Obsolete Finnish units of measurement
The obsolete Finnish units of measurement consist mostly of a variety of units traditionally used in Finland that are similar to those that were traditionally used in other countries and are still used in the United Kingdom (imperial units) and the United States (United States customary units).
Very few of these units are sometimes still used in everyday speech and even when buying and measuring things as shorthand for similar amounts in the metric system. For example, kappa (sometimes called isokappa) is still used at markets to measure exactly 5 liters of potatoes. When ordering firewood, some customers (and even dealers) use syli to refer to a cubic meter, but some old people use the term to refer to various much larger amounts of firewood.
The Finnish obsolete units of measurement were derived from natural actions or objects such body parts, later standardised for the purpose of commerce. Some Swedish and, later, Russian, units were also used.
The measurements were first standardized by law in 1665 and were revised in 1735. Before this, measurements often varied between towns. The king's bailiff in the town of Porvoo, for example, used two sets of measures: a big one for collecting tax in kind from the populace and a smaller set to remit the assets to the king, keeping the difference for himself. However, nowadays the proverb mitata Porvoon mitalla (to measure in Porvoo units) has a positive meaning of measuring in excess or generously.
Certain units were standardized to the metric system in 1861, and Finland fully converted to the metric system in 1880.
Length
Unit | Relative value |
Metric value |
Imperial value |
Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|
linja | ^{1}⁄_{144} | ~2.06 mm | ~0.081 in | The width of a barleycorn. Cf. barleycorn (unit). |
tuuma | ^{1}⁄_{12} | ~24.74 mm | ~0.97 in | The width of a thumb. Metrinen tuuma = 25 mm. |
vaaksa | ^{1}⁄_{2} | ~148.44 mm | ~5.84 in | The distance between the tips of little finger and thumb, when the fingers are fully extended. Today defined as 150 mm. Cf. span (unit). |
jalka | 1 | ~296.9 mm | ~11.68 in | The length of a human foot. Cf. foot (unit). |
kyynärä | 2 | ~593.76 mm | ~1.94 ft | The distance from the elbow to the fingertips. The usual unit on measuring everyday lengths. Metrinen kyynärä = 500 mm. Cf. cubit. |
syli | 6 | ~1.8 m | ~5.9 ft | Fathom; the distance between the fingertips of both hands when the arms are raised horizontally to the sides. In maritime contexts, syli is ^{1}⁄_{1,000} of nautical mile (1.852 m). |
vakomitta | 720 | ~213.6 m | ~700.78 ft | The furrow's length on field. Cf. furlong. |
virsta | 3,600 | ~1,068.84 m | ~0.66 mi | 2,672 m (Swedish) 1,068.84 m (Finnish). Related to the Russian verst. |
peninkulma (old) | 18,000 | ~5,344.2 m | ~3.32 mi | Before year 1600 5 virsta; after 1600 10 virsta. The distance a barking dog can be heard in still air. |
peninkulma (new) | 36,000 | ~10.6884 km | ~6.64 mi | Before year 1600 5 virsta; after 1600 10 virsta. The distance a barking dog can be heard in still air. |
päivämatka | 72,000 | ~20 km | ~12.42 mi | The distance of one day's travel. |
Maritime units
- meripeninkulma – 1,852 m. Same as nautical mile. One angular minute at equator.
- kaapelinmitta – 185.2 m. ^{1}⁄_{10} of a nautical mile.
- syli – 1.852 m. ^{1}⁄_{1,000} of a nautical mile. Seldom used.
- solmu – nautical miles per hour. Speed unit.
Obsolete:
- merisekunti* – 30.8666 m. ^{1}⁄_{60} of nautical mile
- meritertia* – 0.51444 m. ^{1}⁄_{3,600} of nautical mile
Area
Table of area units | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|
Unit | Relative value |
Metric value |
Imperial value |
Notes |
kannunala | ~88.15 m^{2} | ~818.91 sq ft | 1,000 square jalka. | |
kapanala | ~154 m^{2} | ~1,430.66 sq ft (158.96 sq yd) | ^{1}⁄_{32} of tynnyrinala. The area (of field) that could be sown with one bushel of grain. | |
panninala | ~2,464 m^{2} | ~22,890.56 aq ft (2,543.4 sq yd) | 16 kapanala, ^{1}⁄_{2} of tynnyrinala. The area (of field) that could be sown with one panni of grain. | |
tynnyrinala | ~4,936.5 m^{2} | ~45,860.09 sq ft (5,095.565 sq yd) | The area (of field) that could be sown with one barrel of grain. | |
äyrityisenmaa | 1 | 3,926 square kyynärä. The area which grows grain worth of one äyrityinen for taxation. | ||
äyrinmaa | 3 | 11,777 square kyynärä. The area which grows grain worth of one äyri for taxation. | ||
penninginmaa | 125 | 490,790 square kyynärä. The area which grows grain worth of one penninki for taxation. |
Volume
Dry measure
Unit | Relative value |
Metric value |
Imperial value |
Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|
jumpru | ^{1}⁄_{16} | ~81.8 ml | ~2.9 fl. oz | From Swedish jungfru, virgin. Also for liquids. |
kortteli | ^{1}⁄_{4} | ~327.15 ml | ~11.51 fl. oz. | Used for both length (14.845 cm, same as vaaksa) and volume. Name derives from Swedish kvartdel, meaning "quarter". As unit of length ^{1}⁄_{4} of kyynärä. |
tuoppi | 1 | ~1.3274 L | ~46.72 fl. oz (2.336 pt) | Literally tankard. Also for liquids. |
kannu | 2 | ~2.6172 L | ~4.61 pt | Lit. "jug". Also called pikkukappa (exactly 2.5 L). |
kappa | 4 | ~5.4961 L | 9.67 pt (4.84 qt) | Still in use (as exactly 5 liters) as kappa or isokappa at market places to measure potatoes. |
nelikko | 32 | ~43.986 L | 38.72 qt (9.68 gal.) | Used for dry measure. |
panni | 64 | ~87.96 L | 19.36 gal. | Used for dry measure. |
tynnyri | 128 | ~175 L | 38.49 gal. | Barrel for dry measure. |
lästi | 1,536 | ~2,110 L | 464.14 gal. | Used for dry measure. |
Liquid measure
Unit | Relative value |
Metric value |
Imperial value |
Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|
jumpru | ^{1}⁄_{16} | ~81.8 ml | From Swedish jungfru, virgin. | |
kortteli | ^{1}⁄_{4} | ~327.15 ml | Used for both length (14.845 cm, same as vaaksa) and volume. Name derives from Swedish kvartdel, meaning "quarter". As unit of length ^{1}⁄_{4} of kyynärä. | |
tuoppi | 1 | ~1.3274 L | Literally tankard. Used for liquids. | |
kannu | 2 | ~2.6172 L | Also called pikkukappa (exactly 2.5 L). | |
kappa | 4 | ~5.4961 L | Also for dry substances. | |
ankkuri | 30 | ~39.26 L | Used for liquid measure. | |
tynnyri | 96 | ~125.6 L | Barrel for liquid measure. | |
lästi | 1,152 | ~1,507 L | Used for liquid measure. |
Mass
Unit | Relative value |
Metric value |
Imperial value |
Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|
luoti | ^{1}⁄_{16} | ~13.95 g | The weight of a musket ball. | |
unssi | ^{1}⁄_{8} | ~27.9 g | ||
markka | 1 | ~213.8 g | Name of the Finnish monetary unit 1861–2002 | |
naula | 2 | ~425.6 g | metrinen naula = 500 g; the Imperial pound may be translated naula although pauna is exact | |
leiviskä | 40 | ~8.5004 kg | metrinen leiviskä = 10 kg | |
sentneri | 200 | ~42.56 kg | 1 Senttaali = 200 metrinen naula = 100 kg. | |
kippunta | 800 | ~170 kg |
Miscellaneous
- askel (pace) – Roughly one meter for an adult male—a rough but convenient way to measure distances while walking.
- hehto – hectoliter, 100 liters, potatoes
- kivenheitto (Throw of a rock) – 100 kyynärä (approx 50 m). Today to describe something to be very near.
- poronkusema – (approximately 7.5 km). A Sami measurement of distance; the distance a reindeer can travel before needing to stop to urinate. Today used to describe something that is at a very obscure distance away.
- Poronkusemaa kuukaudessa – (poronkusemas per month) similar to furlongs per fortnight, about 2.9 mm/s
- tusina – 12
- toltti – 12 (lumber)
- tiu – 20 (eggs)
- puntti – 20 (matchboxes)
- kerpo – 31 (lampreys; 30 as a bunch and one for tying)
- krossi – 144 (pencils)
- kiihtelys – 40 (squirrel pelts)
- riisi – 500 (paper sheets)
- tonni – 1,000 (usually refers to 1,000 kg, but can refer also anything of 1,000, especially money)
- motti – 1 m^{3} (firewood or waste paper)
See also
- Historical weights and measures
- List of obsolete units of measurement
- Petrograd Standard
- SI
- Weights and measures