|United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland|
Assumed office |
October 21, 2014
|Preceded by||Declan Kelly (2011)|
|Vice Chairman of the Homeland Security Advisory Council|
June 5, 2009 – February 8, 2011
|Preceded by||James Schlesinger|
|Succeeded by||Bill Bratton|
|United States Senator|
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1987
|Preceded by||Peter Dominick|
|Succeeded by||Tim Wirth|
Gary Warren Hartpence|
November 28, 1936
Ottawa, Kansas, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Lee Ludwig (1958–present)|
Southern Nazarene University|
St Antony's College, Oxford
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Unit||United States Naval Reserve|
Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence; November 28, 1936) is an American politician, diplomat and lawyer. He is perhaps best known for being the front-runner in the 1988 Democratic primary until he dropped out over allegations of an extramarital affair with Donna Rice.
Hart served as U.S. Senator from Colorado from 1975 to 1987 and as Vice Chairman of the Homeland Security Advisory Council from 2008 to 2011. Since 2014 he has been the U. S. Special Envoy for Northern Ireland. He is also an author, professor and commentator. He has been married to Lee (Ludwig) since 1958 and has two grown children.
Early life and legal career
Hart was born in Ottawa, Kansas, the son of Nina (née Pritchard) and Carl Riley Hartpence, a farm equipment salesman. As a young man, he worked as a laborer on the railroad. He and his father changed their last name to "Hart" in 1961 because "Hart is a lot easier to remember than Hartpence." He won a scholarship to Bethany Nazarene College in Bethany, Oklahoma, in 1954 and graduated in 1958. He met his wife, Oletha (Lee) Ludwig, there, and they married in 1958. He also graduated from Yale Divinity School in 1961 and Yale Law School in 1964.
Hart became an attorney for the United States Department of Justice from 1964 to 1965, and was admitted to the Colorado and District of Columbia bars in 1965. He was special assistant to the solicitor of the United States Department of the Interior from 1965 to 1967. He then entered private law practice in Denver, Colorado, at the firm of Davis Graham & Stubbs.
George McGovern's 1972 presidential campaign
Following the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota co-chaired a commission that revised the Democratic presidential nomination structure. The new structure weakened the influence of such old-style party bosses such as Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, who were once able to hand-pick national convention delegates and dictate the way they voted. The new rules made caucuses a process in which relative newcomers could participate without paying dues to established party organizations.
In the 1972 primary elections, McGovern named Hart his campaign manager. Along with Rick Stearns, an expert on the new system, they decided on a strategy to focus on the 28 states holding caucuses instead of primary elections. They felt the nature of the caucuses made them easier (and less costly) to win if they targeted their efforts. While their primary election strategy proved successful in winning the nomination, McGovern would go on to lose the 1972 presidential election in one of the most lopsided elections in U.S. history.
United States Senator
In 1974, Hart ran for the United States Senate, challenging two-term incumbent Republican Peter Dominick. Hart was aided by Colorado's trend toward Democrats during the early 1970s, as well as Dominick's continued support for the unpopular President Richard Nixon and concerns about the senator's age and health. In the general election, Hart won by a wide margin (57.2% to Dominick's 39.5%) and was immediately labeled a rising star. He got a seat on the Armed Services Committee, and was an early supporter of reforming the bidding for military contracts, as well as an advocate for the military using smaller, more mobile weapons and equipment, as opposed to the traditional large scale items. He also served on the Environment and Public Work Committee and the Senate Intelligence Committee. From 1975 to '76, Hart was a member of a subcommittee under the "Church Committee" that looked into to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Hart served as the chairman of Senate Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation. He flew over the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in an army helicopter several times with minority member Alan K. Simpson during a nuclear accident there, and led the subsequent Senate investigation into the accident.
In 1980, he sought a second term. In something of a surprise, his Republican opponent was Colorado Secretary of State Mary Estill Buchanan, a moderate candidate who narrowly defeated the more conservative choice, Howard "Bo" Callaway, in the party primary, by less than 2,000 primary votes. Fourteen years earlier, Callaway had been the Republican gubernatorial nominee in his native Georgia. Callaway in the early 1970s had bought and run an elegant resort in Crested Butte. Buchanan had hit Hart hard for supporting the Panama Canal Treaties and for backing Jimmy Carter in 80 percent of his Senate votes. Buchanan charged in a campaign ad about Hart: "He votes one way and talks another when he is back here. He is a liberal, McGovernite carpetbagger." Hart responded that Buchanan's charges reflected her narrow viewpoint and insisted that his campaign would rise above partisanship. Said Hart in a campaign ad: "I will not ignore her. We will interact and debate, but I am going to run a campaign for the 1980s. What is her plan for the environment? For national defense? For the economy? It took me a year or so to formulate my ideas."
In the end, Hart won narrowly, with 50.2% of the vote to his opponent's 49.8%.
Hart cosponsored the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984 with Senator Charles Mathias, which was signed into law. The act created a new category of intellectual property rights that makes the layouts of integrated circuits legally protected upon registration, and hence illegal to copy without permission. This protected Silicon Valley chips from cheap foreign imitations. Similar legislation had been proposed in every Congress since 1979. It led to Hart being called the leader of the Atari Democrats.
Conservative Republican Senator Barry Goldwater remarked of Hart, "You can disagree with him politically, but I have never met a man who is more honest and more moral."
Hart, like Walter Mondale and Jesse Jackson, was pro-choice on the issue of abortion.
1984 presidential campaign
In February 1983, during his second term, Hart announced his candidacy for president in the 1984 presidential election. At the time of his announcement, Hart was a little-known senator and barely received above 1 percent in the polls against better-known candidates such as Walter Mondale, John Glenn and Jesse Jackson. To counter this situation, Hart started campaigning early in New Hampshire, making a then-unprecedented canvassing tour in late September, months before the primary. This strategy attracted national media attention to his campaign, and by late 1983, he had risen moderately in the polls to the middle of the field, mostly at the expense of the sinking candidacies of Glenn and Alan Cranston. Mondale won the Iowa caucus in late January, but Hart polled a respectable 16 percent. Two weeks later, in the New Hampshire primary, he shocked much of the party establishment and the media by defeating Mondale by 10 percentage points. Hart instantly became the main challenger to Mondale for the nomination and appeared to have the momentum on his side.
Hart's media campaign was produced by Raymond Strother, a native Texan who had begun his career in Louisiana. Hart could not overcome Mondale's financial and organizational advantages, especially among labor union leaders in the Midwest and industrial Northeast. Hart's campaign was chronically in debt, to a final count of $4.75 million. In states like Illinois, where delegates were elected directly by primary voters, Hart often had incomplete delegate slates. Hart's ideas were criticized as too vague and centrist by many Democrats. Shortly after he became the new frontrunner, it was revealed that Hart had changed his last name, had often listed 1937 instead of 1936 as his birth date and had changed his signature several times. This, along with two separations from his wife, Lee, caused some to question Hart's "flake factor." Nonetheless, he and his wife have remained married for almost 60 years.
The two men swapped victories in the primaries, with Hart getting exposure as a candidate with "new ideas" and Mondale rallying the party establishment to his side. The two men fought to a draw in the Super Tuesday, with Hart winning states in the West, Florida and New England. Mondale fought back and began ridiculing Hart's campaign platform. The most famous television moment of the campaign was during a debate when he mocked Hart's "new ideas" by quoting a line from a popular Wendy's television commercial at the time: "Where's the beef?" Hart's campaign could not effectively counter this remark, and when he ran negative TV commercials against Mondale in the Illinois primary, his appeal as a new kind of Democrat never entirely recovered. Hart lost the New York and Pennsylvania primaries, but won those of Ohio and Indiana.
Mondale gradually pulled away from Hart in the delegate count, but the race was not decided until June, on "Super Tuesday III". Decided that day were delegates from five states: South Dakota, New Mexico, West Virginia, California and New Jersey. The proportional nature of delegate selection meant that Mondale was likely to obtain enough delegates on that day to secure the stated support of an overall majority of delegates, and hence the nomination, no matter who actually "won" the states contested. However, Hart maintained that unpledged superdelegates that had previously claimed support for Mondale would shift to his side if he swept the Super Tuesday III primary. Once again, Hart committed a faux pas, insulting New Jersey shortly before the primary day. Campaigning in California, he remarked that while the "bad news" was that he and his wife had to campaign separately, "[T]he good news for her is that she campaigns in California while I campaign in New Jersey." Compounding the problem, when his wife interjected that she "got to hold a koala bear", Hart replied that "I won't tell you what I got to hold: samples from a toxic waste dump." While Hart won California, he lost New Jersey after leading in polls by as much as 15 points.
By the time the final primaries concluded, Mondale had a considerable lead in total delegates, though he was 40 delegates short of clinching victory. Superdelegates voted overwhelmingly for Mondale at the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco on July 16, making him the presidential nominee. Hart, already aware that the nomination was all but Mondale's after the final primaries, lobbied for the vice presidential slot on the ticket, claiming that he would do better than Mondale against President Ronald Reagan (an argument undercut by a June 1984 Gallup poll that showed both men nine points behind the president). While Hart was given serious consideration, Mondale chose Geraldine Ferraro instead. In his address to the convention, after his name was placed in nomination for president by Nebraska governor Bob Kerrey and he received a 15-minute standing ovation, Hart concluded, “Our party and our country will continue to hear from us. This is one Hart you will not leave in San Francisco.”
This race for the nomination was the most recent occasion that a major party presidential nomination has gone all the way to the convention. Mondale was later defeated in a landslide by the incumbent Reagan, winning only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Many felt that Hart and other similar candidates, younger and more independent-minded, represented the future of the party. Hart had refused to take money from Political Action Committees (PACs), and as a result he mortgaged his house to self-finance his campaign, and was more than $1 million in debt at the end of the campaign.
1988 presidential campaign
Hart declined to run for re-election to the Senate, leaving office when his second term expired with the intent of running for president again. On December 20, 1986, Hart was allegedly followed by an anonymous private investigator from a radio station where he had given the Democratic Party's response to President Reagan's weekly radio address. That alleged PI report reported that Hart had been followed to a woman's house, photographed there, and left sometime the following morning. This allegation would ultimately cause him to suspend his planned presidential campaign. After Mario Cuomo announced that he would not enter the race in February 1987, Hart was the clear frontrunner for the Democratic nomination in the 1988 election.
When Lois Romano, a reporter for The Washington Post, asked Hart to respond to rumors spread by other campaigns that he was a "womanizer", Hart said such candidates were "not going to win that way, because you don't get to the top by tearing someone else down." The New York Post reported that comment on its front page with the headline lead in "Straight from the Hart", followed below with big, black block letters: "GARY: I'M NO WOMANIZER.'", and then a summary of the story: "Dem blasts rivals over sex life rumors".:86
In late April 1987, The Miami Herald claimed that an anonymous informant contacted the paper to relate that Hart was having an affair with a friend, claimed it was the equivalent of the Iran-Contra scandal, provided details about the affair, and told the Herald that Hart was going to meet this person at his Washington, D.C., townhouse on May 1.:28 As a result, a team of Herald reporters followed Donna Rice on a flight from Miami to Washington, D.C., then staked out Hart's townhouse that evening and the next Saturday, and observed a young woman and Hart together. The Herald reporters confronted Hart on Saturday evening in an alley about his relationship with Rice. Hart replied, "I'm not involved in any relationship.” and alleged that he had been set up.
The Herald published a story on May 3 that Hart had spent Friday night and most of Saturday with a young woman in his Washington, D.C. townhouse. On that same day, in an interview with E. J. Dionne that appeared in the New York Times, Hart, responding to the rumors of his womanizing, said: "Follow me around. I don't care. I'm serious. If anybody wants to put a tail on me, go ahead. They'll be very bored." The Herald's reporters at some point learned that the New York Times was planning to feature the story with the quote on Sunday, incorporated it into their story, and the two articles appearing on the same day ignited a political firestorm. On Sunday, Hart's campaign denied any scandal and condemned the Herald's reporters for intrusive reporting. Hart later noted that his "follow me around" comment was not "challenging the press with a taunt", but, made in frustration, was only intended to invite the media to observe his public behavior, and never intended to invite reporters to be "skulking around in the shadows" of his home. '“He did not think of it as a challenge,” Dionne would recall many years later. “And at the time, I did not think of it as a challenge.”' Nor did Hart's comment influence the Miami Herald to pursue the story.
The next day, Monday, the young woman was identified as Donna Rice, and she gave a press conference also denying any sexual relationship with Hart. Hart insisted that his interest in Rice was limited to her working as a campaign aide. However, "the facts floated on a sea of innuendo."
The scandal spread rapidly through the national media, as did another damaging story about angry creditors of the $1.3 million debt Hart had incurred in his 1984 campaign. Media questions about the affair came to dominate coverage of Hart's campaign, but his staff believed that voters were not as interested in the topic as the media was. Hart's staff believed that the media was filtering his message. A Gallup Poll conducted that week for Newsweek, (but published the following week) found that 55% of Democrats believed that Hart had been truthful, and 44% of them were unconcerned about the issue. The polling of all voters was even more favorable to Hart. Nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of the U.S. respondents it surveyed thought the media treatment of Hart was "unfair", and 70% disapproved of covert surveillance by the media. A little over half (53 percent) responded that marital infidelity had little to do with a president's ability to govern. Time magazine had similar results: Of those polled 67% disapproved of the media writing about a candidate's sex life, and 60% stated that Hart's relationship with Rice was irrelevant to the presidency. New York Governor, Mario Cuomo remarked on the topic that there were "skeletons in everybody's closet."
On May 8, 1987, a week after the story broke, Hart suspended his campaign after the Washington Post threatened to run a story about a woman Hart had dated while separated from his wife, and his wife and daughter became similar subjects of interest for tabloid journalists.
At a press conference, Hart defiantly stated, "I said that I bend, but I don't break, and believe me, I'm not broken." Hart identified the invasive media coverage, and its need to "dissect" him, as his reason for suspending his campaign, "If someone's able to throw up a smokescreen and keep it up there long enough, you can't get your message across. You can't raise the money to finance a campaign; there's too much static, and you can't communicate....Clearly, under the present circumstances, this campaign cannot go on. I refuse to submit my family and my friends and innocent people and myself to further rumors and gossip. It's simply an intolerable situation." Hart paraphrased Thomas Jefferson and warned, "I tremble for my country when I think we may, in fact, get the kind of leaders we deserve." Hart later recalled, "I watched journalists become animals, literally."
The New York Times opined that some compared Hart's press conference to Richard Nixon's "Last Press Conference" of November 7, 1962, in which Nixon blamed the media for his loss in the 1962 California gubernatorial election and did not take responsibility for his own actions. Hart, in fact, received a letter from Nixon himself commending him for "handling a very difficult situation uncommonly well". The unprecedented nature of the investigation and reporting on Hart's personal life was widely noted and reported at the time; the New York Times said "the system had gone out of control."
Having withdrawn from the presidential race, Hart left for Ireland to spend time away from the media with his son. He rented a cottage in Oughterard, though remained in contact with key members of his team. What news did filter out was that he was not excluding a return to the race. The New York Times also pointed to his odd ambivalence toward the presidency even before being caught by "the system": "Only half of me wants to be President. [...] The other half wants to go write novels in Ireland. But the 50 percent that wants to be President is better than 100 percent of the others."
His campaign chairman, Colorado congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, jumped into the race following Hart's withdrawal, but soon after withdrew herself at an emotional press conference on September 28, 1987.
In December 1987, Hart returned to the race, declaring on the steps of New Hampshire Statehouse, "Let's let the people decide!" Hart said that the other candidates did not represent his new ideas of strategic investment economics, military reform and "enlightened engagement in foreign policy." Hart warned, "We could lose more young Americans unnecessarily in the Persian Gulf." He initially rose to the top of the polls nationally, and second behind Massachusetts Governor Mike Dukakis in New Hampshire, but was soon confronted with more negative stories about prior debts from his 1984 campaign. He competed in the New Hampshire primary and received 4,888 votes, about 4 percent. After the Super Tuesday contests on March 8, in which he won no more than 5 percent of the vote, Hart withdrew from the campaign a second time.
After his Senate service and presidential races, Hart resumed his law practice. He remained moderately active in public policy matters, serving on the bipartisan US Commission on National Security/21st Century, also known as the Hart–Rudman Commission, commissioned on behalf of Bill Clinton in 1998 to study U.S. homeland security. The commission issued several findings calling for broad changes to security policy, but none was implemented until after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. He earned a doctorate in Politics (D.Phil.) from the University of Oxford in 2001, with a thesis entitled The Restoration of the Republic; he was a member of St Antony's College.
Hart gave a speech before the American international law firm Coudert Brothers on September 4, 2001, exactly one week before the September 11 attacks, warning that within the next 25 years a terrorist attack would lead to mass deaths in the United States. Hart met with aviation executives in Montreal, Canada, on September 5, 2001, to warn of airborne terrorist attacks. The Montreal Gazette reported the story the following day with a headline, “Thousands Will Die, Ex-Presidential Hopeful Says.” On September 6, 2001, Hart met with National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to urge, "You must move more quickly on homeland security. An attack is going to happen." In a subsequent interview with Salon.com, Hart accused President George W. Bush and other administration officials of ignoring his warnings.
In late 2002, urged by former Oxford classmates, Hart began testing the waters for another run for the presidency, launching a website at GaryHartNews.com and a related speaking tour to gauge reactions from the public. He started his own blog in the spring of 2003, the first prospective presidential candidate to do so. After a few months of speaking, Hart decided not to run for president and instead endorsed Democrat John Kerry. According to an October 23, 2004, National Journal article and later reports in the Washington Post, Hart was mentioned as a probable Cabinet appointment if Kerry won the presidency. He was considered a top candidate for either Director of National Intelligence, Secretary of Homeland Security or Secretary of Defense.
Since May 2005 he has been a contributing blogger at The Huffington Post. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (better known as the CFR). Hart also sits on the Advisory Board of Operation USA, a Los Angeles-based international relief and development agency. It was announced in January 2006 that Hart will hold an endowed professorship at the University of Colorado. He is the author of James Monroe, part of the Times Books series on American presidents published in October 2005. Hart is an Honorary Fellow of the Literary & Historical Society of University College Dublin. He is an Advisory Board member for the Partnership for a Secure America, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recreating the bipartisan center in American national security and foreign policy.
In September 2007, The Huffington Post published Hart's letter, "Unsolicited Advice to the Government of Iran", in which he stated that "Provocation is no longer required to take America to war" and warns Iran that "for the next sixteen months or so, you should not only not take provocative actions, you should not seem to be doing so." He went on to suggest that the Bush-Cheney administration was waiting for an opportunity to attack Iran, writing: "Don't give a certain vice president we know the justification he is seeking to attack your country."
Hart linked American energy policy with national security in an essay published in November 2007. Hart wrote, "In fact, we do have an energy policy: It’s to continue to import more than half our oil and sacrifice American lives so we can drive our Humvees. This is our current policy, and it is massively immoral." Hart currently sits on the board of directors for the Energy Literacy Advocates. He founded the American Security Project in 2007 and he started a new blog in 2009.
Since retiring from the Senate, he has emerged as a consultant on national security, and continues to speak on a wide range of issues, including the environment and homeland security. In 2006, Hart accepted an endowed professorship at the University of Colorado at Denver. He has been a visiting lecturer at Oxford University, Yale University, and the University of California. He is Chair of the U.S. State Department's International Security Advisory Council, Chair of the U.S. Defense Department's Threat Advisory Council, and Chair of the American Security Project. He was Vice-Chair of the Advisory Council for the U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, Co-Chair of the U.S.-Russia Commission, Chairman of the Council for a Livable World, and President of Global Green, the U.S. affiliate of Mikhail Gorbachev's environmental foundation. Most notably, he was Co-Chair of the U.S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century, known as the Hart-Rudman Commission, which predicted terrorist attacks on America before 9/11.
He has written or co-authored numerous books and articles, including five well-received novels.
Appointed U.S. Special Envoy for Northern Ireland
In October 2014, President Barack Obama along with Secretary of State John Kerry named Hart as the new United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland. Hart is the second former U.S. Senator to hold the post. The first was George Mitchell, former seat-mate and former Majority Leader of the United States Senate, who served from 1995-2001. In a statement, Kerry called Hart "a longtime friend" and said he was "a problem-solver, a brilliant analyst, and someone capable of thinking at once tactically, strategically, and practically."
- The Thunder and the Sunshine: Four Seasons in a Burnished Life (Fulcrum Publishing, 2010);
- Under The Eagle's Wing: A National Security Strategy of the United States for 2009 (Speaker's Corner, 2008);
- The Courage of Our Convictions: A Manifesto for Democrats by Gary Hart (Time Books/Henry Holt, 2006);
- The Shield and The Cloak: The Security of the Commons (Oxford University Press, 2006);
- God and Caesar in America: an essay on religion and politics (Fulcrum Books, 2005);
- The Presidency of James Monroe, in the American Presidency series edited by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (Time Books/Henry Holt, 2005);
- The Fourth Power: a new grand strategy for the United States in the 21st century (Oxford University Press, 2004);
- Restoration of the Republic: the Jeffersonian Ideal in 21st Century America (2002), for which he received a D. Phil. degree from Oxford University;
- The Minuteman: Restoring an Army of the People (1998);
- The Patriot: An Exhortation to Liberate America from the Barbarians (1996);
- The Good Fight: The Education of an American Reformer (a New York Times Notable Book) (1995);
- Russia Shakes the World: The Second Russian Revolution (1991);
- America Can Win: The Case for Military Reform (1985);
- A New Democracy : new approaches to the challenges of the 1980s (1983);
- Right from the Start: A Chronicle of the McGovern Campaign (1973);
- Durango (Fulcrum Publishing, 2012)
- I, Che Guevara (2000) (under the pseudonym John Blackthorn)
- Sins of the Fathers (1999) (under the pseudonym John Blackthorn)
- The Strategies of Zeus (1985)
- The Double Man (with former Senator and Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 1984)
- Gary Hart – 81,161 (39.92%)
- Herrick S. Roth – 66,819 (32.86%)
- Martin P. Miller – 55,339 (27.22%)
- Gary Hart (D) – 471,688 (57.23%)
- Peter H. Dominick (R) (inc.) – 325,526 (39.50%)
- John M. King (I) – 16,131 (1.96%)
- Joseph Fred Hyskell (Prohibition) – 8,404 (1.02%)
- Henry John Olshaw (Independent American) – 2,394 (0.29%)
- Gary Hart (D) (inc.) – 590,501 (50.34%)
- Mary E. Buchanan (R) – 571,295 (48.70%)
- Earl Higgerson (Prohibition) – 7,265 (0.62%)
- Henry John Olshaw (I) – 4,081 (0.35%)
- Walter Mondale – 6,952,912 (38.32%)
- Gary Hart – 6,504,842 (35.85%)
- Jesse Jackson – 3,282,431 (18.09%)
- John Glenn – 617,909 (3.41%)
- George McGovern – 334,801 (1.85%)
- Unpledged delegates – 146,212 (0.81%)
- Lyndon LaRouche – 123,649 (0.68%)
- Reubin O'Donovan Askew – 52,759 (0.29%)
- Alan Cranston – 51,437 (0.28%)
- Ernest Hollings – 33,684 (0.19%)
- Walter Mondale – 2,191 (56.41%)
- Gary Hart – 1,201 (30.92%)
- Jesse Jackson – 466 (12.00%)
- Thomas Eagleton – 18 (0.46%)
- George McGovern – 4 (0.10%)
- John Glenn – 2 (0.05%)
- Joe Biden – 1 (0.03%)
- Martha Kirkland – 1 (0.03%)
- Michael Dukakis – 9,898,750 (42.47%)
- Jesse Jackson – 6,788,991 (29.13%)
- Al Gore – 3,185,806 (13.67%)
- Dick Gephardt – 1,399,041 (6.00%)
- Paul M. Simon – 1,082,960 (4.65%)
- Gary Hart – 415,716 (1.78%)
- Unpledged delegates – 250,307 (1.07%)
- Bruce Babbitt – 77,780 (0.33%)
- Lyndon LaRouche – 70,938 (0.30%)
- David Duke – 45,289 (0.19%)
- James Traficant – 30,879 (0.13%)
- Douglas Applegate – 25,068 (0.11%)
- Michael Dukakis – 2,877 (70.09%)
- Jesse Jackson – 1,219 (29.70%)
- Richard Stallings – 3 (0.07%)
- Joe Biden – 2 (0.05%)
- Dick Gephardt – 2 (0.05%)
- Lloyd Bentsen – 1 (0.02%)
- Gary Hart – 1 (0.02%)
In popular culture
- Bono of the Irish rock band U2, in concert in Denver, recognized Gary Hart for his work bringing peace to Ireland, "And tonight, in the room, I want to thank Gary Hart for his work in bringing peace to our country in Ireland. You worked hard on it, Sir."
- In the final chapter of Stephen King's Dark Tower series, The Dark Tower, the character Susannah Dean travels to an alternate 1980s America where Hart is President.
- Hart appeared as himself on an episode of Cheers (episode 425; "Strange Bedfellows part 2").
- Chilean folk-rock band Sexual Democracia's song "Don't Cry, Gary Hart", a cueca sung in English, appears on their album Buscando Chilenos 2 (1992).
- Crosby, Still, Nash and Young released a video satirizing the events of the Miami Herald's stake-out of Hart's home, and other events of 1987, in American Dream (Neil Young, 1988).
- In his novel Then Everything Changed, author Jeff Greenfield creates an alternate history in which Hart defeats Ronald Reagan in the 1980 Presidential election.
- The "womanizer" scandal involving Donna Rice is covered in a whole episode of the RadioLab podcast (January 29, 2016).
- Dana Weems, who at the time the call was made, was a recent acquaintance of Donna Rice, stated in a 2014 article that she had been the caller. Weems also "repeatedly insisted" that she had contacted the Herald only after reading Hart's "follow me around" quote, which was, in fact, only printed by the New York Times Magazine on the same day as the Herald's story about Rice's visit to Hart's townhouse. She had denied being the caller at the time, when it was noted that Weems was not a registered voter, and did not match the description of being a "liberal Democrat", as the Herald reported. In addition to Weems, Rice noted that she had told only two other people about the trip to Washington, D.C., Lynn Armandt, who had accompanied her on the yacht, and model Julie Semones, who had accompanied Rice on a visit to meet Adnan Khashoggi on his yacht.
- Hart has never seen Rice since she left that night; they spoke in one phone call in 1998.
- Ancestry of Gary Hart
- Garry Clifford, Peter Carlson, "Gary Hart: George McGovern's Whiz Kid Has Grown Up, and Now He Wants a Chance to Be President Too", People Magazine, (Vol. 20, No. 8, August 22, 1983)
- Richard Ben Cramer, "What It Takes: The Way To The White House" (Random House 1992) pg. 340
- U.S. Congress. "Hart, Gary Warren - Biographical Information". Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Hart, stressing ideals, formally enters the 1988 race, New York Times, April 14, 1987
- Purdum, Todd. "Indulging Iowa". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Amy Goodman interview of Gary Hart "Fmr. Democratic Senator and Presidential Candidate Gary Hart: 'Both Houses of Congress Belong to the President’s Party'" (March 28, 2006)
- Nuclear accident and recovery at Three Mile Island : a report / prepared by the Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation for the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, Washington: U.S. G.P.O.(1980)
- "Nation: The Senate: Issues of Personality". Time. September 29, 1980.
- Michael D. Scott, Scott on Information Technology Law (Third Edition 2014) section 5.01
- Carlin, David R. (2007). Can a Catholic be a Democrat?: How the Party I Loved Became the Enemy of My Religion. Sophia Institute Press. ISBN 9781933184197.
- "Raymond Strother: Political Strategist/Author (1940)". Museum of the Gulf Coast. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Lindsay, Robert "Convention Sideline: Raising Money", New York Times, July 21, 1984, pg. 11
- Gary Hart 1984 Television Ads on YouTube
- Ed Magnuson (June 18, 1984). "Over the Top, Barely". Time.
- George J. Church (June 4, 1984). "A Big Bicoastal Finale". Time.
- Evan Thomas (June 11, 1984). "Last Call, and Out Reeling". Time.
- Gary Hart, et al., "Democratic National Convention Day 3" C-SPAN. (July 18, 1984)
- Phil Hirschkorn, "America’s Last Great Convention: Mondale, Jackson & Hart Dish To Salon About Wild 1984 DNC", Salon. (February 15, 2015)
- David Johnston. (June 7, 1987). "Hart's Link to 2d Woman was Found by a Private Detective". The New York Times.
- John Dillin for The Christian Science Monitor. February 23, 1987 Cuomo's `no' opens door for dark horses
- E. J. Dionne Jr. (January 25, 1987). "Poll Gives Hart and Bush Clear Leads for Nominations". The New York Times. p. 18.
- Gary Hart, Senator Gary Hart Statement Of Candidacy (April 13, 1987)
- Robin Toner (April 14, 1987). "Hart, Stressing Ideals, Formally Enters the 1988 Race". The New York Times.
It's an issue of recapturing our basic principles, beliefs and values.
- Gary Hart, "Hart Announcement", C-SPAN. (April 14, 1987)
- James Coates, "Hart Starts March For The White House: A 'Deadly Serious' Campaign Ahead", Chicago Tribune. (April 14, 1987)
- William Safire. (May 3, 1987). "On Language; Vamping Till Ready". The New York Times.
- Matt Bai. All The Truth Is Out: The Week That Politics Went Tabloid. Knopf (September 30, 2014) ISBN 978-0307273383
- Bai, Matt (September 18, 2014). "How Gary Hart's Downfall Forever Changed American Politics". The New York Times Magazine.
- Rice Suspects Model Spilled Hart Beans, Atlanta Journal Constitution, (May 18, 1987) http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1987-05-18/news/0130120065_1_gary-hart-herald-rice
- Taylor, Paul (1990). See How They Run. ISBN 9780394570594.
- "The Gary Hart Story: How It Happened.". The Miami Herald. May 10, 1987.
- E. J. Dionne Jr. (May 3, 1987). "Gary Hart The Elusive Front-Runner". The New York Times. p. SM28.
- E.J. Dionne, Jr. (May 4, 1987). "Paper and Hart in Dispute Over Article". The New York Times. p. A16
- Maureen Dowd, "Liberties; Change of Hart", New York Times, March 22, 1998 http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/22/opinion/liberties-change-of-hart.html
- James Savage, 'Following Gary Hart', New York Times (March 31, 1998) http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/31/opinion/l-following-gary-hart-264539.html
- Johnston, David; King, Wayne; Nordheimer, Jon (May 9, 1987). "Courting Danger: The Fall Of Gary Hart". The New York Times.
- Gary Hart, "Hart News Conference", C-SPAN (May 6, 1987) http://www.c-span.org/video/?3680-1/hart-news-conference
- Matt Bai. All The Truth Is Out: The Week That Politics Went Tabloid. Knopf (September 30, 2014) ISBN 978-0307273383 p. 136
- John Dillin, Press Unfair to Hart? Polls Show Public Concern; Experts Back Tough Scrutiny", The Christian Science Monitor (May 12, 1987) http://www.csmonitor.com/1987/0512/apress.html
- John Dillin, PRESS UNFAIR TO HART?. Polls Show Public Concern; Experts Back Tough Scrutiny", The Christian Science Monitor (May 12, 1987) http://www.csmonitor.com/1987/0512/apress.html
- Matt Bai. All The Truth Is Out: The Week That Politics Went Tabloid. Knopf (September 30, 2014) ISBN 978-0307273383 p. 129
- Gary Hart, "Hart First Withdrawal" C-SPAN (May 8, 1987) http://www.c-span.org/video/?3681-1/hart-first-withdrawal
- New York Times, Transcript Of Hart Statement Withdrawing His Candidacy (May 8, 1987) http://www.nytimes.com/1987/05/09/us/transcript-of-hart-statement-withdrawing-his-candidacy.html
- Maureen Dowd, "Liberties; Change of Hart", New York Times, March 22, 1998 http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/22/opinion/liberties-change-of-hart.html
- "Nixon, Dixon and Hart". The New York Times. July 16, 1987.
- "Gary Hart Leaves Ireland After Three-Week Holiday". Associated Press. August 25, 1987.
- Warren Weaver, Jr. for the New York Times. September 29, 1987 Schroeder, Assailing 'the System,' Decides Not to Run for President
- Bob Drogin for the Los Angeles Times. December 16, 1987 Hart Back in Race for President : Political World Stunned, Gives Him Little Chance
- "Hart Announcement: Re-Entry Into Campaign". C-SPAN. December 15, 1987.
- Richard L. Berke for the New York Times. January 10, 1988 The Nation; Hart's 1984 Debts Make The 1988 Campaigns Nervous
- Richard L Berke for the New York Times January 22, 1988 Hart's Advisers Deny New Charges, but Are Fearful of Impact
- Dartmouth College. History of Presidential Debates at Dartmouth: 1988: "Presidency in the 200th Year of the Constitution" Page accessed November 19, 2014
- Associated Press, in the Los Angeles Times. March 13, 1988 Quits Campaign : 'The People 'Have Decided,' Hart Declares
- Gary Hart, "Hart Second Withdrawal" C-Span (March 11, 1988) http://www.c-span.org/video/?2154-1/hart-second-withdrawal
- Talbot, David (April 2, 2004). "Condi Rice's other wake-up call". Salon.com. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Bauch, Hubert (September 6, 2001). "Terror risk real: Hart". Montreal Gazette. p. 8A. Archived from the original on December 18, 2001.
- Gary Hart, WABC interview with John Batchelor and Paul Alexander, May 28, 2002.
- Gary Hart. "Unsolicited Advice to the Government of Iran"
- Gary Hart essay
- American Security Project
- Gary Hart Matters of Principle
- "Gary Hart comes out: The former Senator and ex-presidential candidate reveals that he's thriller writer John Blackthorn" by Andrew Ferguson, January 17, 2000, CNN
- Our Campaigns – CO US Senate – D Primary Race – Sep 10, 1974
- Our Campaigns – CO US Senate Race – Nov 5, 1974
- Our Campaigns – CO US Senate Race – Nov 4, 1980
- Our Campaigns – US President – D Primaries Race – Feb 20, 1984
- Our Campaigns – US President – D Convention Race – Jul 16, 1984
- Our Campaigns – US President – D Primaries Race – Feb 1, 1988
- Our Campaigns – US President – D Convention Race – Jul 18, 1988
- "I Don't Have To Answer That". radiolab. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- Source material: Biographical Database of the U.S. Congress: HART, Gary Warren, 1936–
- Ferguson, Andrew (January 24, 2000). "Gary Hart comes out". Time Magazine. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- "Senator Gary Hart Challenges the Unholy Alliance of 'Faith' and Government". Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- "Transcript and audio of interview with Hart conducted by Democracy Now!". Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- "Video interviews/conversations with Hart by Robert Wright". Bloggingheads.tv. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|Party political offices|
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Colorado
| Succeeded by|
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 3) from Colorado
Served alongside: Floyd Haskell, Bill Armstrong
| Succeeded by|
Title last held byDeclan Kelly
|United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland