Glenn Greenwald

Glenn Greenwald

Greenwald in 2014
Born Glenn Edward Greenwald[1]
(1967-03-06) March 6, 1967
New York City, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Alma mater
Genre Non-fiction, political and legal commentary
Subjects US politics, law
Notable works
Spouse David Michael Miranda

Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, speaker and author. He is best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper, beginning in June 2013, detailing United States and British global surveillance programs, based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.[2][3]

Early life

Greenwald was born in New York City to Arlene and Daniel Greenwald.[4] Shortly after his birth, Greenwald moved with his family to Lauderdale Lakes, Florida.[5][6][7]

While a senior in high school, at 17, he ran unsuccessfully for the city council.[7] After graduating from high school, Greenwald enrolled in George Washington University where he majored in philosophy. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1990. He then attended the New York University School of Law, earning a Juris Doctor in 1994.[5]


Litigation attorney

Greenwald practiced law in the Litigation Department at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz (1994–1995); in 1996 he co-founded his own litigation firm, called Greenwald Christoph & Holland (later renamed Greenwald Christoph PC), where he litigated cases concerning issues of U.S. constitutional law and civil rights.[5][6] One of his higher-profile cases was the representation of white supremacist Matthew F. Hale.[8]

About his work in First Amendment speech cases, Greenwald told Rolling Stone magazine in 2013, "to me, it's a heroic attribute to be so committed to a principle that you apply it not when it's easy...not when it supports your position, not when it protects people you like, but when it defends and protects people that you hate".[9]

Later, according to Greenwald, "I decided voluntarily to wind down my practice in 2005 because I could, and because, after ten years, I was bored with litigating full-time and wanted to do other things which I thought were more engaging and could make more of an impact, including political writing."[6]

In the early 2000s Greenwald was a partner in an LLC.[10]

Unclaimed Territory and Salon

In October 2005, he began his blog Unclaimed Territory focusing on the investigation pertaining to the Plame affair, the CIA leak grand jury investigation, the federal indictment of Scooter Libby and the NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) controversy. In April 2006, the blog received the 2005 Koufax Award for "Best New Blog".[5]

In February 2007, Greenwald became a contributing writer for the Salon website, and the new column and blog superseded Unclaimed Territory, although Salon prominently features hyperlinks to it in Greenwald's dedicated biographical section.[11][12]

Among the frequent topics of his Salon articles were the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks, and the candidacy of former CIA official John O. Brennan for the jobs of either Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) or the next Director of National Intelligence (DNI) after the election of Barack Obama. Brennan withdrew his name from consideration for the post after opposition centered in liberal blogs and led by Greenwald.[13][14][15][16][17][18] Brennan took up the leadership position at the CIA again, in March 2013.

The Guardian

Greenwald left Salon on August 20, 2012 for the American off-shoot of Britain's Guardian newspaper, for "the opportunity to reach a new audience, to further internationalize my readership, and to be re-invigorated by a different environment" as reasons for the move.[19]

On June 5, 2013, Greenwald scooped the story on the top-secret United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court order requiring Verizon to provide the National Security Agency with telephone metadata for all calls between the US and abroad, as well as all domestic calls.[20][21][22] He was a columnist until October 2013.[23][24][25]

First Look Media and The Intercept

Main article: First Look Media

On October 15, 2013, Greenwald announced and The Guardian confirmed that he was leaving to pursue a "once-in-a-career dream journalistic opportunity that no journalist could possibly decline".[25][26] Financial backing for the new venture was provided by Pierre Omidyar, the eBay founder.[27][28] Omidyar told media critic Jay Rosen that the decision was fueled by his "rising concern about press freedoms in the United States and around the world". Greenwald, along with his colleagues Laura Poitras and Jeremy Scahill, were initially working on creating a place online to support independent journalism, when they were approached by Omidyar who was looking to start his own media organization. The venture is for-profit (rather than a non-profit charity) and it will be funded by Omidyar personally instead of through the Omidyar Network.[29]

That news organization, First Look Media, launched its first online publication, called The Intercept on February 10, 2014.[30] Greenwald serves as editor, alongside Laura Poitras and Jeremy Scahill

Guest appearances

Greenwald has appeared as a round table guest on ABC's Sunday morning news show This Week, HBO's Real Time with Bill Maher, Comedy Central's The Colbert Report, NPR's All Things Considered, C-SPAN's Washington Journal; Pacifica Radio's syndicated series Democracy Now! with Amy Goodman;[31] on Public Radio International's To the Point; MSNBC's Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, The Last Word with Lawrence O'Donnell, Up with Chris Hayes, and Dylan Ratigan's Morning Meeting; Fox News' Special Report with Brit Hume;.[32]

Greenwald has been a regular guest on the Hugh Hewitt Show and on PBS's Bill Moyers Journal.[33][34][35]

On September 15, 2014, he was a headline speaker at Kim Dotcom's Moment of Truth town hall meeting held in Auckland, New Zealand.[36]


Greenwald's first book, How Would a Patriot Act? Defending American Values From a President Run Amok, was published by Working Assets in 2006. It was a New York Times bestseller,[37] and ranked #1 on both before its publication (due to pre-orders based on attention from 'UT' readers and other bloggers) and for several days after its release, ending its first week at #293.[38]

A Tragic Legacy, his second book, examines the presidency of George W. Bush. Published in hardback by Crown (a division of Random House) on June 26, 2007, and reprinted in a paperback edition by Three Rivers Press on April 8, 2008, it was a New York Times Best Seller.

His third book, Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics, was published by Random House in April 2008, the same month that Three Rivers Press reissued A Tragic Legacy in paperback.[39][40]

His fourth book, With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful, was released by Metropolitan Books in October 2011.

Greenwald's fifth book, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State, was released in May 2014.[41] It spent 6 weeks on the New York Times Bestseller List,[42] and was named one of the 10 Best Non Fiction Books of 2014 by The Christian Science Monitor.[43]

Global surveillance disclosure

Contact with Edward Snowden

Greenwald was first contacted by Edward Snowden, a former contractor of the U.S. National Security Agency, in late 2012.[44] Snowden contacted Greenwald anonymously and said he had "sensitive documents" that he would like to share.[45] Greenwald found the measures that the source asked him to take to secure their communications too annoying to employ.[44] Snowden then contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras about a month later in January 2013.[46]

According to The Guardian, what originally attracted Snowden to both Greenwald and Poitras was a Salon article penned by Greenwald detailing how Poitras' controversial films had made her a "target of the government".[45][47] Greenwald began working with Snowden in either February[48] or in April, after Poitras asked Greenwald to meet her in New York City, at which point Snowden began providing documents to them both.[44]

As part of the global surveillance disclosure, the first of Snowden's documents were published on June 5, 2013, in The Guardian in an article by Greenwald. According to him, Snowden's documents exposed the "scale of domestic surveillance under Obama".[49]

The series on which Greenwald worked contributed to the win, by The Guardian (alongside The Washington Post) of the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 2014.[50][51]

Detention of David Miranda

Greenwald (right) and his partner David Miranda in 2013

In August 2013, the Metropolitan Police detained Greenwald's partner David Miranda at London's Heathrow Airport under Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000, after he had flown in from Berlin and was changing to a plane bound for home in Rio de Janeiro.[52][53] His belongings were seized, including an external hard drive said to be containing sensitive documents relevant to the Greenwald's reporting which were encrypted with TrueCrypt encryption software.[54]

Greenwald described his partner's detention as "clearly intended to send a message of intimidation to those of us who have been reporting on the NSA and GCHQ".[55] Miranda was detained for nine hours and his laptop and other items were seized. He has since attempted to sue the Metropolitan Police for misuse of their powers. According to The Guardian, the claim, "challenging controversial powers used under schedule 7 to the Terrorism Act 2000, maintains that Miranda was not involved in terrorism and says his right to freedom of expression was curtailed".[56]

According to a later article in The Guardian, Miranda was found to have been carrying an external hard drive containing 58,000 highly classified UK intelligence documents, and his detention was ruled lawful by the UK High Court, which accepted that Miranda's detention and the seizure of computer material was "an indirect interference with press freedom" but said this was justified by legitimate and "very pressing" interests of national security.[57]

Members of the Joint Committee on Human Rights (JCHR) in the UK Parliament said that allowing police to stop and search suspects at airports without suspicion was “not inherently incompatible” with human rights. MPs and peers said they agreed anti-terror officers should be able to “stop, question, request documentation and physically search persons and property” even when they did not have reasonable suspicion that an offence had been committed, but urged the government to introduce new restrictions on powers such as strip-searches, detentions and searches of the contents of electronic devices such as laptops and smart phones, and said that these "more intrusive" measures should take place only when officers had reasonable suspicion that someone was involved in terrorism.[58]

In December 2013, Greenwald and Miranda advocated for asylum in Brazil for Edward Snowden in exchange for the fugitive leaker's cooperation in investigating the NSA.[59] Brazil's government indicated it was not interested in investigating the NSA.[60]


National Congress of Brazil

In a statement delivered before the National Congress of Brazil in early August 2013, Greenwald testified that the U.S. government had used counter-terrorism as a pretext for clandestine surveillance in order to compete with other countries in the "business, industrial and economic fields".[61][62][63]

European Parliament

On December 18, 2013, Greenwald told the European Union's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs that "most governments around the world are not only turning their backs on Edward Snowden but also on their ethical responsibilities".[64] Speaking via a video link, Greenwald asserted that "It is the UK through their interception of underwater fibre optic cables, that is a primary threat to the privacy of European citizens when it comes to their telephone and emails". According to a statement given to the European Parliament by Greenwald:

The ultimate goal of the NSA, along with its most loyal, one might say subservient junior partner the British agency GCHQ – when it comes to the reason why the system of suspicion of surveillance is being built and the objective of this system – is nothing less than the elimination of individual privacy worldwide
Glenn Greenwald[65]

Political views

Miranda and Greenwald speak at the National Congress of Brazil in the wake of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures.

Greenwald is critical of actions jointly supported by Democrats and Republicans, writing: "The worst and most tyrannical government actions in Washington are equally supported on a fully bipartisan basis."[66] In the preface to his first book, How Would a Patriot Act? (2006), Greenwald opens with some of his own personal political history, describing his 'pre-political' self as neither liberal nor conservative as a whole, voting neither for George W. Bush nor for any of his rivals (indeed, not voting at all).[67]

Bush's election to the U.S. presidency "changed" Greenwald's previous uninvolved political attitude toward the electoral process "completely", and in 2006 he wrote:

Over the past five years, a creeping extremism has taken hold of our federal government, and it is threatening to radically alter our system of government and who we are as a nation. This extremism is neither conservative nor liberal in nature, but is instead driven by theories of unlimited presidential power that are wholly alien, and antithetical, to the core political values that have governed this country since its founding"; for, "the fact that this seizure of ever-expanding presidential power is largely justified through endless, rank fear-mongering—fear of terrorists, specifically—means that not only our system of government is radically changing, but so, too, are our national character, our national identity, and what it means to be American."[67]

Believing that "It is incumbent upon all Americans who believe in that system, bequeathed to us by the founders, to defend it when it is under assault and in jeopardy. And today it is", he says: "I did not arrive at these conclusions eagerly or because I was predisposed by any previous partisan viewpoint. Quite the contrary."[67]

Resistant to applying ideological labels to himself, he emphasizes that he is a strong advocate for U.S. constitutional "balance of powers"[68] and for constitutionally-protected civil and political rights in his writings and public appearances.[5]

Greenwald frequently writes about the War on Drugs and criminal justice reform. He is a member of the advisory board of the Brazil chapter of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition.[69][70] Greenwald was also the author of a 2009 white paper published by the Cato Institute titled Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies, exploring the role of drug policy of Portugal.[71]

He criticized the policies of the Bush administration and those who supported it, arguing that most of the American "Corporate News Media" excused Bush's policies and echoed the administration's positions rather than asking hard questions.[72][31]

Regarding civil liberties during the Obama presidency, he elaborated on his conception of change when he said, "I think the only means of true political change will come from people working outside of that [two-party electoral] system to undermine it, and subvert it, and weaken it, and destroy it; not try to work within it to change it."[73] He did, however, raise money for Russ Feingold's 2010 Senate re-election bid,[74] Bill Halter's 2010 primary challenge to Democratic Sen. Blanche Lincoln,[75] as well as several Congressional candidates in 2012 described as "unique".[76]

Greenwald is critical of Israel's foreign policy and influence on U.S. politics,[77] a stance for which he has in turn been the subject of criticism,[78][79] which successively elicited some criticism towards those authors.[80]

He is critical of what he calls the distorted version of "Godwin's law" to prima facie reject any comparison to Nazism. He believes there are instances where such comparisons are warranted.[81]

Greenwald criticized the prison conditions in which U.S. Army Private Chelsea Manning, the accused WikiLeaks leaker (then known as Bradley), was held after Manning's arrest by military authorities.[82] As a supporter of Manning, Greenwald describing her as "a whistle-blower acting with the noblest of motives", and "a national hero similar to Daniel Ellsberg."[83]


Greenwald has been placed on numerous "top 50" and "top 25" lists of columnists in the United States.[84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92] In June 2012, Newsweek magazine named him one of America's Top 10 Opinionists, saying that "a righteous, controlled, and razor-sharp fury runs through a great deal" of his writing, and: "His independent persuasion can make him a danger or an asset to both sides of the aisle."[93]

According to Nate Anderson, writing in Ars Technica, around 2010/2011 Aaron Barr of HBGary and Team Themis planned to damage Greenwald's career as a way to respond to a potential dump of Bank of America documents by WikiLeaks, saying that "Without the support of people like Glenn WikiLeaks would fold."[94]

Josh Voorhees, writing in, reported that in 2013 congressman Peter King (R-NY) suggested Greenwald should be arrested for his reporting on the NSA PRISM program and NSA leaker Edward Snowden.[95] Journalist Andrew Ross Sorkin said "I would arrest [Snowden] and now I'd almost arrest Glenn Greenwald",[96] but later made an apology for his statement, which Greenwald accepted.

Journalist David Gregory accused Greenwald of aiding and abetting Snowden, before asking, "Why shouldn't you, Mr. Greenwald, be charged with a crime?"[97]

In a 2013 interview with Martha Raddatz of ABC News, Greenwald said that members of Congress are being "blocked" from getting "the most basic information about what NSA is doing... and what the FISA court has been doing....", and specifically referenced Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-MD), a ranking member of the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence ("House Intelligence Committee"). Ruppersberger, who was a guest on the show, responded, "We have rules as far as the committee and what you can have and what you cannot have. However, based on that, that statement I just made, is that since this incident occurred with Snowden, we've had three different hearings for members of our Democratic Caucus, and the Republican Caucus.... And we will continue to do that because what we're trying to do now is to get the American public to know more about what's going on." Rep. King, who was also a guest on This Week as a ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, stated: "[T]o me it's unprecedented to have all of these top people from an administration during this time of crisis still come in and answer question after question after question. So anyone who says that Congress is somehow being stonewalled is just wrong and [the question] is generally, I think, raised by people who are trying to make a name for themselves."[98]

In a February 2014 interview Greenwald said he believed he risked detention if he reentered the U.S., but would likely return, should he win a prestigious journalism award.[99] Later that month, it was announced that he was among the recipients of the 2013 Polk Awards, to be conferred April 11, 2014 in Manhattan.[100] In a subsequent interview, Greenwald stated he would attend the ceremony, and added: "I absolutely refuse to be exiled from my own country for the crime of doing journalism and I'm going to force the issue just on principle. And I think going back for a ceremony like the Polk Awards or other forms of journalistic awards would be a really good symbolic test of having to put the government in the position of having to arrest journalists who are coming back to the US to receive awards for the journalism they have done."[101] On April 11, Greenwald and Laura Poitras accepted the Polk Award in Manhattan. Although their entry into the United States was trouble-free, they traveled with an ACLU lawyer and a German journalist "to document any unpleasant surprises". Accepting the award, Greenwald said he was "happy to see a table full of Guardian editors and journalists, whose role in this story is much more integral than the publicity generally recognizes".[102] On April 14, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service was awarded jointly to The Guardian and The Washington Post for revelation of widespread secret surveillance by the NSA. Greenwald, along with Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill, had contributed to The Guardian′s reporting.[103]

In popular culture

Greenwald appears in the documentary film Citizenfour (2014) directed by Laura Poitras. He is portrayed by American actor Zachary Quinto in the Edward Snowden biopic Snowden (2016), directed by Oliver Stone (starring Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Snowden).

Personal life

Greenwald, who is openly gay, lives in Rio de Janeiro, the hometown of his partner, David Michael Miranda.[6][104][105][72][106] Greenwald said in 2011 that his residence in Brazil was a result of the Defense of Marriage Act, an American law barring federal recognition of same-sex marriages which was overturned by the US Supreme Court two years later. The law had prevented his partner from receiving a visa to reside in the United States with him.[104]

Greenwald comes from a Jewish background, albeit largely non-practicing, and was never Bar Mitzvahed, stating that "My parents tried to inculcate me a little bit into organized Judaism, but they weren't particularly devoted to that, and my grandparents were, but it just never took hold." He says that he does believe in "the spiritual and mystical part of the world", including practicing yoga, but his moral precepts "aren't informed in any way by religious doctrine or, like, organized religion or anything."[107]

Greenwald has also been critical of the New Atheist movement, accusing Sam Harris and others within the movement of anti-Muslim animus.[108]


Greenwald has received awards including the first Izzy Award for independent journalism, in 2009,[109] and the 2010 Online Journalism Award for Best Commentary.[110] His reporting on the National Security Agency (NSA) won numerous other awards around the world, including top investigative journalism prizes from the George Polk Award for National Security Reporting,[111] the 2013 Online Journalism Awards,[112] the Esso Award for Excellence in Reporting in Brazil for his articles in O Globo on NSA mass surveillance of Brazilians (becoming the first foreigner to win the award),[113] the 2013 Libertad de Expresion Internacional award from Argentinian magazine Perfil,[114] and the 2013 Pioneer Award from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[115]


See also


  1. "Attorney Admissions from January 1, 1985 to Present" (PDF). US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  2. Boadle, Anthony (August 6, 2013). "Glenn Greenwald: Snowden Gave Me 15-20,000 Classified Documents". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  3. Greenwald, Glenn (2013-08-19). "Glenn Greenwald: detaining my partner was a failed attempt at intimidation". The Guardian. London, UK.
  4. Stein, Gary (1985-03-13). "At 18, Future Holds Promise". Sun Sentinel.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "Glenn Greenwald". Archived from the original on 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Greenwald, Glenn (2006-07-20). "Response to Right-wing Personal Attacks: My Law Practice; My Sexual Orientation; Where I Live". Unclaimed Territory. Retrieved 2007-02-02. In the entry, he describes and sets the record straight about his legal career and related professional and personal matters.
  7. 1 2 Jessica Testa. "How Glenn Greenwald Became Glenn Greenwald". Retrieved 2013-08-21.
  8. "Matthew F. Hale v. Committee on Character and Fitness, et al". United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division. June 27, 2001. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  9. "Edward Snowden and Glenn Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the NSA's Secrets | Politics News". Rolling Stone. December 4, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
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  11. Greenwald, Glenn (2007-02-01). "Blog News". Unclaimed Territory. Glenn Greenwald. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
  12. Singal, Jesse (2007-09-17). "Glenn Greenwald: On Terrorism, Civil Rights, and Building a Blog". Campus Progress (Blog). Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  13. Ambinder, Marc (2008-11-20). "Brennan, Harding Slated for Top Intelligence Jobs". The Atlantic Monthly.
  14. Greenwald, Glenn (2008-11-16). "John Brennan and Bush's interrogation/detention policies". Retrieved 2008-12-12.
  15. Sullivan, Andrew (2008-11-21). "No Way. No How. No Brennan". The Daily Dish of No Party or Clique (Blog). Retrieved 2008-12-12.
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  18. Hamsher, Jane (2008-11-25). "'The Rachel Maddow Show' for Tuesday November 25, 2008: Transcript". The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-12-12. I think as Atrios said, 'Behold the power of Glenn Greenwald' … Glenn, writing at, had made a singular case against Brennan and said really, 'this is unacceptable.'
  19. Byers, Dylan (July 19, 2012). "Glenn Greenwald to move to The Guardian". Politico. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
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  24. Greenwald, Glenn (2012-07-19). "I'll be writing in a new venue beginning next month". Retrieved 2012-12-09.
  25. 1 2 "Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian's statements". Archived from the original on October 16, 2013.
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  28. Dominic Rushe. "Pierre Omidyar commits $250m to new media venture with Glenn Greenwald". the Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
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  30. Russell, Jon (February 10, 2014). "The Intercept, the first online publication from eBay founder Pierre Omidyar, is now live". The Next Web. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
  31. 1 2 Goodman, Amy (2008-04-18). "Great American Hypocrites: Glenn Greenwald on the Corporate Media's Failures in the 2008 Race". Democracy Now!. Pacifica Radio. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
  32. Greenwald, Glenn (2008-12-23). "Some observations after being involved in a Fox News report". Retrieved 2008-12-23.
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  36. Michael Safi & Hannah Jane Parkinson (2014-09-15). "Kim Dotcom accuses New Zealand government of mass spying – live updates". The Guardian.
  37. "The New York Times Book Review Best Sellers" (PDF). The New York Times Book Review. The New York Times Company. 2006-06-11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
  38. Garofoli, Joe (2006-05-12). "Book Tops Charts Before It's Published". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-12-12. There's been no advertising for "How Would a Patriot Act". Didn't need any. It was more important to get love from a handful of key bloggers, who plugged the 144-page book on their sites, leading to a virtually overnight advance sales bump this week — and a second printing of 20,000 copies. Patriot remained at the peak of the Amazon charts for days. … While Patriot parachuted to 293rd place by week's end after hitting No. 1, the book's publisher, the San Francisco phone company and liberal benefactor Working Assets, has been encouraged to continue its fledgling program of plucking sharp bloggers to write politically pointed books.
  39. Greenwald, Glenn (2008-03-09). "Various items".
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  49. Greenwald, Glenn. "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Exclusive: Top secret court order requiring Verizon to hand over all call data shows scale of domestic surveillance under Obama
  50. Fung, Catherine (April 20, 2014). "Glenn Greenwald Reacts To Pulitzer Prize". Huffington Post.
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  56. Owen Bowcott (November 6, 2013). "David Miranda lawyers argue that Heathrow detention was unlawful". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
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  68. Greenwald, Glenn (2006-07-21). "Rechecking the Balance of Powers". In These Times. 30 (8). Retrieved 2008-12-14.
  69. Mena, Fernanda (2014-11-25). "Para jornalista, prender usuário de drogas é desperdício". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Grupo Folha. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
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  71. Greenwald, Glenn (2009). "Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
  72. 1 2 Silverstein, Ken (2008-02-21). "Six Questions for Glenn Greenwald on Campaign Coverage". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
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