11 December 1712|
3 May 1764 (aged 51)|
Count Francesco Algarotti (11 December 1712 – 3 May 1764) was an Italian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector. He was "one of the first Esprits cavaliers of the age," a man of broad knowledge, an expert in Newtonianism, architecture and music and a friend of most of the leading authors of his times: Voltaire, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis and the atheist Julien Offray de La Mettrie. Lord Chesterfield, Thomas Gray, George Lyttelton, Thomas Hollis, Metastasio, Benedict XIV and Heinrich von Brühl were among his correspondents
Algarotti was born in Venice as the son of a rich merchant. His father and uncle were art collectors. Unlike his older brother Bonomo he did not step into the company, but decided to become an author. Francesco studied natural sciences and mathematics in Bologna under Francesco Maria Zanotti and in 1728 he experimented with optics. (Zanotti became a lifelong friend.) First he travelled in the North of Italy, but moved to Florence, and Rome. At the age of twenty, he went to Cirey and Paris, where he became friendly with Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet. Two years later he was in London, where he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. He became embroiled in a lively bisexual love-triangle with the politician John Hervey, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Algarotti left for Italy and finished his Neutonianismo per le dame ("Newtonism for Ladies"), a work on optics (1737), dedicated to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle.
In the meantime Algarotti had made acquaintance with Antiochus Kantemir, a Moldavian diplomat, poet and composer. He was invited to visit Russia for the wedding of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick. In 1739 he left with Lord Baltimore from Sheerness to Newcastle upon Tyne. Because of a heavy storm the ship sheltered in Harlingen. Algarotti was discovering "this new city". Returning from Saint Petersburg, they visited Frederick the Great in Rheinsberg. Algarotti had obligations in England and came back the year after. Then Algarotti went together with Frederick to Königsberg where he was crowned.
Frederick, who was impressed with this walking encyclopedia, made him and his brother Bonomo Prussian counts in 1740. Algarotti accompanied Frederick to Bayreuth, Kehl, Strasbourg and Moyland Castle where they met with Voltaire, who was taking baths in Kleve for his health. In 1741 Algarotti went to Turin as his diplomat. Frederick had offered him a salary, but Algarotti refused. First he went to Dresden and Venice, where he bought 21 paintings, a few by Jean-Étienne Liotard and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo for the court of Augustus III of Poland. Algarotti did not succeed to have the Kingdom of Sardinia attack Austria in the back.
Algarotti and the other arts
Algarotti's choice of works reflects the encyclopedic interests of the Neoclassic era; he was uninterested in developing a single unitary stylistic collection, he envisioned a modern museum, a catalog of styles from across the ages. For contemporary commissions, he wrote up a list for paintings he recommended commissioning, including to ask of history paintings from Tiepolo, Pittoni, and Piazzetta; scenes with animals from Castiglione, and veduta with ruins from Pannini. He wanted"suggetti graziosi e leggeri" from Balestra, Boucher, and Donato Creti. Other artist he protected were Giuseppe Nogari, Bernardo Bellotto, and Francesco Pavona.
In 1747 Algarotti went back to Potsdam and became court chamberlain, but left to visit the archeological diggings at Herculaneum. In 1749 he moved to Berlin. Algarotti was involved in finishing the architectural designs of Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff who had fallen ill. In February 1753, after several years residing in Prussia he returned to Italy, living most of the time in Bologna. In 1759 Algarotti was involved in a new opera-style in the city of Parma. He influencing Guillaume du Tillot and the Duke of Parma.
Algarotti's Essay on the Opera (1755) was a major influence on the librettist Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni and the composer Tommaso Traetta, and in the development of Gluck's reformist ideology. Algarotti proposed a heavily simplified model of opera seria, with the drama pre-eminent, instead of the music, ballet or staging. The drama itself should "delight the eyes and ears, to rouse up and to affect the hearts of an audience, without the risk of sinning against reason or common sense". Algarotti's ideas influenced both Gluck and his librettist Calzabigi, writing their Orfeo ed Euridice.
In 1762 Algarotti moved to Pisa, where he died of tuberculosis. Frederick the Great, who several times needed Algarotti writing texts in Latin, sent in a text for a monument to his memory on the Campo Santo.
- Bibliography and Inventory of all known letters at Algarotti Briefdatenbank der Universitätsbibliothek Trier (French)
- Correspondence with Frederick the Great at Digitale Ausgabe der Universitätsbibliothek Trier (French)
- Il newtonianismo per le dame, 1737. The International Centre for the History of Universities and Science (CIS), University of Bologna
- "Saggio sopra la pittura"
- "An essay on architecture" (1753).
- "Letters military and political" (1782).
- "Essai sur la durée des règnes des sept rois de Rome"
- "Essai sur l'empire des Incas"
- Algarotti, Francesco (1783). Calamo Ludimus (Translation of Treatise first published in 1744, Livorno), ed. The modern art of love; or The congress of Cythera. G. Kearsley, #46, Fleet Street, London.
- Algarotti, Francesco (1739). Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy Explained for the use of Ladies, in six dialogues on Light and Colours. (Translation; Volume I.). E. Cave, St. John's-Gate, London.
- Algarotti, Francesco (1764). Presso Marco Coltellini, Livorno, ed. Saggio sopra la pittura.
- Algarotti, Francesco (1756). Saggio del Conte Algarotti sull'Architettura e sulla Pittura. Societa Tipografica de' classici Italiani, Contrada di S. Margherita #1118, Milan, Italy.
- Algarotti, Francesco (1755). Saggio sopra L'Opera in Musica. Ex donat. Molliana.
- Algarotti tombstone on the left in neo-classical style
- Algarotti was involved in the design of the Französische Kirche in Potsdam; picture taken just after the war
- Francesco Algarotti by Giovanni Boggi, who copied a portrait by J.É. Liotard
- Eighteenth Century Bibliography. "Francesco Algarotti Bibliography". C18.com. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- In 1740 Voltaire called him the Venetian Socrates, may be his "cher cygne de Padoue" ("dear swan of Padua").
- Rictor Norton, "John, Lord Hervey: The Third Sex", The Great Queens of History. Updated 8 August 2009
- 'By the Banks of the Neva': Chapters from the Lives and Careers of the ... By Anthony Glenn Cross
- Algarotti dedicated six of the letters that made up his Viaggi di Russia to John Hervey; the others to Scipio Maffei.
- The Petrine Revolution in Russian Architecture By James Cracraft
- Walter Koschatzky (Hrsg.): Maria Theresia und ihre Zeit, p. 313. Zur 200. Wiederkehr des Todestages. Ausstellung 13. Mai bis 26. Oktober 1980, Wien, Schloß Schönbrunn. Im Auftrag der Österreichischen Bundesregierung veranstaltet vom Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Gistel, Wien 1980.
- MacDonogh, G. (1999) Frederick the Great, p. 142-145.
- The Empire of Flora by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo at Legion of Honor
- Eighteenth-century Venetian Art at Hermitage Amsterdam
- MacDonogh, G. (1999) Frederick the Great, p. 191.
- Tiepolo's Cleopatra by Jaynie Anderson
- Tiepolo's Cleopatra Door, by Jaynie Anderson, p. 109
- MacDonogh, G. (1999) Frederick the Great, p. 192.
- Orrey, p. 81
- Orrey, p. 83
- Algarotti, Conte Francesco (1764). Saggio sopra la pittura.
- Charles Harrison; Paul Wood (2001-02-08). Art in theory, 1648–1815: an anthology of changing ideas. ISBN 9780631200642.
- Cosmin Ungureanu, "Sia funzion la rappresentazione." Carlo Lodoli and the Crisis of Architecture
- letter is on Siege of Bergen op Zoom (1747).
- Artin theory, 1648–1815: an anthology of changing ideas door Charles Harrison, Paul Wood
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Algarotti, Francesco, Count". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Haskell, Francis (1993). "Chapter 14". Patrons and Painters: Art and Society in Baroque Italy. 1980. Yale University Press. pp. 347–360.
- Laura Favero Carraro. "Francesco Algarotti". The Literary Encyclopedia. Ed. Robert Clark, Emory Elliott and Janet Todd.
- MacDonogh, G. (1999) Frederick the Great. New York: St. Martin's Griffin
- Orrey, Leslie; Milnes, Rodney (1987). Opera, a concise history. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20217-6.
- Occhipinti, C. Piranesi, Mariette, Algarotti. Percorsi settecenteschi nella cultura figurativa europea. Roma, UniversItalia, 2013. ISBN 9788865074596
- Catalogo dei quadri dei disegni e dei libri che trattano dell' arte del disegno della galleria del fu Sig. conte Algarotti in Venezia (1776)
- Online books by F. Algarotti at The Online Books Page.
- Francesco Algarotti's House in Venice
- Works by or about Francesco Algarotti in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- in Tate Collection at Tate.org.uk
- How to become a renowned writer: Francesco Algarotti (1712--1764) and the uses of networking in eighteenth-century Europe by Smeall, Cheryl Lynn, Ph.D., McGill University (Canada), 2011, 449 pages; AAT NR77555
- All that glitters by Henk van Os
- Becoming a Scientist: Gender and Knowledge in Eighteenth-Century Italy by Paula Findlen
- Thomas Carlyle on Algarotti
- Rictor Norton, "John, Lord Hervey", section: "Swan of Padua".
- Francesco Algarotti (1739) Il Newtonianismo per le dame. - Linda Hall Library