Fibroblast growth factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF5 gene.[1][2][3]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified as an oncogene, which confers transforming potential when transfected into mammalian cells. Targeted disruption of the homolog of this gene in mouse resulted in the phenotype of abnormally long hair, which suggested a function as an inhibitor of hair elongation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[3]
The disruption of FGF5 expression in mammals increases the length of the anagen (growth) phase of the hair cycle, resulting in a phenotype of extremely long hair. This has been shown in many species, including cats,[4] dogs,[5] mice,[6] rabbits, sheep and goats (the so-called angora mutation)[7][8] and even elephants and mammoths.[9] FGF5 also affects the hair cycle in humans; blocking FGF5 in the human scalp (by applying a herbal extract that blocked FGF5) extends the hair cycle, resulting in less hair fall and increased hair growth.[10]


  1. Zhan X, Bates B, Hu XG, Goldfarb M (Feb 1989). "The human FGF-5 oncogene encodes a novel protein related to fibroblast growth factors". Mol Cell Biol. 8 (8): 3487–95. PMC 363586Freely accessible. PMID 3211147.
  2. Nguyen C, Roux D, Mattei MG, de Lapeyriere O, Goldfarb M, Birnbaum D, Jordan BR (Apr 1994). "The FGF-related oncogenes hst and int.2, and the bcl.1 locus are contained within one megabase in band q13 of chromosome 11, while the fgf.5 oncogene maps to 4q21". Oncogene. 3 (6): 703–8. PMID 2577873.
  3. 1 2 "Entrez Gene: FGF5 fibroblast growth factor 5".
  4. Drogemuller C.; Rufenacht S.; et al. (2007). "Mutations within the FGF5 gene are associated with hair length in cats". Anim Genet. 38 (3): 218–221. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01590.x. PMID 17433015.
  5. Cadieu E.; Neff M. W.; et al. (2009). "Coat variation in the domestic dog is governed by variants in three genes". Science. 326 (5949): 150–153. doi:10.1126/science.1177808. PMC 2897713Freely accessible. PMID 19713490.
  6. Hébert JM, Rosenquist T, Götz J, Martin GR (September 1994). "FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations". Cell. 78: 1017–25. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90276-3. PMID 7923352.
  7. Li CX, Jiang MS, Chen SY, Lai SJ (July 2008). "[Correlation analysis between single nucleotide polymorphism of FGF5 gene and wool yield in rabbits]". Yi Chuan. 30: 893–9. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1005.2008.00893. PMID 18779133.
  8. Allain D.; Renieri C. (2010). "Genetics of fibre production and fleece characteristics in small ruminants, Angora rabbit and South American camelids". Animal. 4 (9): 1472–1481. doi:10.1017/S1751731110000029. PMID 22444694.
  9. Roca A. L.; Ishida Y.; et al. (2009). "Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth". BMC Evol Biol. 9: 232. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-232. PMC 2754481Freely accessible. PMID 19747392.
  10. Maeda T.; Yamamoto T.; et al. (2007). "Sanguisorba Officinalis Root Extract Has FGF-5 Inhibitory Activity and Reduces Hair Loss by Causing Prolongation of the Anagen Period". Nishinihon Journal of Dermatology. 69 (1): 81–86. doi:10.2336/nishinihonhifu.69.81.

Further reading

  • Li K, Stewart DJ, Ward HJ (2001). "Technology evaluation: gene therapy (FGF-5), Vical". Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 1 (2): 260–5. PMID 11715949. 
  • Werner S, Roth WK, Bates B, et al. (1991). "Fibroblast growth factor 5 proto-oncogene is expressed in normal human fibroblasts and induced by serum growth factors". Oncogene. 6 (11): 2137–44. PMID 1658709. 
  • Haub O, Drucker B, Goldfarb M (1990). "Expression of the murine fibroblast growth factor 5 gene in the adult central nervous system". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (20): 8022–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.20.8022. PMC 54884Freely accessible. PMID 1700424. 
  • Bates B, Hardin J, Zhan X, et al. (1991). "Biosynthesis of human fibroblast growth factor-5". Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (4): 1840–5. PMC 359856Freely accessible. PMID 2005884. 
  • Hébert JM, Rosenquist T, Götz J, Martin GR (1994). "FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations". Cell. 78 (6): 1017–25. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90276-3. PMID 7923352. 
  • Li JJ, Huang YQ, Moscatelli D, et al. (1993). "Expression of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma tissue and derived cells". Cancer. 72 (7): 2253–9. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19931001)72:7<2253::AID-CNCR2820720732>3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 8374885. 
  • Clements DA, Wang JK, Dionne CA, Goldfarb M (1993). "Activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors by recombinant human FGF-5". Oncogene. 8 (5): 1311–6. PMID 8386828. 
  • Ornitz DM, Xu J, Colvin JS, et al. (1996). "Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (25): 15292–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.25.15292. PMID 8663044. 
  • Kitaoka T, Morse LS, Schneeberger S, et al. (1997). "Expression of FGF5 in choroidal neovascular membranes associated with ARMD". Curr. Eye Res. 16 (4): 396–9. doi:10.1076/ceyr.16.4.396.10685. PMID 9134330. 
  • Schneeberger SA, Hjelmeland LM, Tucker RP, Morse LS (1997). "Vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 5 are colocalized in vascular and avascular epiretinal membranes". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124 (4): 447–54. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(14)70861-x. PMID 9323936. 
  • Kornmann M, Ishiwata T, Beger HG, Korc M (1997). "Fibroblast growth factor-5 stimulates mitogenic signaling and is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer: evidence for autocrine and paracrine actions". Oncogene. 15 (12): 1417–24. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201307. PMID 9333017. 
  • Ozawa K, Suzuki S, Asada M, et al. (1998). "An alternatively spliced fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-5 mRNA is abundant in brain and translates into a partial agonist/antagonist for FGF-5 neurotrophic activity". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (44): 29262–71. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.44.29262. PMID 9786939. 
  • de Vries CJ, van Achterberg TA, Horrevoets AJ, et al. (2000). "Differential display identification of 40 genes with altered expression in activated human smooth muscle cells. Local expression in atherosclerotic lesions of smags, smooth muscle activation-specific genes". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (31): 23939–47. doi:10.1074/jbc.M910099199. PMID 10823842. 
  • Hanada K, Perry-Lalley DM, Ohnmacht GA, et al. (2001). "Identification of fibroblast growth factor-5 as an overexpressed antigen in multiple human adenocarcinomas". Cancer Res. 61 (14): 5511–6. PMID 11454700. 
  • Kornmann M, Lopez ME, Beger HG, Korc M (2002). "Expression of the IIIc variant of FGF receptor-1 confers mitogenic responsiveness to heparin and FGF-5 in TAKA-1 pancreatic ductal cells". Int. J. Pancreatol. 29 (2): 85–92. doi:10.1385/IJGC:29:2:085. PMID 11876253. 
  • Sieuwerts AM, Martens JW, Dorssers LC, et al. (2003). "Differential effects of fibroblast growth factors on expression of genes of the plasminogen activator and insulin-like growth factor systems by human breast fibroblasts". Thromb. Haemost. 87 (4): 674–83. PMID 12008951. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241Freely accessible. PMID 12477932. 

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