George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
The Duke of Buckingham
|Master of the Horse|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Worcester|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Holland|
28 August 1592|
Brooksby, Leicestershire, England
23 August 1628 35) (aged|
Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
|Spouse(s)||Katherine Manners, Baroness de Ros|
Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond|
Charles Villiers, Earl of Coventry
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
Francis Villiers, 1628–1648
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, KG (//; 28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts. He was a favourite—and a lover—of King James I. Despite a very patchy political and military record, he remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of Charles I, until he was assassinated by a disgruntled army officer.
George Villiers was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, on 28 August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers (1550–1604). His mother Mary (1570–1632), daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, Leicestershire, was left a widow early and educated him for a courtier's life, sending him to France with Sir John Eliot.
Villiers took very well to the training set by his mother: he could dance and fence well, spoke a little French, and was overall an excellent student. Bishop Godfrey Goodman declared Villiers to be "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England; his limbs so well compacted, and his conversation so pleasing, and of so sweet a disposition."
Ascent at court
In August 1614 at age twenty-one, Villiers caught the eye of James I at a hunt in Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr saw an opportunity to usurp the Earl of Somerset and began promoting Villiers. Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe, and intense lobbying secured his appointment as Royal Cupbearer, a position that allowed him to make conversation with the king. Villiers began to appear as a dancer in masques from 1615, in which he could exhibit his grace of movement and beauty of body, a recognised avenue to royal favour since the time of Elizabeth I.
Under the king's patronage Villiers advanced rapidly through the ranks of the nobility, and his court appointments grew in importance. In 1615 he was knighted as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. In 1616, when he was made Master of the King's Horses, he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Whaddon, Viscount Villiers, and made a Knight of the Garter. The next year he was made Earl and in 1618 promoted Marquess of Buckingham, then finally in 1623 Duke of Buckingham. Villiers' new rank allowed him to dance side by side with the royal heir Charles I, with whom his friendship developed through his tutoring of the prince in dance.
In 1619 Villiers was appointed Lord Admiral of the Fleet in 1619, and in 1623 the former dukedom of Buckingham was recreated for him when he was negotiating abroad on the king's behalf. Since reductions in the peerage had taken place during the Tudor period, Buckingham was now the highest-ranking subject outside the royal family.
Relationship with James I
The personal relationships of James are much debated, with Villiers the last in a succession of handsome young favourites the king lavished with affection and patronage. Contemporaneous evidence is interpreted by some to suggest that Villiers was James' lover. In 1617, John Oglander wrote that he "never yet saw any fond husband make so much or so great dalliance over his beautiful spouse as I have seen King James over his favourites, especially the Duke of Buckingham." Edward Peyton wrote, "the king sold his affections to Sir George Villiers, whom he would tumble and kiss as a mistress."
James's nickname for Buckingham was "Steenie," after St. Stephen who was said to have had "the face of an angel." Speaking to the Privy Council in 1617, James tried to clarify the situation in the face of rumours:
You may be sure that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else, and more than you who are here assembled. I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, for Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had John, and I have George.
In a letter to Buckingham in 1623, the King ends with, "God bless you, my sweet child and wife, and grant that ye may ever be a comfort to your dear father and husband." Buckingham reciprocated the King's affections, writing back to James: "I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had," "I desire only to live in the world for your sake" and "I will live and die a lover of you." Restoration of Apethorpe Palace in 2004–8 revealed a previously unknown passage linking his bedchamber with that of James. Buckingham himself provides ambiguous evidence, writing to James many years later that he had pondered: "whether you loved me now…better than at the time which I shall never forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the master and his dog'.
Influence under James I
Until James I died in 1625, Buckingham was the king's constant companion and closest advisor, enjoying control of all royal patronage. Buckingham used his influence to prodigiously enrich his relatives and advance their social positions, which soured public opinion towards him.
In his rise to power, Buckingham became connected with the philosopher and jurist Francis Bacon. Bacon wrote letters of advice to the young favourite and drafted the patent of nobility when Buckingham ascended to the peerage. With Buckingham's support, Bacon was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1618. In gratitude, Bacon honoured Buckingham's many requests for favours from the court for friends and allies. Following an investigation by Parliament into royal grants of monopoly, financial peculation and corrupt officials, Bacon was convicted of corruption and forced into retirement. Neither Buckingham nor the King attempted to intervene on Bacon's behalf. Many of Buckingham's contemporaries believed he had sacrificed Bacon to save himself from Parliamentary scrutiny, as he had been liberally spending public funds and accepting gifts and bribes.
From 1616, Buckingham also established a dominant influence in Irish affairs, beginning with the appointment of his client, Sir Oliver St John, as Lord Deputy, 1616–22. Thence, he acquired control of the Irish customs farm (1618), dominated Irish patronage at court, particularly with the sale of Irish titles and honours, and (from 1618) began to build substantial Irish estates for himself, his family and clients—with the aid of a plantation lobby, composed of official clients in Dublin. To the same end, he secured the creation of an Irish Court of Wards in 1622. Buckingham's influence thus crucially sustained a forward Irish plantation policy into the 1620s.
When Parliament began its investigation into monopolies and other abuses in England, and later Ireland in 1621, Buckingham made a show of support to avoid action being taken against him. However, the king's decision to send a commission of inquiry to Ireland, that included parliamentary firebrands, threatened to expose Buckingham's growing, often clandestine interests there. Knowing that the king had assured the Spanish ambassador that the Parliament would not be allowed to imperil a Spanish matrimonial alliance, he therefore surreptitiously instigated a conflict between the Parliament and the king over the Spanish Match, which resulted in the Parliament's premature dissolution in December 1621 and a hobbling of the Irish commission in 1622. Irish reforms nevertheless introduced by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, in 1623–24 were largely nullified by the impeachment and disgrace of the Lord Treasurer in the violently anti-Spanish 1624 parliament—spurred on by Buckingham and Prince Charles.
Charles I, the Lord Admiral and foreign affairs
In 1623 Buckingham, now Lord Admiral and effective Foreign Minister, accompanied Charles I, then Prince of Wales, to Spain for marriage negotiations regarding the Infanta Maria. The negotiations had long been stuck, but it is believed that Buckingham's crassness was key to the total collapse of agreement, and they returned in a black mood. The Spanish ambassador asked Parliament to have Buckingham executed for his behaviour in Madrid, but Buckingham gained popularity by calling for war with Spain on his return. He headed further marriage negotiations, but when, in December 1624, the betrothal to Henrietta Maria of France was announced, the choice of a Catholic was widely condemned. Buckingham, whose popularity had suffered a further setback, took a decision to help the rebellious Huguenot Admiral Prince Soubise. An ardent protestant he ordered Sir John Pennington to help; but the Navy only succeeded in attacking Richelieu's enemies, defeating his objects in August 1625 and losing La Rochelle. Similarly he was blamed for the failure of the military expedition under the command of Ernst von Mansfeld, a famous German mercenary general, sent to the continent to recover the Electorate of the Palatinate (1625), which had belonged to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, son-in-law of King James I of England. However, when the Duke of York became King Charles I, Buckingham was the only man to maintain his position from the court of James.
These failures provoked the Commons to refuse further levies of taxation to fund Buckingham's extravagant adventures, while at the same time the duke was accused of being enraptured by intrigues; of dealing a blow to the international Catholic conspiracy. Yet even before they set sail the food was consumed awaiting the Board of Ordnance to deliver the cannonry and musket balls. On this occasion the Lord Admiral was not in command. The experienced admirals were unavailable, so it fell to the newly-created Viscount Wimbledon to lead the expedition with one eye on history; to repeat the actions of Sir Francis Drake by seizing the main Spanish port at Cádiz and burning the fleet in its harbour. Although this plan was tactically sound - landing further up the coast and marching the militia army on the city - the troops were badly-equipped, ill-disciplined and poorly-trained. Coming upon a warehouse filled with wine, they simply got drunk, and the attack was called off. The English army briefly occupied a small port further down the coast before re-boarding its ships. Pennington's curse was a lack of money, but public opinion blamed Buckingham for another disaster. The King too was hurting; England was heading towards war with France.
This was followed by Buckingham leading the Army and the Navy to sea to intercept an anticipated Spanish silver fleet from its American territories. However the Spanish were forewarned by their intelligence and easily avoided the planned ambush. With supplies running out, men sick and dying from starvation and disease, the fleet limped home in embarrassment.
Buckingham then negotiated with the French Chief Minister, Cardinal Richelieu, for English ships to aid Richelieu in his fight against the French Protestants (Huguenots), in return for French aid against the Spanish occupying the Palatinate. Seven English warships participated in operations against La Rochelle and in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, but Parliament was disgusted and horrified at the thought of English Protestants fighting French Protestants. The plan only fuelled their fears of crypto-Catholicism at court. Buckingham fought bravely throughout, but Richelieu's ships blocked the narrow channel, and he had to accept defeat by withdrawal. Believing that the failure of his enterprise was the result of treachery, he formulated an alliance among the churchman's many enemies, a policy that included support for the very Huguenots whom he had recently attacked.
In 1627, Buckingham led another expeditionary force. Shortly before departure Buckingham had authorized a new dry dock at Portsmouth to bring Navy Administration up to date; yet it was never built. The Lord Admiral was already bankrupt when he attempted to aid his new Huguenot allies besieged at La Rochelle in France, by leading the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. He funded the force with Sir William Russell raising £70,000 between them, responsible for the officers out of their own pockets in addition to the victuals. Unpaid for 10 months they looted the King's stores: during the campaign they lost more than 4,000 of a force of 7,000 men. The Admiral Earl of Denbigh was tentative in his attacks on a large French fleet. On 18 September Earl of Lindley arrived with fireships but they were nothing like those used by Drake, and anyway the duke was by that time already dead.
Patronage of the arts
As a means of manoeuvring for political as well as court advancement, Villiers commissioned masques in which he was able to promote himself in a leading role. "Command over his body had provided him with the privilege of commanding the moves of a future king." This culminated in connivance by his supporters in licensing Thomas Middleton's notorious play A Game at Chess (1624) as an extension of their anti-Spanish foreign policy. The Duke and Prince Charles are acknowledged as figuring there as The White Duke and The White Knight, while very obvious depictions of the Spanish monarch and his former ambassador in England eventually brought about the play's closure.
Villiers commissioned portraits of himself as "a medium for the cultivation of his personal image."William Larkin's portrait of 1616 records the start of his climb, showing him in the dress of a Knight of the Garter and emphasising the felicity of his stance and sumptuousness of dress. A 1619 portrait by Daniel Mytens the Elder is equally elegant. There he is dressed in white brocade and white silk hose, wearing the Garter and standing in a decor of costly silks. Another full length portrait by the same artist celebrates his succession as Lord High Admiral in 1619. Here he wears three-quarter armour; on the right, behind a balustrade, is a shoreline with the fleet beyond. Buckingham's growing wealth was emphasised by the detail of his clothes. This is evident in the lovingly depicted detail of the lace about his collar and cuffs in the full length portrait by Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen and the head and shoulders by Anthony van Dyck. The 1625 painting by Michiel van Miereveld is not only of unparalleled magnificence, with a jacket encrusted with pearls which also hang in ropes across it, but may also contain a reference to his diplomatic coup that year in negotiating the marriage of the future Charles I. At his entry to the French Court, he is recorded as wearing a grey velvet suit from which the loosely threaded pearls dropped to the ground as he advanced to make his bow to the queen, to the general wonder.
A series of more theatrical depictions heighten Buckingham's self-dramatisation and in certain cases make policy statements as well. Two of these are connected with his betrothal to and marriage with Lady Katherine Manners in 1620. In Van Dyck's historical painting The Continence of Scipio, Buckingham is clearly recognisable standing at the centre, receiving from Scipio the hand of his captured betrothed. A mythical composition commissioned from Van Dyck later commemorates the actual marriage. In contrast to the former painting, this was highly unconventional at the time. The couple are pictured all but naked as Venus and Adonis, emphasising heterosexual love and so countering all the rumours of the Duke's relations with the king. There is a further literary connection, since the story is found in Ovid, but the picture again defies convention by hinting at a different, happier ending.
Buckingham probably met Peter Paul Rubens while conducting the royal marriage negotiations in Paris in 1625 and commissioned two ambitious advertisements of his standing from the painter. The first of these was destined for the ceiling of his residence, York House that depicts a masque-like theme in which Minerva and Mercury conduct the Duke of Buckingham to the Temple of Virtue. In front of the marble temple to which he is carried upwards are the probable figures of Virtue and Abundance; the three Graces offer the Duke a crown of flowers, while Envy seeks to pull him down and a lion challenges him. The picture is an allegory of Buckingham's political aspirations and the forces that he saw as impeding him. The more realistic equestrian portrait of Buckingham (see above) is accounted "the finest state portrait of its date in England". A summation of his career to date, it depicts Buckingham as Lord High Admiral of the fleet just visible in the background. Several other personal references are also incorporated. As Master of the King's Horses, he sits on a Spanish jennet, a breed he introduced to Britain, lifting a baton as his horse rears on command. Beneath him, the sea god Neptune and a naiad adorned with pearls indicate the duke's dominion over the sea. Overhead, a winged allegory of Fame signals victory (which nevertheless evaded the commander in real life) with trumpet in hand. Privately Rubens noted Buckingham's "arrogance and caprice" and predicted that he was "heading for the precipice."
Popular prints, often drawing on his painted portraits, particularly Miervelt's of 1625, had served to advertise Buckingham's position more broadly over the years. These now form part of the collection at the National Portrait Gallery. At the same time martial statements were being made through this medium in support of Buckingham's foreign policy, as for instance in Willem de Passe's equestrian portrait of the Duke, executed at the same time as Rubens was engaged on his monumental work on the same theme. There he is similarly depicted as Lord Admiral with a military baton in his right hand. During the 1627 expedition that he led personally, Buckingham was recorded as sponsoring "an unprecedented campaign of intensive print propaganda."
In 1628, during the political turmoil that culminated in his assassination, Buckingham commissioned another masque-like painting from Gerrit van Honthorst, The Liberal Arts presented to King Charles and Henrietta Maria. In this the Duke is cast as Mercury, the patron of the arts, the procession of whom is brought in his train to the presence of the king and queen in the guise of Apollo and Diana. In this validation of his artistic credentials, it is appropriate to remember that Buckingham had taken part in the masque Mercury Vindicated at the start of his career in 1615.
During the course of his incompetent leadership, Parliament had twice attempted to impeach the Duke. The king had rescued him by dissolving it both times, but public feeling was so inflamed as a result that he was widely blamed as a public enemy. Eventually his physician, Dr Lambe, popularly supposed to assert a diabolic influence over him, was mobbed in the streets and died as a result. Among the pamphlets issued afterwards was one that prophesied
The Duke was stabbed to death, on 23 August 1628, at the Greyhound Pub in Portsmouth, where he had gone to organise yet another campaign. He lived just long enough to jump up, shouting "Villain!" and made to chase after his assailant, but then fell down dead. The assassin was John Felton, an army officer who had been wounded in the earlier military adventure and believed he had been passed over for promotion by Buckingham.
Such was the Duke's unpopularity by this time that Felton was widely acclaimed as a hero by the public. A large number of poems celebrating Felton and justifying his action were published. Copies of written statements Felton carried in his hat during the assassination were also widely circulated. Many of these described Buckingham as effeminate, cowardly and corrupt, and contrasted him with Felton, who was held up as an example of manliness, courage and virtue. The son of Alexander Gill the Elder was sentenced to a fine of £2000 and the removal of his ears, after being overheard drinking to the health of Felton, and stating that Buckingham had joined King James I in hell. However, these punishments were remitted after his father and Archbishop Laud appealed to King Charles I. Felton was hanged on 29 November and his body was taken to Portsmouth for public display. However, this proved to be a miscalculation by the authorities as it became an object of veneration by the public.
Buckingham was buried in Westminster Abbey. His lavish tomb bears a Latin inscription that may be translated as "The Enigma of the World". Here, too, he was depicted surrounded by mythical figures. The black marble sculptures at each corner include Mars and Neptune, in reference to his military and naval exploits; on the catafalque lie bronze-gilt effigies of the Duke and his wife (who long survived him), cast by Hubert le Sueur. Buckingham is clad in armour, enriched with crossed anchors and with an ermine cloak over it. He wears on his breast the chain and George of the Garter and on his head a ducal coronet, summing up the principal steps in his brief career. He had died at the age of 36.
A dagger, claimed to have been the one used by Felton, was displayed at least until the 19th century at Newnham Paddox in Warwickshire, the seat of the Earls of Denbigh. (Buckingham's sister, Susan, married William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh.)
Buckingham had married the daughter of the 6th Earl of Rutland, Lady Katherine Manners, later suo jure Baroness de Ros, on 16 May 1620, against her father's objections. The children of this marriage were:
- Mary Villiers (bef. 30 March 1622 – November 1685), married firstly Charles Herbert, Lord Herbert, secondly James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond and thirdly Colonel Thomas Howard.
- Charles Villiers, Earl of Coventry (17 November 1625 – 16 March 1627), died in infancy.
- George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (30 January 1628 – 16 April 1687).
- Lord Francis Villiers (bef. 21 April 1629 – 7 July 1648), died in a skirmish at Kingston during the Second English Civil War.
The Duke has been mentioned as one of the candidates to whom the nursery rhyme "Georgie Porgie" refers, although there is no mention of its existence before the 19th century.
In the few years of popular feeling against the royal favourite at the start of Charles I's reign, and especially after his assassination, a large amount of satirical verse was circulated on the subject. Most of this reflected on how pride goes before a fall and the damage he had done the kingdom, while several pieces commended John Felton's action.
During the Duke's short tenure as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, he had initiated the purchase of Thomas van Erpe's collection of oriental books and manuscripts on its behalf, although his widow only transferred it to Cambridge University Library after his death. With it came the first book in Chinese to be added to the Library's collections.
A fictionalised Buckingham is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas's celebrated 1844 novel Les Trois Mousquetaires (The Three Musketeers), which paints him as in love with Anne of Austria as well as dealing with the siege of La Rochelle and his assassination by Felton. He is described:
- At thirty-five, which was then his age, he passed, with just title, for the handsomest gentleman and the most elegant cavalier of France or England.
- The favorite of two kings, immensely rich, all-powerful in a kingdom which he disordered at his fancy and calmed again at his caprice, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, had lived one of those fabulous existences which survive, in the course of centuries, to astonish posterity.
- Sure of himself, convinced of his own power, certain that the laws which rule other men could not reach him, he went straight to the object he aimed at, even were this object so elevated and so dazzling that it would have been madness for any other even to have contemplated it.
In the 1973 two-film, Anglo-American adaptation of the book — The Three Musketeers and The Four Musketeers — Buckingham (played by Simon Ward) also has a prominent role as an ally of the main characters. The second film includes his assassination by Felton, but (following the original novel in this) depicts the killing as being orchestrated by the fictional Milady de Winter, an agent of the principal villain, Cardinal Richelieu.
Taylor Caldwell's The Arm and the Darkness (1943) also deals with this period in France, while Hilda Lewis' Wife to Great Buckingham (1959) goes so far as to make Buckingham's love for the French queen the main cause of his undoing. The Duke also figures in historical romances like Evelyn Anthony's Charles, The King (1963) and Bertrice Small's Darling Jasmine (2007), although the main focus there is on other protagonists. In Philippa Gregory's Earthly Joys (1998), which has as its subject the famous gardener John Tradescant the elder, the bewitching Duke appears halfway through the novel as the object of Tradescant's love. Another historical fiction, Ronald Blythe's The Assassin (2004), is written from his killer's point of view as a final confession while awaiting execution in the Tower of London.
Buckingham also appears in the Doctor Who audio drama The Church and the Crown (2002), dealing with the political intrigue of the time. And as George Villiers, he is a major character in Howard Brenton's 2010 play Anne Boleyn as King James I's mate in sexual horseplay.
- Montague-Smith, Patrick (1970). Debrett's Correct Form. London: Headline. p. 409. ISBN 0-7472-0658-9.
- "Surname Pronunciation: Vavasour to Woburn". Debrett's. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "13", The Western Heritage (8th ed.), p. 420.
- Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, quoted in Gregg, Pauline (1984). King Charles I. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-520-05146-1.
- Stewart p. 264
- Stewart p. 268
- Hille, p.113
- Stewart p. 279
- Hille, p.113
- Wroughton p. 221
- Bergeron, 2002. p. 348
- Ruigh p. 77
- Stewart p. 280
- Stewart p. 281
- Bergeron, 1999. p. 175
- Graham, Fiona (5 June 2008). "To the manor bought". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, 1592–1628 Lockyer, Roger; Longman 1981 ISBN 0-582-50296-9, p.22
- Stewart p. 314
- Zagorin pp. 20–21
- Zagorin pp. 21
- Zagorin pp. 22
- Stewart p. 309
- N.A.M. Rodger, "The Safeguard of the Sea" (London 1997), p.356
- Rodger, p.356
- Lockyer, Buckingham, 250-4; 266
- An apprenticeship in arms by Roger Burrow Manning p.115
- Lockyer, p.460
- Herbert, Ile de Rhe
- Hille, p.113
- Gary Taylor, 'A Game at Chess: General Textual Introduction to the play in Thomas Middleton and Early Modern Textual Culture: A Companion to the Collected Works (OUP, 2007), p.712.
- Hille, p.125
- National Portrait Gallery
- Royal Museums, Greenwich
- BBC Arts site
- Hille, p.99
- Hille, p.126 ff
- Publications on Art History
- Koeyser Gallery
- Hille, p.145 ff
- National Gallery, London
- A preparatory sketch survives the fire that destroyed the painting in 1949. There was also a copy made by William Etty under the title The Apotheosis of the Duke of Buckingham
- The Golden Age Restor'd: The Culture of the Stuart Court, 1603–42, Manchester University 1981, Graham Parry, "The Duke of Buckingham as Collector and Patron", p.142
- Miles Barton com.
- National Portrait Gallery
- Alastair Bellany, "Buckingham Engraved" in Printed Images in Early Modern Britain, Ashgate Publishing 2010, pp.215–36
- Apollo and Diana by Gerrit van Honthorst at the Royal Collection.
- Frederick William Fairholt, Poems and Songs Relating to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham and His Assassination by John Felton, 23 August 1628, London 1850, pp.xiv-xv
- Tudor and Stuart Britain 1471–1714, by Roger Lockyer, 2nd edition, London 1985, Longman.
- Bellany, Alastair (2004). "Felton, John (died 1628), assassin". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9273. The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: "Felton, John (1595?-1628)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- David Masson (1859). The life of John Milton: narrated in connexion with the political, ecclesiastical, and literary history of his time. Macmillan and co. pp. 150–151.
- Robert Lockyer, Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, London 2014, p.458
- John Scott; John Taylor (1828). The London Magazine. Hunt and Clarke. pp. 71–.
- Iona and Peter Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, originally published 1951.
- Frederick William Fairholt, 1850
- "History of the Collections". Cambridge University Library. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Chinese Works". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- The novel is available on Gutenberg
- 'The Three Musketeers', chapter 12
- Author's site
- Jessica Mann, "The popular murderer", a review in the Daily Telegraph, 26 September 2004
- "George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. IV, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 417–419.
- "George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. IV, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, pp. 722–724.
- Edward Herbert, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, The Expedition to the Isle of Rhe ed. Lord Powis, (Philobiblio Soc., (London 1860)
- Roger Lockyer, Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (London 1981)
- Bergeron, David M. (1999), King James and Letters of Homoerotic Desire, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, p. 175.
- Bergeron, David M. (2002), "Writing King James's Sexuality", Royal Subjects: Essays on the Writings of James VI and I, Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
- Hille, Christiane (2012), Visions of the Courtly Body: The Patronage of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, and the Triumph of Painting at the Stuart Court, Berlin.
- Ruigh, Robert E. (1971), The Parliament of 1624: Politics and Foreign Policy, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Stewart, Alan (2003), The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & I, London: Macmillan.
- Wroughton, John (2013), The Routledge Companion to the Stuart Age, 1603–1714, London: Routledge.
- Zagorin, Perez (1999), Francis Bacon, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Media related to George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham at Wikimedia Commons
- The impeachment of Buckingham (1626), Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1: 1618–29 (1721), pp. 302–358.