German verbs

German verbs may be classified as either weak, with a dental consonant inflection, or strong, showing a vowel gradation (ablaut). Both of these are regular systems. Most verbs of both types are regular, though various subgroups and anomalies do arise. The only completely irregular verb in the language is sein (to be). although, textbooks for learners often class all strong verbs as irregular. There are more than 200 strong and irregular verbs, but there is a gradual tendency for strong verbs to become weak.

As German is a Germanic language, the German verb can be understood historically as a development of the Germanic verb.

Simple infinitives

The infinitive consists of the root and the suffix -en. With verbs whose roots end in el or er, the e of the infinitive suffix is dropped.

laufen ("to run")
lächeln ("to smile")
meistern ("to master")

German prefixes

This is a general view of the most important German prefixes. The example is "legen" (to lay)

ab- legen to lay down to lay down
to abandon sth.
an- legen to lay by/at to attach sth.
to dock
auf- legen to lay up to apply
aus- legen to lay out to lay sth. out
be- legen to lay sth. on sth. to overlay
bei- legen to lay at/by to add
dar- legen to lay there to point sth. out
ein- legen to lay in to inlay
ent- legen dis-lay faraway, outlying
NOTE: entlegen is an adjective and not a verb!
er- legen to achieve-lay to kill/ to conclude successfully
ge- legen to be laid seated, situated, opportune
NOTE: gelegen is an adjective and not a verb!
hin- legen to lay there to put down
nach- legen to lay after to put some more of sth. on
nieder- legen to lay down to put down an object /
to lay down an office /
to lie down also: to go to sleep
über- legen to lay over to think about sth.
um- legen to lay around/over again to allocate, also: to kill
unter- legen to lay under to put under
ver- legen to be shy [adjective] / to lose [verb]
to edit (books, newspaper)
vor- legen to lay previous to sth. to bring sth. before so.
weg- legen to lay away to put away
wider- legen to lay against to disprove
zer- legen to lay sth. in pieces to dismantle
zu- legen to lay to sth. to put on / to buy something new
zusammen- legen to lay together to pool sth.

Inseparable prefixes

There are some verbs which have a permanent prefix at their beginning. The most common permanent prefixes found in German are ver-, ge-, be-, er-, ent- (or emp-), and zer-.

brauchen, "to need" – verbrauchen, "to consume" or "to use up"
raten, "to advise", "to guess" – verraten, "to betray"
fallen, "to fall" – gefallen "to be pleasing"
hören, "to hear" – gehören zu "to belong to"
brennen, "to burn" (intransitive) – verbrennen, "to burn" (transitive), to burn completely
beginnen, "to begin" (no form without the prefix)

The meaning of the permanent prefixes does not have a real system; the alteration in meaning can be subtle or drastic. The prefixes ver-, be- and ge- have several different meanings, although ge- is uncommon and often the root verb is no longer in existence. be- often makes a transitive verb from an intransitive verb. Verbs with er- tend to relate to creative processes, verbs with ent- usually describe processes of removing (as well as emp-, an approximate equivalent to ent- except usually used for root verbs beginning with an f), and zer- is used for destructive actions. Ver- often describes some kind of extreme or excess of the root verb, although not in any systematic way: 'sprechen', for example means to 'speak', but 'versprechen', 'to promise' as in 'to give ones word' and 'fallen', meaning 'to fall' but 'verfallen', 'to decay' or 'to be ruined'.

Separable prefixes

Many verbs have a separable prefix that changes the meaning of the root verb, but that does not always remain attached to the root verb. German sentence structure normally places verbs in second position or final position. For separable prefix verbs, the prefix always appears in final position. If a particular sentence's structure places the entire verb in final position then the prefix and root verb appear together. If a sentence places the verb in second position then only the root verb will appear in second position. The separated prefix remains at the end of the sentence.

anfangen ("to start")
1. Root verb in second position: Ich fange mit der Arbeit an. ("I start the work.")
2. Root verb in final position: Morgens trinke ich Schokolade, weil ich dann mit der Arbeit anfange. ("In the mornings I drink hot chocolate, because afterwards I begin the work.")

A small number of verbs have a prefix that is separable in some uses and inseparable in others.

1. ("to crash into sth.") – (stress on um)
Ich fahre das Verkehrszeichen um. "I drive against the traffic sign, knocking it over (um) in the process."
2. ("to drive around") – (stress on fahr)
Ich umfahre das Verkehrszeichen. "I drive around the traffic sign."

If one of the two meanings is figurative, the inseparable version stands for this figurative meaning:

1. Literal ("to ferry") – (stress on über)
Ich setze morgen auf die Insel über "I'll ferry over to the island tomorrow."
2. Figurative ("to translate") – (stress on setzen)
Ich übersetze die Geschichte morgen. "I'll translate the story tomorrow."

Complex infinitives

Components and word order

Complex infinitives can be built, consisting of more than the original infinitive. They include objects, predicative nouns and adverbial information. These are packed before the original infinitive, if used isolated. (elliptical)

If you want to express that you suddenly see a bird (not an airplane);

NOT einen Vogel am Himmel plötzlich sehen ("suddenly see a bird in the sky," as opposed to seeing it slowly – "plötzlich" is stressed)
BUT plötzlich einen Vogel am Himmel sehen ("suddenly see a bird in the sky," as opposed to seeing a plane – "Vogel" is stressed)

Both sentences are correct but they have different focus.

Pronoun objects are usually mentioned before nominal phrase objects; dative nominal objects before accusative nominal objects; and accusative pronoun objects before dative pronouns. Order may change upon emphasis on the object, the first being more important. This can be viewed as a table:

Usual object order
Pronoun 1 Accusative
Pronoun 2 Dative
Nominal 3 Dative
Nominal 4 Accusative
Ich gebe meinem Vater das Geld ("I give my father the money")
Ich gebe es ihm ("I give it to him")
Ich gebe ihm das Geld ("I give him the money")
Ich gebe es meinem Vater ("I give it to my father")
Ich gebe das Geld meinem Vater ("I give the money to my father")
Ich gebe das Geld ihm ("I give the money to him")
very strange (but still correct)
Ich gebe ihm es ("I give him it")
Ich gebe meinem Vater es ("I give my father it")

Native adverbs, like nicht, leider or gerne, are placed before the innermost verb (see Compound infinitives).

Predicative nouns and predicative adjectives

A predicative adjective can be the positive, comparative or superlative stem of an adjective, therefore it has the same form as the adverb. One might also use positional phrases or pronominal adverbs.

rot sein ("be red")
bekannt werden ("become well-known")
im Rathaus sein ("be in the town hall")

A predicative noun is a nominal phrase in the nominative case.

Ein Arzt sein ("be a doctor")

Note that, if the subject is singular, the predicative noun must not be plural.

Der Schwarm ist eine Plage (singular/singular) ("the swarm is a pest")
Die Bienen sind Insekten (plural/plural) ("the bees are insects")
Die Bienen sind der Schwarm (plural/singular) ("the bees are the swarm")
*Der Schwarm ist die Bienen (singular/plural)
but instead Der Schwarm ist ein Haufen Bienen ("the swarm is a load of bees")
or Die Bienen sind der Schwarm ("the bees are the swarm") (inversion)

3rd person pronouns are handled like any nominal phrase when used in a predicative way.

1st person or 2nd person pronouns are never used as predicative pronouns.

Normally, one makes an inversion when using a definite pronoun as predicativum.

Der bin ich. (*Ich bin der.) ("I'm the one")
Der bist du. (*Du bist der.) ("You're the one")
Der ist es. (*Es ist der.) ("He's the one")


One can use any kind of adverbial phrase or native adverb mentioned above. But beware of modal verbs, they change the meaning and phrase of the sentence.

Compound infinitives

Compound infinitives can be constructed by the usage of modal verbs or auxiliary verbs. One places a new infinitive behind the main infinitive. Then this outer infinitive will be conjugated instead of the old inner infinitive. Sometimes one must turn the old infinitive into a passive participle.

Passive infinitive

There are two types of passive forms: static passive and dynamic passive. They differ by their auxiliary words. The static passive uses sein, the dynamic passive is formed with werden (which has a slightly different conjugation from its siblings). In both cases, the old infinitive is turned into its passive participle form.

sehengesehen seingesehen werden ("see – be seen")
plötzlich am Himmel gesehen sein/werden ("suddenly be seen in the sky")

Note that a complex infinitive cannot be turned into passive form, with an accusative object, for obvious reasons. This restriction does not hold for dative objects.

mir den Schlüssel geben ("to give me the key")
NOT mir den Schlüssel gegeben werden
mir gegeben werden ("have been given to me")

The only exceptions are verbs with two accusative objects. In older forms of German, one of these accusative objects was a dative object. This dative object is removed, whereas the real accusative object stays.

Die Schüler die Vokabeln abfragen ("test the students on their vocab")
NOT Die Schüler abgefragt werden
Die Vokabeln abgefragt werden ("the vocab be tested")

Perfect infinitives

The perfect infinitive is constructed by turning the old infinitive into the passive participle form and attaching the auxiliary verbs haben or sein after the verb.

Note that the perfect infinitive of an intransitive verb is created the same way as the static passive infinitive of a transitive verb.

One can also build perfect infinitives of passive infinitives, both static and dynamic. Since the passive is intransitive, having no accusative object, one must use the auxiliary sein:

sein is used as an auxiliary verb, when the verb is:

haben is used, when

The use of haben and sein may depend on a sentence's meaning. I have driven the car (Ich habe das Auto gefahren.) is transitive and takes haben, but I have driven to Germany (Ich bin nach Deutschland gefahren.) is intransitive and takes sein because of the position change, even though the verb, fahren, is identical.

Future infinitives

The future infinitive is more theoretical, because this infinite is only used in finite form. One keeps the old infinitive and appends the verb werden, which in the present tense means 'to become'.

nach Italien fahrennach Italien fahren werden ("to drive to Italy" – "to be about to drive to Italy")

The future infinitive can also be built by a perfect infinitive, which is used in the future perfect.

den Baum gefällt habenden Baum gefällt haben werden ("to have felled the tree" – "to be about to have felled the tree")

Infinitives with modal verbs

Modal verbs are verbs that modify other verbs, and as such, are never found alone. Examples may include the following: "may", "must", "should", "want", or "can". Such verbs are utilized by placing the modal infinitive behind the old (passive or perfect) infinitive, without changing any other word. Some modal verbs in German are: können, dürfen, müssen, brauchen, wollen, mögen, lassen.

dorthin fahren können ("to be able to drive there")
nach Rom fahren lassen ("let someone drive to Rome")

A common misunderstanding among English-speakers learning German is caused by a divergence in meaning between English must and German müssen.

Ich muss: "I must"
Ich muss nicht: "I don't have to".

Accusativus cum infinitivo

Similar to Latin, there is an accusative and infinitive (ACI) construction possible. To construct it, one places a certain infinitive behind the last infinitive, then adds an accusative object before the inner complex infinitive. This can be done in two ways:

The Infinitive with zu

The infinitive with zu has nothing to do with the gerundive, although it is created in a similar way. One simply puts the word zu before the infinitive, perhaps before the permanent prefix, but after the separable prefix.

zu lesen ("to read")
Ich lerne zu lesen ("I learn to read")
zu verlassen ("to leave")
Ich habe beschlossen, dich zu verlassen ("I've decided to leave you")
wegzuwerfen ("to throw away")
Ich habe beschlossen, das Buch wegzuwerfen ("I've decided to throw away the book")

The infinitive with zu extended with um expresses purpose (in order to...). The subject of the main clause and the verb in the infinitive must be identical.

Ich habe ein Meer überquert, um dich zu treffen – "I have crossed an ocean to meet you."


Main article: German conjugation

There are three persons, two numbers and four moods (indicative, conditional, imperative and subjunctive) to consider in conjugation. There are six tenses in German: the present and past are conjugated, and there are four compound tenses. There are two categories of verbs in German: weak and strong. Some grammars use the term mixed verbs to refer to weak verbs with irregularities. For a historical perspective on German verbs, see Germanic weak verb and Germanic strong verb.

Below, the weak verb kaufen 'to buy' and the strong verb singen "to sing" are conjugated.

Weak verbs Strong verbs
Present Past Present Past
ich kaufe kaufte singe sang
du kaufst kauftest singst sangst
er kauft kaufte singt sang
wir/sie kaufen kauften singen sangen
ihr kauft kauftet singt sangt

Common conditional endings in present and past tense: -e, -est, -e, -en, -et, -en

sein "to be" is irregular in the conditional mood

The (e)s are inserted when the stem of the verb ends in:

-chn -d, -dn, -fn, -gn, -t, -tm

The second person singular ending is -t for verbs whose stems end in:

-s, -ß, -x, -z

beten "to pray": weak transitive verb

bitten "to ask for, to beg": strong transitive verb

Some strong verbs change their stem vowel in the second and third person singular of the indicative mood of the present tense.

lesen "to read": strong transitive verb

Auxiliary verbs

werden "to become" (strong)

Present Past
ich werde wurde
du wirst wurdest
er wird wurde
wir/sie werden wurden
ihr werdet wurdet

haben "to have" (mixed)

Compare the archaic English conjugation:

Present Past Present Past
ich habe hatte I have had
du hast hattest thou hast hadst
er hat hatte he hath had
wir/sie haben hatten we/they have had
ihr habt hattet ye have had

sein "to be" (strong)

Present Past
ich bin war
du bist warst
er ist war
wir/sie sind waren
ihr seid wart

Modal verbs

Modal verbs are inflected irregularly. In the present tense, they use the preterite endings of the strong verbs. In the past tense, they use the preterite endings of the weak verbs. In addition, most modal verbs have a change of vowel in the singular.

müssen sollen wollen mögen können dürfen
Present Past Present Past Present Past Present Past Present Past Present Past
ich muss
soll sollte will wollte mag mochte kann konnte darf durfte
du musst
sollst solltest willst wolltest magst mochtest kannst konntest darfst durftest
er muss
soll sollte will wollte mag mochte kann konnte darf durfte
wir/sie müssen mussten
sollen sollten wollen wollten mögen mochten können konnten dürfen durften
ihr müsst
sollt solltet wollt wolltet mögt mochtet könnt konntet dürft durftet

When a modal verb is in use, the main verb is moved to the end of the sentence.

For example:

Dative verbs

Some verbs are dative verbs. When used, these verbs change the case of the direct object to dative. Many have in common that they change the direct object. Dative verbs include (but are not limited to):


Reflexive verbs

Some verbs require the use of a reflexive pronoun. These verbs are known as reflexive verbs. In English, these are often slightly modified versions of non-reflexive verbs, such as "to sit oneself down".

Imperative conjugation

There is an imperative for second person singular and second person plural, as well as for third person singular and third person plural, as well as for first person plural and second person formal.

The endings for second person singular informal are: -(e), -el or -le, and -er(e).

The endings for second person plural informal are: -(e)t, -elt, and -ert.

Fahren (wir/Sie)!Fahr(e)!Fahrt!

The imperative of first person plural and second person formal is identical to the infinitive.

This subtopic is strongly related to the construction of German sentences.

Verbal nouns and verbal adjectives

This section details the construction of verbal nouns and verbal adjectives from the main infinitive. The processes are the same both for simple and complex infinitives. For complex infinitives, adverbial phrases and object phrases are ignored, they do not affect this process; except something else is mentioned.

Past participle

There are some irregularities when creating the past participle form.

Weak verbs form their past participles with ge- plus the third person singular form of the verb.

Verbs with non-initial stress (practically always the result of an unstressed inseparable prefix, or foreign words ending in stressed -ieren or -eien) do not have ge- added to the verb.

For irregular verbs, the infinitive ending -en remains.

The separable prefix remains in place.

NOTE Ich habe den Baum umgefahren (I drove over – crashed into – the tree)
NOTE Ich habe den Baum umfahren (I drove around the tree)

The past participles of modal and auxiliary verbs have the same form as their infinitives. But if these verbs are used alone, without an infinitive, they have a regular participle.

Ich habe den Chef besuchen dürfen (Chef = boss) (I was allowed to see the boss)
Ich habe zum Chef gedurft (unusual) (I was allowed in to the boss)

Present participle

To create the basic form of a present participle, you attach the suffix -d to the infinitive of the verb.

laufenlaufend ("walk" – "walking")
töpferntöpfernd ("make pottery" – "making pottery")
lächelnlächelnd ("smile" – "smiling")
verratenverratend ("betray" – "betraying")
aufbauenaufbauend ("establish" – "establishing")

Future participle or gerundive

A gerundive-like construction is fairly complicated to use. The basic form is created by putting the word zu before the infinitive. This is also the adverb.

zu suchen ("to be looked for")
Der Schlüssel ist zu suchen ("the key needs to be looked for")
zu verzeichnen ("to be recorded")
Ein Trend ist zu verzeichnen ("A trend is to be recorded")

The adjective is more complicated. Instead of the infinitive, one uses the present participle, and then declines it corresponding to gender, number, case and article of the nominal phrase. (Compare the German declension of adjectives.)

Der zu suchende Schlüssel ("the key to be looked for")
Ein zu lüftendes Geheimnis ("a secret to be revealed")

Agent nouns

Agent nouns (e.g. photographer from photograph in English) are constructed by taking the infinitive, removing the ending and replacing it by -er, -ler or -er(er). If the person is a woman, the endings have an extra -in on them. Note that in the explicitly feminine form a second syllable er is omitted, if the infinitive ends on ern or eren.

This form is hard to build for complex infinitives, therefore it is unusual:

does not usually become der Weggeher or die Weggeherin, but instead Derjenige, der weggeht ("the one going away")

or even

does not usually become: Der Schnell-zum-Flughafen-um-die-Maschine-noch-zu-erwischen-Fahrer ("the quickly-driving-to-the-airport-to-catch-the-flight-driver")

On the other hand, this form is often used in fun or mocking expressions, because the imputed behaviour that is content of the mocking can be merged into a single word. Examples are: Toiletten-Tief-Taucher ("toilet deep diver", which is an alliteration in German), or Mutterficker ("motherfucker"). A whole range of these expressions aim at supposedly weak or conformist behaviour, such as Ampel-bei-Rot-Stehenbleiber ("traffic-lights-on-red-stopper"), Warmduscher ("warm-showerer"), Unterhosen-Wechsler ("underpants changer"), or Schattenparker ("in the shadow parker"). Especially among children there are several fixed terms of this type, like Spielverderber ("game spoiler").

Note: The suffix -er is also used to form instrument nouns, e.g. Salzstreuer and Bohrer also denote instruments.


The normal gerund noun is generally the same word as the infinitive. The gerund does not have a plural (normally – but if so, the form would be unchanged), and its gender is neuter.

arbeitendas Arbeiten ("to work" – "working")
NOTE die Arbeiten is not the plural of the gerund Arbeiten,
it is the plural of the feminine noun die Arbeit.
Example for the plural
"Das Verlegen" kann verschiedene Bedeutungen haben: Das Verlegen einer Sache (die man dann nicht mehr findet); das Verlegen eines Veranstaltungsortes; das Verlegen einer Zeitung; etc.. Diese verschiedenen "Verlegen" sind ein gutes Beispiel für den Plural des Gerunds.
"'Das Verlegen' can have different meanings: The misplacing of a thing (which you won't find then anymore); the moving of an event location; the editing of a newspaper; etc. These different 'Verlegen' form a good example of the gerund's plural."

There is another kind of gerund that (sometimes) implies disapproval of the action. The grammatically dependent implication (i.e. independent of context, speech and syntax) of disapproval for this type of gerund is rather weak, though present. It must be supported either by context or speech. On the other hand, any positive implication from the context or speech will free the gerund from any disapproval. The ending of this form is -erei (-lerei or -(er)ei). Its plural is built with -en, and its gender is feminine.

arbeitendie Arbeiterei ("to work" – "this silly working")
laufendie Lauferei ("to run" – "this silly running")
streitendie Streiterei(en) ("to argue" – "this/these silly argument(s)")
schlemmendie Schlemmerei(en) ("to feast" – "the feasting(s)")
malendie Malerei(en) ("to draw" – "this/these silly drawing(s)")

The above form means a loose, vague abstractum of the verb's meaning. It is also often used to designate a whole trade, discipline or industry, or a single business/enterprise:

die Meierei – (once) "a milk-processing enterprise"
malendie Malerei ("to draw" – "the drawing" (as an artwork), "the discipline of drawing")

In this form the plural is used just as with any other noun. Cf. also Metzgerei, Fleischerei (butcher's establishment), Malerei (a business of professional painters (of rooms and buildings)) which do not spring from verbs.

Similar to the form presented above, one may place the prefix ge- (after the separable prefix), if the verb doesn't have a permanent prefix, and then attach the ending -e ( -el, -er ). Most times, this noun indicates slightly more disapproval than the other one (depending in the same way on context, speech etc.). Its gender is neuter.

fahrendas Gefahre ("to drive" – "silly driving")
laufendas Gelaufe ("running" – "silly running")

A plural form does not exist. To indicate the reference to all instances the pronoun/numeral all can be added, as in the following example:

However, a more formal reference to all instances would be "Hör mit jeder Form von Geschaukel auf!" ("Stop any form of rocking.") instead. So this use of all is merely encountered in colloquial conversations.

If this form of gerund is used to express disapproval, it is typically augmented by the prefix herum- or (short form) rum- to make it sound/look even more disapproving. For example: Das stundenlange Herumgefahre im Bus geht mir total auf die Nerven. ("The silly driving around for hours in the bus is totally getting on my nerves.")

These forms are hard to build for complex infinitives; therefore they are unusual. When they occur, all object phrases and adverbial phrases are put before the gerund noun:

von Allen gesehen werdenDas Von-Allen-gesehen-Werden ("to be seen by everyone" – "being seen by everyone")


Although there are six tenses in German, only two are simple; the others are compound and therefore build on the simple constructions. The tenses are quite similar to English constructions.

Conjugation includes three persons, two numbers (singular and plural), three moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive), and two simple tenses (present and preterite). The subjunctive of the present is almost never used in colloquial German (and relatively infrequent in written German as well); the subjunctive of the past is more common, at least for some frequent verbs (ich wäre, ich hätte, ich käme etc.). The latter is used like a conditional mood in German (English: I would).

English native speakers should note that German tenses do not carry aspect information. There are no progressive tenses in standard German. Das Mädchen geht zur Schule may mean "The girl goes to school" as well as "The girl is going to school". One must use an adverb to make a visible difference aside from the context. In spoken German, there do exist progressive tenses, formed with the verb sein ("to be") + am ("at the") + verbal noun. For example: Ich bin am Essen. – I am eating; Ich bin das Auto am Reparieren. – I'm fixing the car. However, these forms are rarely used in written and not used in formal spoken German (and are never obligatory in the colloquial either).

A second kind of progressive tense is formed with the verb sein ("to be") + present participle, and is the literal translation of the English progressive tense (for present and past). For example: Ich bin/war essend. – I am/was eating; Ich bin/war das Auto reparierend. – I am/was fixing the car. In contrast to the former one, this progressive tense is a formal correct part of standard German, but, however, very uncommon in spoken as well as in written, in colloquial as well as in formal German – thus very uncommon. If used, it often may appear unwieldy or unnatural, except for specific usual cases. This form also differs from the other German tenses in that it has a very unambiguous progressive aspect.

As is shown in the following, German is not very rigid in its usage of tenses. More precise tenses are available to express certain temporal nuances, but the two most common tenses (present tense and perfect tense) can often be used instead if the context is unambiguous.

Colloquial contractions between verb and personal pronoun

This is frequent in the 2nd person singular, where the verb ending -st and the pronoun du ("you") are contracted into -ste [-stə].

bist dubiste ("are you")
hast duhaste ("have you")
glaubst duglaubste ("believe you"/"do you believe")
These forms are not uncommonly seen also in informal writing. Regionally, there may be different outcomes of the contraction. In western Germany, -t- might be lost as well, resulting in bisse, hasse and the like. In Upper German regions, the phenomenon often goes so far as to delete the pronoun completely, which gives rise to the Austro-Bavarian bist, hast[2] and the Alemannic bisch, hasch.
können siekönnse ("can you/she/they")
haben siehamse ("have you/she/they")
schauen sieschaunse ("look you/she/they")
Again, shortened forms such as könn(en)s, hams are used in the South. They are often spelt können's, ham's or können S', ham S' in informal writing.
sind wirsimmer ("are we")
haben wirhammer ("have we")
glauben wirglaub(e)mer ("believe we"/"do we believe")
In parts of northern Germany, less distinct contractions such as sindwer, hamwer occur instead of the southern/central simmer, hammer.


External links

For a list of words relating to German verbs, see the German verbs category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. and by a not incommon pupil mistake, Futur I, though that is universally judged incorrect.
  2. Note: the pronoun is not here deleted but attached to the verb with whose final sound it is identical. This is not by a surprise: the very ending -st stems from the attachment of the pronoun du to the old verb ending -s. For example, Old High German biris du became biristu and was then re-interpreted as birist du. (The same occurred in English with the old pronoun thou.) Western German dialects and accents, however, still use the original simple -s. For example, du bist is often pronounced du bis in the West.
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