Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of Exxon Mobil Corporation and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
International organization participation
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan currently has diplomatic relations with 160 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Libya, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands,Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Republic of India, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.
Azerbaijan is one of the few countries with predominantly Muslim populations that shares a strategic alliance with Israel. Today, Israel is a major arms supplier to the country. (See Azerbaijan–Israel relations).
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Belarus||1992|| See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
|Bulgaria||5 June 1992||
|Croatia||26 January 1995||
|Czech Republic||29 January 1993||
|Denmark||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
|Estonia||20 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
|Greece||1992||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Hungary||1992||See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
|Italy|| See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
|Latvia||11 January 1994||
|Lithuania||27 November 1995||
|Poland||1991||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
|Romania||21 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
|Russia||4 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|Serbia||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
|Switzerland||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
|Ukraine||1919|| See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
|United Kingdom||1918||See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Burkina Faso||31 May 2004|
|Comoros||2 February 2010|
|Kenya||31 May 2004|
|Malawi||21 May 2004|
|Rwanda||31 May 2004|
|Swaziland||7 January 2010|
|Togo||29 December 2010|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Canada||1992||See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
|Grenada||23 September 2010|
|Mexico||14 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations
|Nicaragua||10 February 1994|
|Saint Lucia||11 March 2010|
|Trinidad and Tobago||2011|
|United States||1919||See Azerbaijan–United States relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus, as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. Azerbaijan, like all other countries except Turkey, formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus (with whom it has not yet established diplomatic relations), which under UN and EU law represents the entire island, but interestingly enough, the parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Cypriot North (The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but Azerbaijan backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Recently, in July 2005, Azerbaijan announced its intentions to recognize TRNC passports and to commence direct flights from Baku to Ercan Airport in the TRNC (by-passing both Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus); however, aside from a flight handled by the private company Imair in August 2005, none have taken place. Azerbaijan has become very cool towards the Turkish Cypriot North, due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
|Georgia||1918||See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
|India||1992||See Azerbaijan-India relations|
|Iran||1918||See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
|Israel||1991||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations|
|Japan||7 September 1992||
|Kazakhstan||27 August 1992||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations|
|Pakistan||1992||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|North Korea||See Foreign relations of North Korea|
|South Korea||March 23, 1992|| See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations
|Turkey||1918||See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
|United Arab Emirates||1 September 1992|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Fiji||19 March 2010|
|Marshall Islands||10 March 2010|
|Tuvalu||16 September 2009|
- Bahamas, Barbados
- Cyprus, Armenia
- Nigeria, Central African Republic, Congo, Tanzania, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, São Tomé and Príncipe
- Palau, Micronesia, Federated States of, Kiribati, Niue, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Papua New Guinea
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- the rest of states with limited recognition
The frozen conflict over the largely Armenian autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money. In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".
ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections. Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.
Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".
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- List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan
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