German labour law
German labour law refers to the regulation of employment relationships and industrial partnerships in Germany.
- General Commission of German Trade Unions (1892–1919)
- Free Association of German Trade Unions (1897–1919)
- Weimar Constitution 1919
- Betriebsrätegesetz 1920
- Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (1919–1933)
- Free Workers' Union of Germany (1919–1933)
- Arbeitsordnungsgesetz of 1934
- German Labour Front, the nationalised Nazi controlled union (1933 to 1945)
- Strength Through Joy
- Council of Trust and Factory leader
- Confederation of German Trade Unions (est 1949)
- Mitbestimmungsgesetz 1976
Courts and constitution
- Grundgesetz (1949) "Article 9 (Freedom of association). (1) All Germans have the right to form associations and societies. (2) Associations, the objects or activities of which conflict with the criminal laws or which are directed against the constitutional order or the concept of international understanding, are prohibited. (3) The right to form associations to safeguard and improve working and economic conditions is guaranteed to everyone and to all trades and professions. Agreements which restrict or seek to hinder this right are null and void; measures directed to this end are illegal."
Individual labour law
Contract of employment
- Burgerliches Gesetzbuch (Civil Code) §§ 611–630
- Teilzeit- und Befristungsgesetz (Part-time and Fixed-term Work Act), §14(2) two-year fixed term limit
- Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz (Employee Leasing Act)
- Urlaubsgesetz (Holidays Act)
- Mutterschutzgesetz (Act on Maternity Protection)
- Kundigungsschutzgesetz (Dismissal Protection Act)
Collective labour law
- Betriebsverfassungsgesetz (Business Constitution Act) requires establishment of Works Councils where there are five or more employees
- Mitbestimmungsgesetz (Codetermination Act)
- Tarifvertragsgesetz (Collective Agreement Act)
Minimum wage law
In July 2014 the country began legislating to introduce a federally mandated minimum wage law, the Gesetz zur Regelung eines allgemeinen Mindestlohns (Mindestlohngesetz - MiLoG) (unofficial translation: "Act Regulating a General Minimum Wage (Minimum Wage Act)"), which came into effect on 1 January 2015. The minimum wage is set at €8.50 per hour.
The European Commission introduced an infringement procedure against Germany on 19 May 2015, arguing that the application of this law in the transport sector had a disproportionately restrictive impact on the freedom to provide services and the free movement of goods, two of the principal freedoms on which the European Union is based. The Commission issued a supplementary letter on this subject to the German authorities on 16 June 2016, initiating two months' notice of potential legal action.
- "Minimum Wage Act in Germany with effect from 01-01-2015". Dr. Mayer & Kügler Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB - Arbeitsrecht. Lawyer Michael Kügler. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Provided by Ute Reusch, juris GmbH Saarbrücken
- "Germany may become 22nd EU state with federal minimum wage". Germany News.Net. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- European Commission, Transport: Commission launches infringement case on the application of the German Minimum Wage law to the transport sector, published 19 May 2015, accessed 11 February 2016
- European Commission, Press Release: Transport: Commission takes legal action against the systematic application of the French and German minimum wage legislation to the transport sector, accessed 6 August 2016
- A Freckmann, ‘Temporary Employment Business in Germany’ (2004) 15(1) International Company and Commercial Law Review 7
- A Freckmann, ‘Termination of Employment Relationships in Germany – Still a Problem’ (2005) 16(1) International Company and Commercial Law Review 38
- B Keller, ‘The Hartz Commission Recommendations and Beyond: An Intermediate Assessment’ (2003) 19(3) International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 363
- O Kahn-Freund, ‘The Social Ideal of the Reich Labour Court - A Critical Examination of the Practice of the Reich Labour Court’ (1931)
- S Konnert, ‘Unfair Dismissal by Reason of Redundancy in Germany’ (2005) 16(11) International Company and Commercial Law Review 431
- E McGaughey, 'The Codetermination Bargains: The History of German Corporate and Labour Law' (2015) LSE Legal Studies Working Paper No. 10/2015
- B Waas, ‘Temporary Agency Work in Germany: Reflections on Recent Developments’ (2003) 19(3) International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 387
- M Weiss and M Schmidt, Labour Law and Industrial Relations in Germany (4th edn Kluwer 2008)
- A Junker, Grundkurs Arbeitsrecht (3rd edn 2004)
- O Kahn-Freund, R Lewis and J Clark (ed) Labour Law and Politics in the Weimar Republic (Social Science Research Council 1981) ch 3, 108-161
- F Ebke and MW Finkin, Introduction to German Law (1996) ch 11, 305
- Erste Verordnung des Führers und Reichskanzlers über Wesen und Ziel der Deutschen Arbeitsfront vom 24. Oktober 1934