Foreign relations of Panama

Panama's foreign relations are conventional in outlook, with Panama being especially aligned with United States since the 1989 US invasion to topple the regime of General Manuel Noriega. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies.

Bilateral relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada11 August 1961[1]See Canada–Panama relations
 Republic of China2 January 1922[1]

Panama established the diplomatic relationship with Qing Dynasty in 1909. After Xinhai Revolution, Panama recognized the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), and has remained the diplomatic ties with ROC until now. In 2009 after President Ricardo Martinelli took office, Panama wished to switch diplomatic relation from ROC to the People's Republic of China (PRC), but was rejected by the PRC government to maintain the peaceful development of cross-strait relations. Martinelli reaffirmed its commitment to Taiwan in the diplomatic arena, clearing doubts he could establish official ties with China; also he thanked Taiwanese cooperation and expressed the hope that cooperation and investments intensify. "Panama reaffirms its determination to strengthen diplomatic ties with Taiwan, as well as strengthen trade ties with the People's Republic of China," said Foreign Minister Juan Carlos Varela, at a meeting in the Council Taiwan Affairs Chinese.[4]

 Colombia9 July 1924[1]
 Costa Rica29 December 1903
 Honduras18 September 1907[1]
 India1 June 1962[1]See India–Panama relations

Panama is the first country in Central America where India established a resident embassy in 1973. Bilateral commercial and trade relations are steadily growing between India and Panama, with Panama seen as the gateway for expansion into Latin America. [5]

 Kosovo27 August 2013[9]

Panama officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 16 January 2009.[10] Kosovo and Panama established diplomatic relations on 27 August 2013, following the establishment of diplomatic relations Kosovo announced it would be opening an Embassy in Panama and that this Embassy would be Kosovo's 'gateway to Latin America'.[11]

 Mexico29 May 1923[1]See Mexico–Panama relations
 Nicaragua13 December 1938
22 June 1979[1]
 Russia21 November 1903[1]See Panama–Russia relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Moscow.[14]
  • Russia has an embassy in Panama city.[15]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 June 1979[1]See Panama–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations

Panama was the first Latin American country on recognizing the SADR in 1978, during the Omar Torrijos presidency.[16] Panama also has the oldest Sahrawi embassy in Latin America. Relations are suspended from 20 November 2013.

 South Korea30 September 1962[1]

Foreign relations of the Republic of Korea

 Spain10 May 1904[1]
 United States13 November 1903
3 April 1964[1]
See Panama–United States relations

The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies. Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians go to the United States for higher education and advanced training. In 2007, the U.S. and Panama partnered to launch a regional health worker training center. The center provides training to community healthcare workers in Panama and throughout Central America. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. There is also a rapidly growing enclave of American retirees in the Chiriqui Province in western Panama.

Multilateral relations

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

Panama is a member of the UN General Assembly (and most major UN agencies) and has served three terms in the UN Security Council. In November 2006 it was elected to serve a two-year term on the Security Council, beginning January 1, 2007. It maintains membership in several international financial institutions, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.

Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and was a founding member of the Rio Group. Although it was suspended from the Latin American Economic System — known informally both as the Group of Eight and the Rio Group — in 1988 due to its internal political system under Manuel Noriega, Panama was readmitted in September 1994 as an acknowledgment of its present democratic credentials.

Panama also is one of the founding members of the Union of Banana Exporting Countries and belongs to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Panama is a member of the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) as well as the Central American Integration System (SICA). Panama joined its six Central American neighbors at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in signing the Alliance for Sustainable Development known as the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA or CONCAUSA to promote sustainable economic development in the region.

Panama is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

See also


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