Foreign relations of Mongolia

Foreign relations of Mongolia
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Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 188 states. Mongolia has formal diplomatic relations with 187 UN-states, the Holy See and the European Union.[1] Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.

It seeks neutral and cordial relations with many countries including in cultural and economic matters. It has a modest number of missions abroad.

Mongolia so far has no diplomatic relations with 5 independent states: These are Botswana, Swaziland, Belize, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Botswana none
 Burkina Faso1985-10-25
 Cape Verde1975-11-19
 Central African Republic1970-06-18
 Côte d'Ivoire1986-07-06
 Democratic Republic of the Congo1975-02-04
Further information: Egypt–Mongolia relations

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964.[2] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent.[3][4] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking.[5] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife A. Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia.[6] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries.[7]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Egypt (Mongolian)

 Equatorial Guinea2014-02-21
 Libya1976-06-16Ties were established between the two nations when both had socialist governments. Mongolian delegates visited Libya in 1978, 1981, and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Libya (Mongolian)

 São Tomé and Príncipe1975-10-22
 Sierra Leone2013-09-27
 Republic of the Congo1966-12-31
 South Africa1994-05-25
 South Sudan2011-12-20
 Swaziland none
 The Gambia2011-12-22


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda2013-06-19
 Argentina1971-09-07[1]Argentina is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia does not have any representation in Argentina.
 Aruba none
 Bahamas 2016-07-11
 Barbados none
 Belize none
 Bermuda none Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
Further information: Canada–Mongolia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 30, 1973. Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa, and in 2002 opened an Honorary Consulate in Toronto. Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[9]

 Cayman Islands none Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
 Cuba1960-12-07[1] Mongolia has an embassy in Cuba.
 Costa Rica1977-06-06[1]
 Dominican Republic2010-05-27[1]
 El Salvador1999-07-14[1]
 Mexico1975-09-25[1]Mongolia is represented in Mexico via its embassy in Washington, DC, USA and through an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[11] Mexico is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea and through an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar.[12]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2016-04-12
 Saint Lucia2014-09-27
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2011-10-13[1]
 Trinidad and Tobago none
 United States1987-01-27[1]

The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. Williams, was not a resident there. Joseph E. Lake, the first resident ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Mongolia in May 1998, and Prime Minister Enkhbayar visited Washington in November 2001. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage visited Mongolia in January 2004, and President Bagabandi came to Washington for a meeting with President George W. Bush in July 2004. President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Mongolia in November 2005. It was the first ever visit of a U.S. President to Mongolia.[13][14] Defense Secretary Rumsfeld visited in October 2005 and Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert visited Mongolia in August 2005. Agriculture Secretary Johanns led a presidential delegation in July 2006 in conjunction with Mongolia's celebration of its 800th anniversary. President Enkhbayar visited the White House in October 2007 and the two Presidents signed the Millennium Challenge Compact for Mongolia.

In 2008, the IRS presented a discussion of US Federal income tax to Director General Zorig Luvsandash from the General Department of National Taxation of the Republic of Mongolia.

In August, 2011, Joe Biden made the first visit to Mongolia by a sitting U.S. vice president since Henry Wallace toured the region in 1944.[15]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and the United States (Mongolian)


East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China1949-10-16[1]

In the Post-Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation.[16] China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian exports.[17] Bilateral trade reached USD 1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006.[18] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region.[17] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources.[17][18] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[17]


Japan has been a major ally of Mongolia since the advent of democracy in 1991, and remains the largest single donor. Japanese aid and loans to Mongolia between 1991 and 2003 equal $1.2 billion, equaling 70 percent of total aid and loans.

The two countries established a cultural exchange dialogue in 1974, a trade agreement in 1990, an air relations agreement in 1993, and an investment agreement in 2003. Trade between Mongolia and Japan in the first ten months of 2004 was $83.3 million. In addition, about 500 Mongolian students study in Japan.

Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj visited Japan in 2011, and the two countries made a joint announcement regarding a strategic alliance.

In 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited Mongolia, becoming the first to do so. Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi first visited Japan in 1998. Mongolia has an embassy in Tokyo, established in 1973. Japan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

 North Korea1948-10-15[1]

Mongolia has an embassy in North Korea. Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulaanbaatar to establish a refugee camp.[19] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombyn Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects.[20]

 South Korea1990-03-26[1]

Mongolians in South Korea form the largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.. Their numbers were estimated at 33,000 as of 2008.

South Korea established an embassy in Ulaanbaatar in 1990.[21] Mongolia established its embassy in Seoul in 1991. The relationship between the two countries has been defined by the Joint Mongolia-South Korean notice made during the visit of South Korean president Kim Dae-jung to Mongolia in 1990.

 Republic of China (Taiwan)none

As the Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945, both countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have never been formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China. Until the 1990s, the Republic of China still considered Mongolia part of its territory. The Republic of China (currently on Taiwan) has not renounced claim to Mongolia as one of its provinces, primarily out of concern that such a move would be viewed as a precursor to renouncing sovereignty over all of Mainland China and Taiwan independence. In 2002 several ROC officials and government agencies passed laws and made strong statements recognizing Mongolia’s sovereignty over the area (unofficially). "Outer Mongolia" was removed from the ROC's official maps and a representative office was established in Ulaanbaatar.

Citizens of the Republic of China may travel to Mongolia using Republic of China passports (as is the case for most countries except the PRC), but Mongolian visas are stapled into (and not applied directly onto) the passport and Mongolian immigration authorities stamp the stapled visa instead of the passport. This is also the case for Hong Kong visas and entry/exit stamps.

South East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 East Timor2003-10-28[1]
 Malaysia1971-09-08[1]Mongolia has not presented any ambassador to Malaysia for seven years due to the murder of a Mongolian citizen on the country, but later decided to appointing an ambassador on 2014.[22]
 Vietnam1954-11-17[1]The two countries established diplomatic ties in 1954.[24] Mongolia has an embassy in Vietnam. The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[24] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[25]

South and Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan1962-02-01[1]In December 2013 Mongolia re-established its Embassy in Kabul.[26][27]
Further information: India-Mongolia relations

India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet bloc to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.

 Kazakhstan1992-01-22[1]Mongolia has an embassy in Astana and a Consulate General in Almaty. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

Ethnic Kazakhs make up the only significant ethnic minority in Mongolia.

 Kyrgyzstan1992-04-22[1]Mongolian president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made an official visit to Kyrgyzstan in 2012.
 Sri Lanka1962-02-01[1]

West Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 State of Palestine1988-11-22[1]
 Saudi Arabia2007-02-12[1]
 Syria1967-07-31[1]Ties were established when both countries had socialist governments. Mongolian (from the then-ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) delegates have traveled to Egypt in 1978, 1982, 1985; while Syrian (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party) delegates visited Mongolia in 1983, and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and (Mongolian)

 United Arab Emirates1996-04-01[1]


Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to receive most-favoured-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative programs and also provided loans and aid.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Belgium1971-07-08[1]The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina1993-02-24[1]
Further information: Bulgaria–Mongolia relations

Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia. Diplomatic relations between the two counties were first initiated on 22 April 1950. Due to the similar ideological situation in both countries, their relations witnessed a steady development up until the 1990s. Bilateral relations somewhat deteriorated for the next ten years. From 2001, though, they get back to a more positive track with the current Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov making an official visit to Ulaanbaatar in the summer of 2007. Until the beginning of the 1990s Bulgaria was Mongolia's 3rd biggest trading partner. Agricultural products and light industry goods were the main exports. Due to the subsequent economical and political changes in both countries the volume of trade shrank considerably. The volume of trade between Bulgaria and Mongolia totaled $2 million for 2008, with the main exporter being Bulgaria.[30]

Further information: Croatia–Mongolia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993.[31] Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.


Cyprus-Mongolia relations

  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1973.[32][33]
  • Cyprus is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China.[34]
  • Mongolia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[35]
 Czech Republic1993-01-01[1]

Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia, which were established on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind Russia. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993.[36] However, in the 1990s, trade volumes declined sharply, though the Czech Republic still accounts for about 1% of Mongolia's imports. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Ulaanbaatar was formally reopened in 1999.[37] As of 2005, annual bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at US$5 million.[38] The Czech government has also been involved in various water supply development programs in Mongolia.

 Greece1967-03-03[1]Greece is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and an honorary consulate in Athens.
 Holy See1992-04-04[1]
 Hungary1950-04-28[1]Hungary has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest
 Luxembourg1976-07-11[1]The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China).
 Monaco 2008-05-22[1]
 Netherlands1972-03-06[1]The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Breda.
 Republic of Macedonia1995-06-27[1]
Further information: Mongolia–Russia relations

Relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when Soviet Russia was the closest ally of the Mongolian People's Republic. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other republics were essential to contribute to stabilisation of the Mongolian economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination occurred because these new states were experiencing the same political and economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation[16] establishing a new basis of equality in the relationship. Mongolian President Bagabandi visited Moscow in 1999, and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Mongolia in 2000[16] in order to sign the 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration, reaffirming Mongol-Russian friendship and cooperation on numerous economic and political issues.

 San Marino2007-04-25[1]
 United Kingdom1963-01-23[1] First Western nation to establish diplomatic ties.
 European Union1989-08-01[1]
 Sovereign Military Order of Maltanone[41]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia1972-09-15[1]The Mongolian Consulate was established in Canberra in March 1997. An Embassy was established in October 2008.[42] Sükhbaataryn Batbold became the first head of government to visit Australia in 2011. Australia is represented in Mongolia through its consulate-general in Ulan Bator.[43]
 Cook Islandsnone
 Kiribati 2014-01-15[10]
 Marshall Islands2015-05-25[10]
 Federated States of Micronesia2013-12-06
 New Zealand1975-04-08[1]
 Papua New Guinea1976-06-16[1]
 Solomon Islands2011-10-13[1]

International organisation participation


Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 because repeated threats to veto by the Republic of China, who considered Mongolia to be part of its territory (see China and the United Nations).

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 "LIST OF STATES WITH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  2. "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart in Cairo". The Ulaanbaatar Post. 2004-05-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  3. "Missions Abroad". Embassy of Mongolia, Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  4. "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart". BBC. 2004-05-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  5. "Mongolia: Policemen to be trained in Egypt". Daily News, Ulaanbaatar. 2001-09-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  6. "President in Egypt". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2004-04-27.
  7. "President meets with Egyptian MFA". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2005-04-24. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  9. Nelles, Wayne (December 2000). "Mongolian-Canadian Education, Training and Research Cooperation: A Brief History, 1973-2000". Canadian and International Education. 29 (2): 91.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Metawise LLC. "Diplomatic relations of Mongolia  : : News and information about Mongolia, Mongolian language lessons". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  11. "ГХЯ". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  12. "Consulados Honorarios". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  13. "Joint Statement Between Mongolia and the United States of America". 21 November 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  14. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service Office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 57
  15. Robb, Greg, "The subtleties of Biden’s trip to Mongolia", MarketWatch, August 16, 2011, 11:10 AM EDT. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
  16. 1 2 3 Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service Office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 55
  17. 1 2 3 4 ""Pan-Mongolism" and U.S.-China-Mongolia relations". Jamestown Foundation. 2005-06-29. Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
  18. 1 2 "China breathes new life into Mongolia". Asia Times. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  19. Lee, Wonhee (6 September 2005). "Center Offers Haven For North Korean Defectors in Mongolia". Radio Free Asia.
  20. "Mongolia not planning camps for North Korea". Gulf Times, Qatar. 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  21. South Korean embassy in Ulaanbaatar
  22. "Mongolia considers re-establishing Embassy in Malaysia". English News Mongolia. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  23. "LIST OF STATES WITH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS". Mongolia Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 13 Jan 2016.
  24. 1 2 Vietnamese agency reviews Mongolia ties before president's visit. Hanoi: Vietnam News Agency. 2000-04-11.
  25. "Mongolia, Vietnam sign new cooperation document.". Financial Times. 2003-01-14.
  26. Элчин сайд О. Дамбийням Афганистаны Ерөнхийлөгчид итгэмжлэх жуух бичгээ барилаа (Mongolian)
  27. "ГХЯ". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  28. Embassy of Mongolia in Ankara
  29. "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  30. "Bulgarian MFA - Economic relations with Mongolia". Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  31. "Mongolia-Croatia". Embassy of Mongolia in Wien. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  32. of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia
  33. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
  34. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
  35. "Mongolian - Czech friendship grows with EU". The Mongol Messenger. 2005-04-17. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
  36. "Report on the Foreign Policy of the Czech Republic, 1998-1999" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic. 1999: 187–188. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
  37. "Bilateral trade turnover to be increased". Montsame. 2005-11-10. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
  38. "This web hosting account has been suspended". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  39. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Mongolia
  40. Ordine di Malta. "Bilateral relations". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  41. Embassy of Mongolia in Australia
  42. Australian consulate-general in Ulan Bator

External links

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