GCE Advanced Level (United Kingdom)

The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced Level, or A Level, is a secondary school leaving qualification in the United Kingdom, offered as a main qualification in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, as an alternative qualification in Scotland, and as an international school qualification worldwide.

A Levels require studying an offered A level subject over a two-year period and sitting for an examination at the end of each year (A1/S and A2, respectively), proctored by an official assessment body. Most students study three or four A level subjects simultaneously during the two post-16 years (ages 16–18) in a secondary school, in a sixth form college, in a further and higher education college, or in a tertiary college, as part of their further education. A levels are regarded as equivalent in level to the BTEC Level 3 qualifications.

A Levels are recognised by many universities as the standard for assessing the suitability of applicants for admission in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and many such universities partly base their admissions offers on a student's predicted A-level grades, with the majority of these offers conditional on achieving a minimum set of final grades.


A Levels were introduced in 1951 as a standardised post 18 qualification, replacing the Higher School Certificate. The examinations could be taken on a subject-by-subject basis, according to the strengths and interests of the student. This encouraged specialization and in-depth study of three to four subjects. The A Level at first was graded as simply distinction, pass or fail (although students were given an indication of their marks, to the nearest 5%), candidates obtaining a distinction originally had the option to sit a Scholarship Level paper on the same material, to attempt to win one of 400 national scholarships. The Scholarship Level was replaced by the S-Level in 1963.

Quite soon rising numbers of students taking the A-level examinations required more differentiation of achievement below the S-Level standard. Grades were therefore introduced. Between 1963 and 1986 the grades were norm-referenced:[1][2]

Grade A B C D E O Fail
Percentage 10% 15% 10% 15% 20% 20% 10%

The O grade was equivalent to a GCE Ordinary Level pass which indicated a performance equivalent to the lowest pass grade at Ordinary Level.

Over time, the validity of this system was questioned because, rather than reflecting a standard, norm referencing simply maintained a specific proportion of candidates at each grade, which in small cohorts was subject to statistical fluctuations in standards. In 1984, the government's Secondary Examinations Council decided to replace the norm referencing with criteria referencing: grades would in future be awarded on examiner judgement[3] thus eliminating a possible inadequacy of the existing scheme.

The criteria referencing scheme came into effect for the summer 1987 exams as the system set examiners specific criteria for the awarding of B and E grades to candidates, and then divided out the other grades according to fixed percentages. Rather than awarding an Ordinary Level for the lowest pass, a new "N" (for Nearly passed) was introduced. Criticisms of A level grading continued, and when Curriculum 2000 was introduced, the decision was made to have specific criteria for each grade, and the 'N' grade was abolished.

In 1989, Advanced Supplementary (AS) awards were introduced; they were intended to broaden the subjects a pupil studied post 16, and were to complement rather than be part of a pupil's A-level studies. AS-Levels were generally taken over two years, and in a subject the pupil was not studying at A-Level. Each AS level contained half the content of an A-Level, and at the same level of difficulty.

Initially, a student might study three subjects at A-Level and one at AS-Level, or often even four subjects at A-Level. However, due to decreasing public spending on education over time, a growing number of schools and sixth form colleges would now arrange for their pupils to study for three A-Levels instead of four.[4]

A levels evolved gradually from a two-year linear course with an exam at the end, to a modular course, between the late 1980s and 2000. By the year 2000 there was a strong educational reason to standardise the exam and offer greater breadth to students through modules[5] and there was also a pragmatic case based on the inefficiency of linear courses where up to 30% of students were failing to complete or pass.[6]

Curriculum 2000 was introduced in September 2000, with the first new examinations taken in January and June of the following year. The Curriculum 2000 reforms also replaced the S-Level extension paper with the Advanced Extension Award.

The Conservative Party under Prime Minister David Cameron initiated reforms for A Levels to change from the current modular to a linear structure.[7] British Examination Boards (Edexcel, AQA and OCR) regulated and accredited by the government of the United Kingdom responded to the government's reform announcements by modifying specifications of several A Level subjects.[8] However, the Labour Party and in particular Tristram Hunt MP announced that it would halt and reverse the reforms and maintain the modular A-Level system.[9] In addition, the Labour Party, Tristram Hunt and the modular AS- and A-Level system are supported and promoted by the University of Cambridge and by the University of Oxford.[10][11]



A-levels consist of two equally weighted parts; AS, assessed in the first year of study, and A2, assessed in the second year of study. Each part comprises two modules, or three for science subjects and Mathematics. The modules within each part may have different weights. The AS modules together can be awarded as a stand-alone qualification called an AS-level. The A2 modules do not form a qualification in their own right; the satisfactory completion of the AS and A2 modules in the same subject is required to constitute a complete A-level. Modules are either assessed by exam papers marked by national organisations, or by school-assessed, externally moderated coursework.

Subjects offered

A wide variety of subjects are offered at A-level by the five exam boards. Although exam boards often alter their curricula, this table shows the majority of subjects which are consistently available for study.

Applied A levels

The newly introduced GCE Applied A-level suite, taken from the old VCE A Levels, generally has a more vocational twist. For example, the new GCE A-level in Applied Business combines the traditional theory-based subject 'Business Studies' (which can be studied as an A-level itself) and adds a more practical and hands-on approach to it. In this case, for the mandatory modules in the AS year, the candidate is expected to create a simulated Marketing Proposal (module 1) and Recruitment and motivational package (module 2) as opposed to just studying the processes. This essentially asks the candidate to show a more thorough insight by actually applying the theory. Given that many universities have shown a dislike of vocational subjects as opposed to the traditional ones, their reaction to the new applied suite remains to be seen. However, considering the subject is now much broader and more "student-friendly" it is hoped that universities will see that this subject is no less than the traditional Business Studies given that the traditional aspect of the subject is not fully lost. The new GCE Applied A Levels are available in: Art and Design, ICT, Business, Science, and Health and Social care.



The number of A-level exams taken by students can vary. A typical route is to study four subjects at AS level and then drop down to three at A2 level, although some students continue with their fourth subject. Three is usually the minimum number of A Levels required for university entrance, with some universities specifying the need for a fourth AS subject. There is no limit set on the number of A Levels one can study, and a number of students take five or more A Levels. It is permissible to take A Levels in languages one already speaks fluently, or courses with overlapping content, even if not always fully recognized by universities.


The pass grades for A Levels are, from highest to lowest, A*, A, B, C, D and E. The process to decide these grades involves the uniform mark scheme (UMS). Under this scheme, four-module A levels have a maximum mark of 400 UMS (or 200 UMS each for AS and A2), and six-module A levels have a maximum mark of 600. The maximum UMS within AS and A2 may be split unequally between each modules. For example, a Physics AS may have two exam modules worth 90 UMS and 150 UMS, and a coursework module worth 60 UMS. The 'raw marks' i.e. actual score received on a test may differ from UMS awarded. On each assignment, the correspondence of raw marks to UMS is decided by setting grade boundaries, a process which involves consultation by subject experts and consideration of statistics, aiming to keep standards for each grade the same year on year. Achieving less than 40% results in a U (unclassified). For passing grades, 40% corresponds to an E grade, 50% a D, 60% a C, 70% a B, and 80% an A. The A* grade was introduced for higher education entry into highly competitive courses, and is awarded to candidates who average 80% UMS across all modules, with an average score of at least 90% UMS in A2 modules. In Mathematics, which comprises six 100 UMS modules, only the C3 and C4 modules count towards this requirement. In Further Mathematics and Additional Further Mathematics, where more than three A2 modules can be taken, the three best-scoring A2 modules count. There is no A* grade at AS level.[17]

International comparisons

Wales and Northern Ireland

Recent research and the corresponding findings have shown that over a time span of several years students from (Northern) Ireland would outperform students from England and Wales in A-level examinations.[18]

Hong Kong

According to UCAS and HKEAA, the Hong Kong A-level examination has historically been benchmarked against the UK A Levels. In general, a UK A grade is broadly equivalent to a Hong Kong A-C grade. This conclusion is based mainly on the percentage of pupils achieving the respective grades in respective exams. In the UK, on average 25% of participants of each subject achieved an A grade every year, compared to the 25% A-C rate in Hong Kong – A(4%), A-B (10%), A-C (25%). According to the BBC, the percentage of students achieving an A* is about 8–10%, which essentially lies within the A-B range of their Hong Kong counterparts in respective subjects. [19] However, the two systems measure mastery of different sets of skills and any comparison can be non-standard and therefore meaningless.

United States

In the United States of America (USA) the high school diploma is the qualification generally required for entry into colleges and universities.

In the United Kingdom, the high school diploma is considered to be at the level of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is awarded at Year 11.[20][21] For college and university admissions, the high school diploma may be accepted in lieu of the GCSE if an average grade of C is obtained in subjects with a GCSE counterpart.[20]

As the more academically rigorous A Levels awarded at Year 13 are expected for university admission, the high school diploma alone is generally not considered to meet university requirements. Students who wish to study in the United Kingdom may additionally participate in the Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) programs, which are considered to be at the level of the A Level qualifications and earn points on the UCAS Tariff,[20][22] or may opt to take A Level examinations in British international schools or as private candidates. College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) tests, such as the SAT, SAT Subject Tests, or the ACT, may also be considered.

The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) recommends that in addition to a high school diploma, grades of 3 or above in at least two, or ideally three, Advanced Placement exams may be considered as meeting general entry requirements for admission.[20] The IB Diploma may also be accepted. For the College Entrance Examination Board tests, a minimum score of 600 or higher in all sections of the SAT or a minimum score of 26 or higher in all sections of the ACT along with a minimum score of 600 in relevant SAT Subject Tests may be considered as meeting general entry requirements for admission.[20]

Special educational needs

Special educational needs for GCE A Level Examinations for students with Learning Difficulties:

For students with learning difficulties, an injury/repetitive strain injury (RSI) or a disability, help is offered in these forms:

All of the above must be approved by the exam board concerned. There are other forms of help available, but these are the most commonly used.

Examination boards

A-level examinations in the UK are currently administered through 5 awarding bodies: AQA, OCR, Edexcel (London Examinations), WJEC and CCEA. The present 5 can trace their roots via a series of mergers or acquisitions to one or more of the originally 9 GCE Examination boards. Additionally, there are two examination boards offering A level qualifications internationally: Edexcel and the CIE. OCR and CIE are both branches of the parent organization, Cambridge Assessment. In the UK it is customary for schools to register with multiple examination boards and to "mix and match" A Levels to get a combined curriculum that fits the school profile.


England, Wales and Northern Ireland

A Levels are usually studied by students in Sixth Form, which refers to the last two years of secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, taken at ages 16–18. Some secondary schools have their own Sixth Form, which admits students from lower year groups, but will often accept external applications. There are also many specialist Sixth Form and Further Education Colleges which admit from feeder schools across a large geographic area. Admission to A level programmes is at the discretion of providers, and usually depends on GCSE grades. A typical requirement would be 5 A*-C grades at GCSE, although requirements can be higher, particularly for independent schools and grammar schools.


A Levels are offered as an alternate qualification by a small number of educational institutions in Scotland, in place of the standard Scottish Higher, and the Advanced Higher levels of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate. The schools that offer A Levels are mainly private fee-paying schools particularly for students wishing to attend university in England.

International schools

Many international schools choose to use the British system for their wide recognition. Furthermore, students may choose to sit the papers of British examination bodies at education centres around the world, such as those belonging to the British Council. According to the British Council, A Levels are similar to the American Advanced Placement courses[23] which are themselves equivalent to first-year courses of America's four-year bachelor's degrees.

University admissions

A Level students often apply to universities before they have taken their final exams, with applications administered centrally through UCAS. British universities (including Scottish universities, which receive many applicants taking A Levels) consider GCSEs, AS-level results, predicted A Level results, and extracurricular accomplishments when deciding whether applicants should be made an offer through UCAS. These offers may be 'unconditional', guaranteeing a place regardless of performance in A2 examinations. Far more often, the offers are conditional on A level grades, and become void should the student fail to achieve the marks expected by the university (for example, conditional offer of three A Levels at grades B-B-C).[24] Universities may specify which subjects they wish these grades to be in (for example, conditional offer of grades A-A-B with a grade A in Mathematics).[24] The offer may include additional requirements, such as attaining a particular grade in the Sixth Term Examination Paper. The university is obliged to accept the candidate if the conditions are met, but is not obliged to reject a candidate who misses the requirements. Leniency may in particular be shown if the candidate narrowly misses grades.

A Level grades are also sometimes converted into numerical scores, typically UCAS tariff scores.[25] Under the UCAS system, an A* grade at A Level is worth 140 points, while an A is worth 120, a B is worth 100, a C is worth 80, a D is 60, and a E is worth 40; so a university may instead demand that an applicant achieve 280 points, instead of the equivalent offer of B-B-C. This allows greater flexibility to students, as 280 points could also, for example, be achieved through the combination A-B-D, which would not have met the requirements of a B-B-C offer because of the D grade.

Depending on the specific offer made, a combination of more than 3 subjects (typically 4 or 5) with lower grades, or points from non-academic input such as higher level music grades or a Key Skills course, may also be accepted by the university. The text of the offer determines whether this flexibility is available – "280 UCAS Points" likely would, while "280 UCAS Points from three A Level subjects" would not.

International variants

There are currently two examination boards which provide an international variant of the United Kingdom A level examinations to international students. These are Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) and Edexcel. International A Level is widely available worldwide, with more than 125 countries providing the programme with 60 different choices of subjects.[26]

Unlike the current modular system implemented in the UK, the CIE A-Level, or more commonly known as the Cambridge A level, practises a terminal-examination system. Students are required to sit for two major exams, AS and A2, at the end of each academic year. Each of the major exams carries the weightage of 50 percent to form a complete A Level. However, Edexcel A level students will be sitting the same paper as the students in UK concurrently.

Additionally, countries outside of the United Kingdom have established academic qualifications with the same or similar name, and with a similar format, to the United Kingdom A levels. However, these qualifications may be distinct in certain ways from those offered in the United Kingdom.


UK: A-level Grades Awarded (%'age)[27][28][29][30][31][32]
A* A (A*+A) B C D E O/N U/F A–E entries
pre 1960 75.3 103,803
1963–1986 8–10 15 10 15 20 20 10 68–70 1975: 498,883

1980: 589,270

1982 8.9 68.2
1985 70.5 634,557
1989 [33] 11.4 15.2 16.4 17.4 15.3 10.9 13.4 75.7 682,997
1990 [34] 11.7 15.5 16.9 17.7 15.2 10.7 12.3 76.7 684,065
1991[35] 11.9 15.5 16.9 18.1 15.6 10.5 11.5 78.0 699,041
1992[36] 12.8 16.3 17.4 18.0 15.3 9.8 10.4 79.8 731,240
1993 13.8 16.7 17.7 18.1 14.8 9.3 9.6 81.1 734,081
1994 14.8 17.1 18.6 18.1 14.4 8.8 8.1 83.0 732,974
1995 15.8 17.1 19.0 18.1 14.1 8.4 7.5 84.1 730,415
1996 16.0 18.0 19.8 18.3 13.7 7.8 6.4 85.8 739,163
1997 16.0 18.9 20.3 18.5 13.4 7.4 5.5 87.1 776,115
1998 16.8 18.9 20.8 18.3 13.0 7.2 5.0 87.8 794,262
1999 17.5 19.0 21.0 18.3 12.7 6.9 4.6 88.5 783,692
2000 17.8 19.2 21.2 18.5 12.4 6.6 4.3 89.1 771,809
2001 18.6 19.3 21.4 18.1 12.4 6.3 3.9 89.8 748,866
2002 20.7 21.9 22.7 18.1 10.9 5.7 94.3 701,380
2003 21.6 22.9 23.0 17.8 10.1 4.6 95.4 750,537
2004 22.4 23.4 23.2 17.5 9.5 4.0 96.0 766,247
2005 22.8 23.8 23.3 17.2 9.1 3.8 96.2 783,878
2006 24.1 24.0 23.2 16.6 8.7 3.4 96.6 805,698
2007 25.3 24.4 23.1 16.0 8.1 3.1 96.9 805,657
2008 25.9 24.9 23.1 15.7 7.6 2.8 97.2 827,737
2009 26.7 25.3 23.1 15.2 7.2 2.5 97.5 846,977
2010 8.1 18.9 (27) 25.2 23.2 15.2 7.0 2.4 97.6 853,933
2011 8.2 18.8 (27) 25.6 23.6 15.1 6.5 2.2 97.8 867,317
2012 7.9 18.7 (26.6) 26.0 24.0 14.9 6.5 2.0 98.0 861,819
2013 7.6 18.7 (26.3) 26.6 24.3 14.7 6.2 1.9 98.1 850,752
2014 8.2 17.8 (26.0) 26.4 24.3 14.8 6.5 2.0 98.0 833,807
2015 8.2 17.7 (25.9) 26.9 24.5 14.7 6.1 1.9 98.1 850,749
2016 8.1 17.7 (25.8) 27.1 24.7 14.6 5.9 1.9 98.1 836,705

Please note: 2015 grades are currently provisional.

UK A-Level classifications from June 1989 to 2015

  •   A*
  •   A
  •   B
  •   C
  •   D
  •   E
  •   N/O
  •   F/U

Note: norm* - grades allocated per the norm referenced percentile quotas described above.

Criticism and controversy

Grade inflation

The most common criticism of the A-level system is an accusation of grade inflation. The press have noted the steady rise in average grades for several consecutive years and drawn the conclusion that A-levels are becoming consistently easier.[37] In an educational report Robert Coe compared students' scores in the ALIS ability test with equivalent grades achieved in A level exams over the period of approximately 20 years. He found that students of similar ability were achieving on average about 2 grades lower in the past than they were in the present. In the case of maths it was nearer to 3.5 grades lower.[38]

The government and teaching bodies maintain that the improved grades represent higher levels of achievement due to improved and more experienced teaching methods,[39][40] but some educationalists and journalists argue that the change is due to grade inflation and the examinations getting easier.[41] It has also been suggested that government pressure on schools to achieve high examination results has led them to coach students to pass the examination rather than understand the subject.[42] In 2000 the A-level system was changed to examine students at the end of each of the two years of A-level study, rather than only at the end of the two years. The results of the first year (AS-level) examinations has allowed students to drop subjects they find difficult after one year and to retake examinations to achieve a higher grade.[42] The ability of unlimited resits, with the best mark going through, has improved results.[43] Some believe that students are tending to select easier subjects instead of harder ones in order to achieve higher grades.[44][45][46]

Universities in Britain have complained that the increasing number of A grades awarded makes it hard to distinguish between students at the upper end of the ability spectrum.[47] The C grade was originally intended to represent the average ability, and students typically required 60% or higher across all assessments to attain it; however, the average result is now at the lower end of the B grade. Many universities have introduced their own entrance tests such as the BMAT and LNAT for specific courses, or conduct interviews to select applicants. In addition, the head of admissions at the University of Cambridge outlined changes[48] he believed should be made to the current system, particularly the use of the Advanced Extension Awards, a more challenging qualification based on the more advanced content of the A-level syllabus. More universities have wanted to see applicants' individual module results to see how comfortably they have achieved their result.[49] There are fears that the A-level may not offer an accurate test of ability,[50] nor will it be a good prediction of future academic success.[51]

Grade fixing

Concern over A-level grading became national news when The Observer ran a story making claims that A level results had been fixed. It was alleged that students had been given lower marks than they deserved in order to fix overall results, making the pass rate seem lower than it really should have been and so disproving that A levels were becoming too easy. This resulted in the Tomlinson Inquiry. As a result, some papers were re-marked but only 1,220 A level and 733 AS-level students saw an improvement to their results.[52]


In response to concerns shown by employers and universities that it is not possible to distinguish between the large number of students achieving A grades, and in order to mirror the current GCSE standards, a debate arose as to whether a new, higher "super A" grade (like the A* grade at GCSE) should be introduced.[53] As will be seen in the future, it was generally agreed that bringing in higher grades would be a much better idea than raising the grade boundaries to keep the standards consistent, and it has been proposed that on top of the A, an A* grade should be available at A level in order to stretch the most able students while still allowing others to achieve the grades they deserve. From A2 exams sat in the future, the highest A level grade will be A*, requiring an A grade overall and 90% overall average UMS in A2 papers.[54]

The most recent reformation of the Mathematics syllabus, following calls that it was too hard,[55] has attracted criticism for allegedly being made easier.[56] In the change, content consisting of three modules (Pure 1–3) were spread to four modules (Core 1–4). It is alleged that this makes the course easier as students do less work for the same qualifications. Further reforms to make the Mathematics syllabus more popular have been met with mixed opinions.[57] Supporters cite it will reverse the downward trend in students taking the subject whilst others are concerned that the subject is being "still incredibly difficult".

Despite ongoing work to improve the image of A-levels in the business community, a number of business leaders are beginning to express concern about the suitability of the qualification for school leavers and to urge the adoption of the International Baccalaureate in the UK as an alternative qualification at schools. In addition, concerns were raised by Sir Mike Rake, Chairman of BT Group, Sir Terry Leahy, Chairman of Tesco[58] and by Sir Christopher Gent, Chairman of GlaxoSmithKline.[59] Some schools have also moved to offering the Cambridge Pre-U[60] as an alternative to A-levels and with higher tariffs.[61]

Burden of assessment

With increased modularisation of subjects, the amount of time that young adults are spending being examined in the UK has risen considerably. It was estimated in a report by educationalists that by the age of 19 children will have spent an entire year of their school education being assessed.[62] As a result of such criticisms about the "burden of assessment", since candidates have taken four papers for most A-levels, instead of six as in the past.[63] This means that there are two modules for AS and two more for A2 for the majority of A levels. However, this will not be the case for all A levels: Biology, Human Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Electronics, Geology, Music, Welsh and Science will continue with six units, three units for AS and A2 respectively, and 600 UMS for the A level. Mathematics (including Further Mathematics, Additional Further Mathematics, Statistics, and the Use of Mathematics AS), will not change structurally in the modular reform; it will stay on 600 UMS (300 UMS for AS), but it will include the new A* grade and the 'Stretch and Challenge' provision. Also, Bengali, Modern Hebrew, Panjabi, Polish, Arabic, Japanese, Modern Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Dutch, Gujarati, Persian, Portuguese, and Turkish will remain at two units, one for AS and one for A2.[64][65][66] However, they will move to 200 UMS for A level. Chinese will also move to 200 UMS, but instead of two units, it will move to three units: AS will have two units, A2 will have one. It is the first A level to have an odd number of units since Curriculum 2000.[67]

Cambridge University has warned that it is extremely unlikely that it will accept applicants who are taking two or more supposedly 'softer' A level subjects out of 3. It has outlined a list of subjects it considers to be 'unsuitable', which includes Accounting, Design and Technology, Film Studies, Information and Communication Technology, Media Studies, Photography, and Sports studies.[68]

As a result of dislike of the modular system, many schools now offer the alternative International Baccalaureate Diploma qualification. The course offers more subjects, extracurricular activity, a philosophical epistemological component known as "Theory of Knowledge", as well as the requirement of an extended essay on any subject of a candidate's choice. Unlike the current AS/A2 system, the International Baccalaureate is not based on a modular system. The Diploma Programme, administered by the International Baccalaureate, is a recognised pre-university educational programme.[69]

Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair recently suggested that one state school in every county should offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme as an alternative to A levels.[70][71]

Breadth of study

The A-level has been criticised for providing less breadth since many A-level students do not generally study more than three subjects in their final year.[18] A major part of this criticism is that, while a three- or four-subject curriculum can be balanced across the spectrum (e.g. students may choose one science subject (such as Maths, Chemistry, or Biology), a language subject (e.g. English Language, English Literature, French, German, Spanish), and a "creative" subject like Art Studies), in many cases students choose three closely linked subjects, for instance, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry or Sociology, Psychology, and Politics. This is in part due to university entrance requirements, which, for degree programs such as medicine, may require three related A-level subjects, but non-traditional combinations are becoming more common ("British Council Australia Education UK"). Thus, while the purpose of Curriculum 2000 was to encourage students to undertake contrasting subjects, to broaden their 'skill-base', there is a tendency to pursue similar disciplines. However, others disagree, arguing that the additional AS-level(s) studied would already have provided more breadth compared with the old system.

Predicted grading

A possible reformation would be something called the post-qualifications applications system (PQA), where applicants apply to university after they receive their results.[72] It has been argued that this would be fairer to applicants, especially those from lower-income families whose results were thought to be under-predicted. However, a more recent UCAS report shows that although the reliability of predicted grades declines in step with family income, this can still lead to an over-prediction effect for lower income groups. Just 45% of predicted grades are accurate – 47% are over-predictions and 9% under-predictions.[73] A recent UCAS consultation rejected the implementation of PQA following opposition from universities, schools and awarding bodies.[74][75]

See also


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  2. House of Commons Education and Skills Third Report, 2003 accessed 6 January 2013
  3. "THE BACKGROUND TO THE A LEVELS DEBATE". UK Parliament. UK Parliament. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  4. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/teenagers-forced-to-study-fewer-alevels-in-squeeze-on-public-spending-says-exam-boss-10446807.html
  5. See the Dearing Report and Guaranteeing standards (DfEE, 1997)
  6. See the Audit Commission/Office for Standards in Education. (1993). Unfinished business: Fulltime educational courses for 16- to 19-year-olds. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. See also Higher Education, Curriculum 2000 and the Future Reform of 14–19 Qualifications in England, Ann Hodgson, Ken Spours and Martyn Waring (Institute of Education) p.4. Retrieved 30 September 2010
  7. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140430095946/http://www.education.gov.uk/nctl/examsadmin/news/archive/a00217355/alevels
  8. http://www.edexcel.com/quals/gce/gce15/Pages/default.aspx
  9. http://www.teachingtimes.com/news/a-level-reforms.htm
  10. http://www.bbc.com/news/education-29914310
  11. http://www.bbc.com/news/education-24533511
  12. http://web.aqa.org.uk/
  13. http://www.ocr.org.uk/qualifications/by-type/as-a-level-gce/
  14. http://www.edexcel.com/quals/gce/gce08/Pages/default.aspx
  15. http://www.wjec.co.uk/index.php?subject=30&level=21
  16. http://www.rewardinglearning.org.uk/qualifications/Results.aspx?g=1&t=1&c=r&s=0&dt=0&v=0&f=0&d=a
  17. http://www.rewardinglearning.org.uk/regulation/accreditation_and_monitoring/gce_grading.asp CCEA guide on introduction of A* grade. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
  18. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/education/north-s-a-level-students-outperform-england-and-wales-1.2316305
  19. "" BBC
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  23. – EducationUK – British Council USA
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  26. ""
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