|Group:||Group IV ((+)ssRNA)|
Flaviviridae is a family of viruses. Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The family gets its name from the Yellow Fever virus, the type virus of Flaviviridae; flavus means yellow in Latin, and Yellow fever in turn was named because of its propensity to cause jaundice in victims. There are currently over 100 species in this family, divided among four genera. Diseases associated with this family include: hepaciviruses, hepatitis, pestiviruses, hemorrhagic syndromes, fatal mucosal disease, flavivirus, hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, and the birth defect microcephaly.
- Genus Flavivirus (type species Yellow fever virus, others include West Nile virus, Dengue Fever and Zika virus)—contains 67 identified human and animal viruses
- Genus Hepacivirus (type species Hepatitis C virus, also includes GB virus B)
- Genus Pegivirus (includes GB virus A, GB virus C, and GB virus D)
- Genus Pestivirus (type species bovine viral diarrhea virus, others include classical swine fever or hog cholera)—contains viruses infecting non-human mammals
Flaviviridae have monopartite, linear, single-stranded RNA genomes of positive polarity, 9.6 to 12.3 kilobase in length. The 5'-termini of flaviviruses carry a methylated nucleotide cap, while other members of this family are uncapped and encode an internal ribosome entry site.
Virus particles are enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical geometries, about 40–60 nm in diameter.
|Genus||Structure||Symmetry||Capsid||Genomic Arrangement||Genomic Segmentation|
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Humans and mammals serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (ticks and mosquitoes).
|Genus||Host Details||Tissue Tropism||Entry Details||Release Details||Replication Site||Assembly Site||Transmission|
|Hepacivirus||Humans||Epithelium: skin; epithelium: kidney; epithelium: intestine; epithelium: testes||Clathrin-mediated endocytosis||Secretion||Cytoplasm||Cytoplasm||Sex; blood|
|Flavivirus||Humans; mammals; mosquitoes; ticks||Epithelium: skin; epithelium: kidney; epithelium: intestine; epithelium: testes||Clathrin-mediated endocytosis||Secretion||Cytoplasm||Cytoplasm||Zoonosis; arthropod bite|
|Pestivirus||Mammals||None||Clathrin-mediated endocytosis||Secretion||Cytoplasm||Cytoplasm||Vertical: parental|
Major diseases caused by the Flaviviridae family include:
- Dengue fever
- Hepatitis C Virus Infection
- Japanese encephalitis
- Kyasanur Forest disease
- Murray Valley encephalitis
- St. Louis encephalitis
- Tick-borne encephalitis
- West Nile encephalitis
- Yellow fever
- Zika fever
- "Flaviviridae". Microbe Wiki. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Paula T, Pablo R, Eugenia V, Pablo B, Sabino P, José M, et al. (2009). "New drug targets for hepatitis C and other Flaviviridae viruses". Infect Disord Drug Targets. 9 (2): 133–47. doi:10.2174/187152609787847749. PMID 19275702.
- Flaviviridae Genomes database search results from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center
- Viralzone: Flaviviridae
- Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Flaviviridae
- "Flaviviridae". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11050.