Glossary of United Kingdom railway terms

This page contains a list of jargon used to varying degrees by railfans and trainspotters in the United Kingdom, including nicknames for various locomotives and multiple units. Although not exhaustive, many of the entries in this list appear from time to time in specialist, rail-related publications. Inclusion of a term in this list does not necessarily imply its universal adoption by all railfans and enthusiasts, and there may be significant regional variation in usage.

Contents :


Annett's key
A large key which locks levers or other items of signalling apparatus, thereby serving as a portable form of interlocking
The indication displayed by a colour-light signal (e.g. a yellow aspect)
A passenger coach fitted with a driving cab and controls for use in an autotrain
Automatic warning system (AWS)
The specific form of limited cab signalling introduced in 1948 in the United Kingdom to help train drivers observe and obey warning signals


Baby Deltic
D5900 class Bo-Bo diesel-electric locomotives, constructed by the English Electric company. They used a single Napier Deltic engine/generator combination, as opposed to the two-engines layout and Co-Co wheel arrangement of the much longer Deltic locomotives from the same manufacturer, to which they bore a very strong family resemblance.[1]
Baby Warship
North British D6300 class locomotives, which used one diesel engine coupled to a hydraulic transmission, making them effectively half a D600 Warship or D800 Warship, each of which had two engines[2]
British Rail Class 33/1 locomotives, specifically those fitted for push-pull working with 4TC stock[3]
A First ScotRail Class 170 DMU in Barbie livery
Wikimedia Commons has media related to First Group "Barbie" livery.
Livery of First Group's bus and rail companies up until February 2006—the name comes from the purple and pink packaging of Barbie dolls. First Group are now favouring Neon schemes.
Base plate
An iron or steel plate used to spread the weight of rail over a larger area of sleeper (tie) and facilitate a secure, low maintenance, fastening with bolts or clips
Bed pan
A name used for the service that used to operate between Bedford and London St. Pancras; this service has subsequently been replaced by cross-London service on the Thameslink route. It is sometimes used when referring to the line from Bedford to St Pancras, and not any service in particular.[4][5]
Bicycling Lion
The British Railways emblem used from 1949 to 1956, featuring a lion standing astride a wheel on a bar featuring the legend 'British Railways'. This name is derived from the fact the lion is standing astride the wheel like a cyclist – hence the nickname. This was replaced with the Ferret and Dartboard logo in 1956 as the British Railways logo.
Black Five
A LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0. Class of steam locomotive built in the UK, named from their black 'mixed-traffic' livery and 'Class 5' power rating.[6]
Blood and Custard
The Crimson and Cream livery used on BR's coaches during the 1950s and 60s[7]
British Rail Class 57 diesel-electric locomotives—made by transplanting a General Motors reconditioned power unit and alternator into a Class 47 bodyshell[8]
Bettendorf-type freight car bogie
The undercarriage assembly of rolling stock incorporating the train wheels, suspension, brakes and, in powered units, the traction motors
Boiler ticket
The safety certificate issued for a steam (locomotive) boiler on passing a thorough formal inspection and generally covering a period of ten years. The formal inspection usually requires the removal of the boiler from the locomotive and renewal of some parts such as the tubes. Additional annual safety inspections must also be undertaken, which may result in the locomotive being withdrawn from service until any faults are rectified. When the boiler ticket "expires" the locomotive cannot be used until the boiler has been reinspected and a new ticket obtained.
Booking clerk
A member of staff at railway stations, employed to sell tickets to passengers, able to provide advice on ticketing and route options, and responsible for the daily accounts and auditing of the station[9][10]
British Rail Class 58 diesel-electric locomotive—from the shape: the body is narrow with wide cabs. (Also called egg timer.) Ironically, one of the final workings of this class was a railfan special called the Bone Breaker which ended in a bufferstop collision and a passenger breaking his leg.[11]
Bone Shaker
London Underground A60 and A62 Stock, due to the shakey ride of the old trains. The nickname was coined by an ITV News reporter during a report on the A Stock's last day of service on the Metropolitan Line.[12]
Brake van
A heavy vehicle with powerful brakes which was attached to the rear of goods trains in the days when most wagons were not fitted with a continuous braking system. Its function was to supplement the locomotive's braking power in slowing and stopping the train and to keep the couplings uniformly tight by selective light braking to avoid snatching and breakages. It also conveyed the train guard, hence its alternative name of "guards van". Partly analogous to caboose and its synonyms.
British Rail Class 47 diesel-electric locomotive, also known as the "Brush Type 4". Followers of this type are often known as "Brush bashers".
Bubble car
A British Rail Class 121 or 122 single railcar[13][14][15]
Bullhead rail
A steel rail section commonly used in 60 ft lengths on almost all railway lines throughout Britain until c1950, which due to its shape must be supported in cast iron chairs that are screwed to the sleepers. It is still found on some London Underground lines, on secondary and preserved lines and in yards. The rail has two heads (shaped somewhat like a vertical dumbbell) which led some people to assume that when one side became worn, the rail could be inverted and reinstalled for further service rather than being replaced (it can't, because the two heads are different sizes, and by the time the top became worn down sufficiently to fit in the chairs when the rail is inverted, both the top and the bottom of the rail would be too small for further use).


The superelevation angle of a track (the relative level of one rail to the other), typically around a curve
A British Railways telegraphic codeword to note the cancellation of a passenger train service[16]
Car transporter wagon or car transporter van
A specialized freight car for transporting automobiles[17][18]
Passengers (particularly commuters, who often complain that they are treated "like cattle")[19]
A cess along the London Underground
The area either side of the railway immediately off the ballast shoulder which provides a safe area for workers to stand when trains approach[20]:62
A cast iron bracket screwed to the sleeper and used to support bull head rail that is held in place by a wooden key (wedge) or spring steel clip—still found on preserved railways and in yards
Check rail
A double rail section of track, sometimes found in train yards and on bridges to prevent derailments or limit damage caused by derailments, by having rail on both sides of the wheel flange. Also found on curves with a tight radius and switches and crossings[21]
Chimney, funnel, or stack
A smokestack
British Rail Class 20 diesel-electric locomotive[22]
Originally used to describe the exhaust of steam locomotives, "clag" is a term describing the often spectacular (particularly blackened, as in Class 37, or whitesmoked, as in Class 55) exhaust emissions of many older British diesel locomotives, especially, Classes 52 and 55.[23]
Railway vehicle for use in passenger trains[24][25]
Coffee pot
Applied to the shape of SR Q1 class steam locomotives[26]
A passenger car with more than one class of accommodation provided (e.g. first and third). In earlier days of three-class travel, first and second class, and second and third class composites were also built. A car with first, second, and third classes was also known as a tri-composite.
Connecting rod
The drive rod connecting the crosshead to a driving-wheel or axle in a steam locomotive[27]
Coupling (UK)
The mechanical connector at either end of a railroad car allowing it to couple together with other cars to form a train[28]
British Rail Class 33 diesel-electric locomotive (fitted with Crompton Parkinson electrical equipment).[29] See also Slim Jim.


Darth Vaders
British Rail Class 460 Juniper electric multiple units (EMUs), so called due to their sloping cab ends, which resembled the front of the helmet worn by the Star Wars villain of the same name
British Rail Class 55 diesel-electric locomotives (the "Deltics"), which use twin Napier Deltic power units
A small explosive device strapped to the top of a rail to alert an approaching train of danger ahead by creating a loud noise upon contact with a locomotive wheel[30]
Waggon und Maschinenbau railbuses E79960-64, introduced 1958[31]
A direction (usually away from London, other capital city, or the headquarters of the railway concerned) or side (on left-running railways, the left side when facing in the down direction).[20]:104[32]
The operator of a railway locomotive
Driving trailer
A passenger coach which has a full set of train controls at one end, allowing for the use of push-pull train operation[33]
Driving Van Trailer (DVT)
A class of control cars
A Class 321 Dusty Bin
Dusty Bin
British Rail Class 321, from the game show 3-2-1, featuring the animated character "Dusty Bin"[20]
The livery of British Rail Civil Engineers department rolling stock, due to the resemblance of Nederlandse Spoorwegen's corporate livery[34]
British Rail Class 92 so called because of the sound their traction blowers make as they go past


Egg Timer
British Rail Class 58 diesel-electric locomotive[11]


HST power car in FGW fag packet livery
Fag packet livery
The original livery of the First Great Western HSTs—a basically green colour scheme, fading to ivory, with shiny gold stripe, below the windows,[35] so called because it resembles the packaging of a brand of Rothman's cigarettes ('fags')
British Railways ferret and dartboard logo, as used on locomotives from 1956 to 1965
Ferret and Dartboard
The second British Railways emblem introduced in 1956, featuring a lion rampant holding a wheel. From a distance the wheel has a passing resemblance to a dartboard.[36]
A metal plate that joins the ends of rails in jointed track[37]
Flat junction
A junction in which all track crossings take place at grade and routings must therefore be controlled by signals and interlocking
Flat wagon
A type of rolling stock, which can be a flat-bottomed car with no sides on which freight (including intermodal containers) can be stacked. A bulkhead is a flatcar with walls on the front and rear. A center-beam bulkhead is a bulkhead flatcar with an additional wall dividing one side of the flatcar from the other, but still without any sides.[38]
Fly shunting
The practice of uncoupling a locomotive from a car in motion and running over a switch, whereupon an employee on the ground lines the switch to divert the car onto an adjacent track.[39][40] Once commonplace, this practice has led to several lawsuits against railroad companies and is now strictly prohibited due to the high risk to life and property.[41][42][43][44][45]
Flying Banana
The first design of GWR diesel railcars, introduced in 1932.[46] This has since been adopted for the Network Rail New Measurement Train, due to its all-over yellow livery.[47] Also occasionally used to describe the High Speed Train.[48]
The group of rail vehicles making up a train, or more commonly a group of locomotives connected together for multiple-unit (MU) operation[28]
Four foot
The area between the running rails of a standard-gauge track; the actual distance is 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm). See also six-foot and ten-foot.[20]:141[49]


The products which are carried
Goods van, goods wagon, or goods truck, railway wagon, or wagon
A type of rolling stock with a flat bottom enclosed on all sides and top, which is loaded and unloaded from sliding doors on each side[50][51]
A British Rail Class 31 diesel-electric locomotive—from "gargoyle" (after the somewhat ungainly headcode boxes above the driving cabs)[52]
A rail enthusiast[53][54][55]
Grid or grid iron
A British Rail Class 56 diesel-electric locomotive, from the large grilles[56]
A British Rail Class 08 or Class 09 shunter[57]
  1. A British Rail Class 37 diesel-electric locomotive (from the engine sound)[58]
  2. A nickname for the 20 Metropolitan-Vickers electric locomotives used on London's Metropolitan underground railway between Liverpool Street and Rickmansworth. The name derived from the noise these locomotives made.[59]
The person in charge of a train and its crew. On passenger trains, a conductor is also responsible for tasks such as assisting passengers and collecting tickets.
A nickname for the British Rail Class 31, on account of its engine noise[48]


A length of track feeding a number of sidings that permits the sidings to be shunted without blocking the main line, or where two lines merge into one before ending with a buffer, to allow a run-round procedure to take place[60]
A British Rail Class 50 diesel-electric locomotive—from the sound of the engine cooling fans being similar to a vacuum cleaner, prior to the refurbishment which removed this characteristic[61]
A D7000 class locomotive using a V16 Maybach diesel engine coupled to a Mekydro hydraulic transmission[62]
A Class 365 Happy Train
Happy Train
A British Rail Class 365 because their revised front end gives a happy face style[63]


British Rail Class 395 electric multiple units, due to their usage during the London 2012 Summer Olympics on Olympic Javelin Shuttle services[64]
Joint station
A railway station at which tracks and facilities are shared by two or more railways[65]


A British Rail HS4000
Timber or sprung steel block used to secure Bullhead rail into the chairs[20]:187


A portable (often handheld) light source that is used to signal train crews[66]
Preserved Class 50 50 049 Defiance, in large-logo livery
Large-logo livery
One of the first new British Rail locomotive liveries applied after many years of all-over rail blue. For this livery, the loco cabs were entirely 'warning yellow', with black window surrounds (the yellow usually wrapping round behind the cab doors); the main bodysides were still rail blue but featured very large running numbers with a large white British Rail 'double arrow' logo in the middle, the full height of the body. It was applied to refurbished Class 50 locomotives, among others.[67]
The cutter's torch, coined by Modern Railways magazine as a pun on the Class 460 'Darth Vaders' having their front ends cut off as part of the amalgamation with the Class 458s
Location case
A trackside cabinet used to house signalling equipment such as relays or transformers[20]:204[68]
A second parallel track (running for a short distance) on single-track railway lines, allowing a train to pass another


Main line
A principal artery of a railway system[69]
Merry-go-round (MGR) train
Coal train running between a coal mine and a power station, loading and unloading without stopping or shunting
Locomotives constructed by Metropolitan-Vickers, especially the British Rail Class 28 (D5700 class) Co-Bo[70]
Mickey Mouse
A Ivatt 2MT class 2-6-0 steam locomotive[71]
Collective term for the connecting rod, coupling rods, and valve gear—forms part of the running gear[72]
Motor train
A branch-line train consisting of a steam locomotive and passenger carriages that can be driven from either end by means of rodding to the regulator and an additional vacuum brake valve. The fireman remains with the locomotive and, when the driver is at the other end, the fireman controls the cut off and vacuum ejectors in addition to his usual duties.
A high-speed train consisting of one MTU engined power car, and one Valenta engined power car in the formation
Multiple working
The ability of diesel and electric locomotives or multiple units to be joined together and controlled from one driving station. Such a set of joined locomotives is called a consist or (colloquially) "lash-up" and is said to be "MUed together".[69]


Networker Clubman
A British Rail Class 168 Clubman unit with original front end, so called because it resembles the front end of a Networker
A non-enthusiast[73]
Nodding Donkeys
The British Rail Pacer Unit because of their bouncing up and down (nodding), and the donkey-like sound such units make on tight corners due to their lack of bogies


Open wagon
A type of rolling stock with a flat bottom and relatively low sides, used to haul material such as ore or scrap, and loaded and unloaded from the top which may be covered or uncovered[21][74]
A bridge over the railway[20]:46
A distance (normally 180 metres or set according to the permitted speed of the line) beyond a stop signal which must be clear before the preceding stop signal can display a proceed aspect; allows a margin in case a train overshoots a signal before stopping[20]:246, 326


A British Rail Class 44, Class 45, or Class 46 diesel-electric locomotive—so named because the earliest of these loco types, the ten Class 44s, were named after mountains[75]
A Class 442 Plastic pig
Person in charge of possession (PICOP)
The railway or contractor's official responsible for safe working during engineer's possession[20]:259
Plastic pig
A British Rail Class 442, "Wessex Electrics" (electric multiple units)—so-named for being mostly made out of plastics in construction
Point machine
A motor or device which operates points
The articulating rails that determine the route to be taken
A British Rail Class 70, a reference to the alien of the same name from the American films
Pump trolley
A small, hand-powered railroad car used for track inspection


A set of rolling stock coupled together[76][77]
British Rail Class 25 diesel-electric locomotives—and related classes—reputedly originating from a term used on the LMR of British Rail in the 1960s where 25s were as common as "rats";[78] the Scottish-based Class 26 and 27 were sometimes known as "MacRats".[79] See also Splut.
Rebel Alliance
South West Trains, coined by Modern Railways as a pun on the Darth Vader front ends of the Class 460s being cut off as part of the amalgamation with the Class 458 units (which amidst the pun was dubbed as their 'star fleet', all a pun on Star Wars)
Early British Rail 25 kV AC electric locomotive of types 'AL1'–'AL5' (later Classes 81, 82, 83, 84, 85), due to the loud whine made by the traction motor cooling fans when the locomotive is at rest. The name originated with the AL3 type. Although the other types exhibit a less noticeable noise, the name is applied equally to any of them.[80]
Running powers
The legal right of one railway company to use the tracks of another, as agreed to by the companies concerned or their predecessors[30]


The roof shape on Class 66 diesel locos resembles that of a garden shed.
A Canadian-built Class 66 diesel-electric locomotive (from the roof shape and also the corrugated bodysides)[81]
  1. A small locomotive used for assembling trains and moving railroad cars around[82]
  2. A person involved in such work[82]
Signal passed at danger (SPAD)
An incident when a train passes a stop signal without authority
Signal-post telephone (SPT)
A direct no-dial telephone link to the relevant signal box, positioned on or near a signal[20]:341
Silver bullet
China Clay slurry wagons[83]
Six foot
The space between a pair of adjacent lines, nominally six feet wide. See also four-foot and ten-foot.[20]:336[49]
Class 67 diesel-electric locomotive (from its shape—an upside down skip)
Class 142 DMUs[84]
A temporary speed restriction to protect, for example, sections of track in poor condition and awaiting repair. Also applies to the timing tolerance included in timetable schedules to allow for such restrictions.
Slack action
Looseness in a train caused by mating clearances in couplers[82]
Slam-door train
Any diesel or electric multiple unit with manually opening hinged doors (mostly the British rail classes 423 and 421), so called after the noise made by passengers slamming the doors
Wood (left track) and concrete (right track) sleepers beneath the rails
Bars of wood or concrete placed beneath and perpendicular to track to support the rails[30]
Slim Jim
Narrow-bodied version of the British Rail Class 33 diesel-electric locomotive (identified as sub-class 33/2)—built for the confined loading gauge on the Hastings line.[48] See also Crompton).
Slip coach
A passenger coach that is disconnected from a train without the train having to stop. While the train continued on its route, the slip coach would be guided and stopped by a guard on board using the coach's own brake mechanism. This practice was almost entirely limited to the United Kingdom and was discontinued in the 1960s.[20]:339[85]
Another nickname for the British Rail Class 25, referring to their habit of spluttering when their engines cut out and failed, which they often did.[86] See also Rat.
Station pilot
A shunting engine based at a major passenger station and used for passenger-train shunting duties
Stop and examine
A now-defunct British Railways rule which required a train crew to stop the train and examine the cause of an unexpected noise, vibration, etc.[87] Section TW of the Network Rail rulebook covers the requirements when working a modern train.
A tunnel passing underneath the railway tracks to allow passengers to cross from one platform to another
Super 60
A rebuilt class 60, upgraded by DBS. Mainly seen in an overall red livery, with half-yellow fronts, but a couple can be seen in the original Sector livery.
The banking of railroad track on curves. Specifically, the practice on high speed lines (where the cant needs to be higher) of gently introducing the elevation of the outer rail before the bend starts, in order to avoid sudden lurches. Synonymous with cant.[82]


3R DEMUs. Named due to having two vehicles 8 ft 2½ in wide and one vehicle 9 ft 3 in wide.[88]
Tank engine
A locomotive that carries its own fuel and water instead of hauling a tender
Teddy Bear
A British Rail Class 14 diesel-hydraulic locomotive for shunting and trip working.[81] Coined by Swindon Works' foreman George Cole who quipped "We've built the Great Bear, now we're going to build a Teddy Bear!".[89]
Ten foot
The space between sets of lines (e.g. between pairs of fast and slow lines). See also four-foot and six-foot.[20]:373[49]
Terminus (UK)
A station sited where a railway line or service ends or terminates
A preserved Southern A1 Class Terrier
The LB&SCR A1 Class 0-6-0 steam locomotive, on account of its distinctive "bark" when running[90]
Theatre indicator
An illuminated number usually attached to signal indicating arrival platform for train approaching a station
Class 52 diesel-hydraulic locomotives (the "Westerns") given the number range beginning with D1000[91]
Southern DEMU (BR Classes 201207)—unlike conventional DMUs these used a single, comparatively large diesel engine and electric generator mounted immediately behind one driving cab. The power units made a distinctive "thumping" noise when working hard.[92]
A locomotive kept on standby at a strategic location, ready to rescue a failed train—from Thunderbirds[93]
The livery used by Network SouthEast. So called due to the red, white and blue colours resembling the colours of striped toothpaste.[94]
Top and tail
A train with locomotives at both ends, for ease of changing direction
A British Rail Class 37 diesel-electric locomotive, possibly from the engine sound, also because they could be found hauling almost anything as a mixed-traffic design[95]
A class 465 in Network SouthEast Toothpaste livery
Train driver
The operator of a locomotive[96]
Train engine
The locomotive closest to the train during a double-heading operation
Train register
A book or loose-leaf sheets kept in a signal box and used to record the passage of trains, messages passed, and other prescribed events[20]:395
Three railway tracks in a triangular form with points at all three corners—can be used to turn a train around[97]
A British Rail Class 60 diesel-electric locomotive, as named because of their tremendous pulling power, size and sluggish nature. Class 60s upgraded by DB Schenker are called 'Super Tugs'.[98]


A Southern Railway U class 2-6-0 steam locomotive[99]
A bridge carrying the railway and allowing a roadway to pass under the railway[20]:408
A direction (usually towards London, other capital city, or the headquarters of the railway concerned) or side (on left-running railways, the left side when facing in the up direction). The opposite of down. The up direction is usually associated with even-numbered trains and signals.


A type of rolling stock with a flat bottom enclosed on all sides and top, which is loaded and unloaded from sliding doors on each side[50][51]


A D600 or D800 class diesel-hydraulic locomotives, most of which were named after Royal Navy vessels[100]
Water crane
A device used for delivering a large volume of water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive
A British Rail Class 442 electric multiple unit—from the "Wessex Electric" brand name used at launch[101]
A British Rail Class 52 diesel-hydraulic type 4 locomotive, 74 of which ran on BR between 1961 and 1977. All were named in a series beginning "Western...". Seven of the class have been preserved.[102]
A British Rail Class 40 diesel-electric locomotive, from the turbocharger sound; this nickname is also occasionally applied to British Rail Class 20 locomotives.[103]
A British Rail Class 52 diesel-hydraulic type 4 locomotive[104]
A South Eastern and Chatham Railway N class 2-6-0 steam locomotive, built at Woolwich Arsenal[105]
Worst or WorstGroup
A derogatory nickname for FirstGroup, especially on First Great Western "Worst Late Western"[19] (since re-branded as Great Western Railway[106][107]) and First Capital Connect "Worst Crapital Disconnect" (since ceased operations[108]) or First Hull Trains "Worst Hell Trains"


An early name for a Class 59 diesel-electric locomotive, the first privately owned (by Foster Yeoman) locomotives to operate on British Rail, owing to their names starting with "Yeoman" such as 59 001 Yeoman Endeavour[109]

See also


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  2. "British Railways Western Region diesel-hydraulic locomotives: D6300 index".
  3. Blackburn, Ian. "Waterloo-Weymouth push-pull trains". Railway Modeller. No. March 2012. Peco Publications. pp. 226–31. ISSN 0033-8931.
  4. Gourvish, Terence Richard (2002). British Rail, 1974–97: From Integration to Privatisation. Oxford University Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-19-926909-2.
  5. Green-Hughes, Evan (November 2007). "Rogart 127 to head south". Railways Illustrated: 38.
  6. Thomas, Cliff (July 2005). "'Alderman A E Draper' name back on 'Black Five'". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 151 no. 1251. p. 64.
  7. "South Devon Railway Ex GWR Coach 276".
  8. "Nicknames". Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
  9. "Booking Clerk". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  10. "Volunteer Booking Clerk Vacancies". Watercress Line. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  11. 1 2 Class 58 Loco Group
  12. "Saying Goodbye to Oldest Tube Train". 'London Tonight' – ITV London. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
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  14. "Our Trains – Chiltern Railways".
  15. Green-Hughes, Evan (November 2007). "McDonald sells his four DMU cars". Railways Illustrated: 36.
  16. British Railway Telegraphic Codewordsfrom booklet BR30064 (accessed 2009-02-12)
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  18. Barry, Steve (2008). Railroad Rolling Stock. Minneapolis, MN: Voyageur Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-7603-3260-3.
  19. 1 2 "Rail passengers 'treated like cattle' wear cow masks in fare strike protest". Mail Online.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Ellis, Iain (2006). Ellis' British Railway Engineering Encyclopaedia. ISBN 978-1-84728-643-7.
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  22. "'At least 20 20s' for Barrow Hill diesel jubilee". The Railway Magazine. July 2007. p. 9.
  23. Llangollen Diesels
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  27. White (1968), p 465-466.
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  35. "The High Speed Train (HST)". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  36. Dow, Andrew (2006). Dow's Dictionary of Railway Quotations. (138.2 – Coats of arms and logos). JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-8292-3. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
  37. "Fun Facts". Union Pacific Railroad. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
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  47. New Measurement Train,
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