew 21:28–32
127The Wicked HusbandmenparableMatthew 21:33–41Mark 12:01–09Luke 20:09–16
128The Great BanquetparableMatthew 22:01–14Luke 14:16–24
129Render unto Caesar...ministryMatthew 22:15–22Mark 12:13–17Luke 20:20–26
130Woes of the PhariseesministryMatthew 23:01–39Mark 12:35–37Luke 20:45–47
131Widow's mitesermonMark 12:41–44Luke 21:01-04
132Second Coming ProphecyministryMatthew 24:01–31Mark 13:01–27Luke 21:05–36
133The Budding Fig TreeparableMatthew 24:32–35Mark 13:28–31Luke 21:29–33
134The Faithful ServantparableMatthew 24:42–51Mark 13:34–37Luke 12:35–48
135The Ten VirginsparableMatthew 25:01–13
136The Talents or MinasparableMatthew 25:14–30Luke 19:12–27
137The Sheep and the GoatsparableMatthew 25:31–46
138Anointing of JesusministryMatthew 26:01–13Mark 14:03-09Luke 07:36–50John 12:02-08
139Bargain of JudasmiscellaneousMatthew 26:14–16Mark 14:10–11Luke 22:01-06
140The Grain of WheatministryJohn 12:24–26
141Last SupperministryMatthew 26:26–29Mark 14:18–21Luke 22:17–20John 13:01–31
142Promising a ParacleteministryJohn 16:05–15
143GethsemanemiscellaneousMatthew 26:36–46Mark 14:32–42Luke 22:39–46
144The kiss of JudaspassionMatthew 26:47–49Mark 14:43–45Luke 22:47–48John 18:02-09
145Healing the ear of a servantmiracleLuke 22:49–51
146Arrest of JesuspassionMatthew 26:50–56Mark 14:46–49Luke 22:52–54John 18:10–12
147Sanhedrin Trial of JesuspassionMatthew 26:57–68Mark 14:53–65Luke 22:63–71John 18:12–24
148Blood cursepassionMatthew 27:24–25
149Carrying the crosspassionMatthew 27:27–33Mark 15:20–22Luke 23:26–32John 19:16–17
150Crucifixion of JesuspassionMatthew 27:34–61Mark 15:23–47Luke 23:33–54John 19:18–38
151Myrrhbearersresurrection appearanceMatthew 28:01Mark 16:01Luke 24:01
152Empty tombresurrection appearanceMatthew 28:02-08Mark 16:02-08Luke 24:02–12John 20:01–13
153Resurrection of Jesusresurrection appearanceMatthew 28:09–10Mark 16:09-13Luke 24:01-08John 20:14–16
154Noli me tangereresurrection appearanceJohn 20:17–17
155Road to Emmaus appearanceresurrection appearanceLuke 24:13–32
156Resurrected Jesus appears to Apostlesresurrection appearanceLuke 24:36–43John 20:19–20
157Great Commissionresurrection appearanceMatthew 28:16–20Mark 16:14-18Luke 24:44–49John 20:21–23
158Doubting Thomasresurrection appearanceJohn 20:24–29
159Catch of 153 fishmiracleJohn 21:01–24
160Ascension of Jesusresurrection appearanceMark 16:19Luke 24:50–53
161Dispersion of the ApostlesmiscellaneousMark 16:20

See also



  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 3–4
  2. 1 2 3 Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 18
  3. Cox, Steven L (2007), Harmony of the Gospels, B&H, pp. 1–2, ISBN 0-8054-9444-8.
  4. 1 2 3 The Encyclopedia of Christianity, 4, Eerdmans, 2005, p. 39.
  5. 1 2 Aune, David Edward (Nov 30, 2003), The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature, p. 190, ISBN 0-66421917-9.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Tatian and the Jewish Scriptures by Robert F. Shedinger (Jan 1, 2002) ISBN 9042910429 pages 28–32
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 6–8
  8. 1 2 3 Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition by Paul Corby Finney 1999 ISBN 080283860X page 398
  9. 1 2 Tissot, James (2009), Dolkart, Judith F; Jacques, James, eds., The Life of Christ : the complete set of 350 watercolors, pp. 70–71, ISBN 0-87273164-2
  10. 1 2 John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon Literature and Theology Collected Essays of John Barton (Ashgate Publishing, 2013) page 59.
  11. Graham Stanton, Gospel Truth? New Light on Jesus and the Gospels (HarperCollins, 1995) page 8; John S. Kloppenborg Verbin, "Is There a New Paradigm?", in Horrell, Tuckett (eds), Christology, Controversy, and Community: New Testament Essays in Honour of David R. Catchpole (BRILL, 2000), page 39.
  12. Matthew 8:8–9
  13. Luke 7:6–8
  14. Mark Allan Powell, Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), page 12–13.
  15. Zegarelli, Gregg (2006). ONE: The Unified Gospel of Jesus. OUG Press. ISBN 978-0978990602.
  16. Francis Watson, "Must the Gospels Agree?" in Stuart G. Hall, Jesus Christ Today: Studies of Christology in Various Contexts (Walter de Gruyter, 2009) page 72–73.
  17. Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 207–211
  18. The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature by David Edward Aune (Nov 30, 2003) ISBN 0664219179 pages 127 and 211
  19. Bart Ehrman, Zlatko Plese, The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (Oxford University Press, 2011) page 231.
  20. Ron Cameron, The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts (Westminster John Knox Press, 1982) page 103.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Patristic and Text-Critical Studies by Jan Krans and Joseph Verheyden (Dec 31, 2011) ISBN 9004192891 pages 188–190
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Encyclopedia Christianity: v. 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch (1 Jul 2004) ISBN 0802824161 page 41
  23. Augustine through the ages: an encyclopedia by John C. Cavadini 1999 ISBN 0-8028-3843-X page 132
  24. Christology, Controversy and Community by David G. Horell and Christopher M. Tuckett (8 Aug 2000) ISBN 9004116796 pages 37–40
  25. Smalley (1981), p. 250.
  26. 1 2 3 The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700 by Celeste Brusati, Karl A. E. Enenkel and Walter S. Melion (Nov 2011) ISBN 9004215158 pages 2–6
  27. John Calvin And the Printed Book by Jean François Gilmont (Nov 30, 2005) ISBN 1931112568 page 50
  28. A Harmony of the Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke by John Calvin, David W. Torrance,(Jul 17, 1995) ISBN 0802808026
  29. 1 2 What Have They Done to the Bible?: A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation by John Sandys-Wunsch (20 Aug 2005) ISBN 0814650287 page 35
  30. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Werke, 8.51-52, cited in Francis Watson, Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013), page 80.
  31. "James Tissot: Saint Luke (Saint Luc) (1886)". Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  32. Kurt Aland, 1982 Synopsis of the Four Gospels United Bible Societies ISBN 0-8267-0500-6
  33. John Bernard Orchard, 1983 Synopsis of the Four Gospels T&T Clark Publishers ISBN 0-567-09331-X
  34. William Newcome (1834), Edward Robinson, ed., A harmony of the Gospels in Greek, in the general order of Le Clere & Newcome, with Newcome's notes: Printed from the text and with the various readings of Knapp, Gould and Newman
  35. Steven L. Cox; Kendell H. Easley (2006), "Analytical Outline of the Harmony", HCSB Harmony of the Gospels, B&H Publishing, p. xviii, ISBN 978-0805494440


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