Military operations of the European Union

Since 2002, the European Union has intervened abroad[1] thirty times in three different continents.
EU soldiers within KTO Rosomak in Chad.

From 2002 until February 2014, the European Union (EU) has undertaken thirty overseas operations, using civilian and military instruments in several countries in three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), until 2009 known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Fifteen of these operations are currently ongoing, and fifteen are completed.[2][3]

The names of operations which are purely or primarily military in form, are given the prefix of either European Union Force (EUFOR), or European Union Naval Force (EUNAVFOR), for terrestrial and naval missions, respectively. EUFOR has been used four times so far: in the Republic of Macedonia from March 2003 to December 2003 as EUFOR Concordia, in Bosnia from 2004 as EUFOR Althea, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006, and in Chad and the Central African Republic since 2007. These rapid reaction forces are subordinate to the European Union Military Staff, and complements other EU military forces such as Eurocorps, the European Gendarmerie Force, European Maritime Force and EU Battlegroups.


Began Ended Name Abbreviation Location Continent Branch Strength Description
31 March 2003 15 December 2003 ? EUFOR Concordia  Republic of Macedonia Europe Army 300 soldiers
2 December 2004 Present European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina EUFOR Althea  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Army 2,503 soldiers
Military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement. It is the successor to SFOR and IFOR. The transition from SFOR to EUFOR was largely a change of name and commanders: 80% of the troops remained in place.[4] It replaced the NATO-led SFOR on 2 December 2004. This is an EU military operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a transition from the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) that was deployed to the region following the Bosnian war. Transfer of authority from SFOR to EUFOR happened on 2 December 2004.
25 April 2006 30 July 2006 ? EUFOR DR Congo  Democratic Republic of Congo Africa Army 2,500 soldiers
The acronym EUFOR was also used for a short deployment in 2006 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On 25 April 2006, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1671 (2006), authorising the temporary deployment of an EU force to support the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) during the period encompassing the elections in the DR Congo, which began on 30 July.
February 2008 15 March 2009 European Union Force Chad/CAR EUFOR Tchad/RCA  Chad,  Central African Republic Africa Army 4,300 soldiers
EUFOR also refers to the EU mission under the auspices and in the framework of MINURCAT in Chad and the Central African Republic, from late 2007 onwards.[5]
30 April 2014 March 2015 European Union Force RCA EUFOR RCA  Central African Republic Africa Army
EUFOR RCA is ongoing EU peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic.
2015 present EUNAVFOR MED Mediterranean Europe/Africa
2015 present EUTM RCA Central African Republic Africa Army
2010 present EUTM Somalia Somalia Africa
2008 present EUNAVFOR ATALANTA Somalia; Horn of Africa Africa
2013 present EUTM Mali Mali Africa

Completed operations

Began Ended Name Abbreviation Location Continent Branch Strength Description
1 January 2003 30 June 2012 European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina EUPM/BiH  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Police ?
31 March 2003 15 December 2003 European Union Military Operation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUFOR Concordia Macedonia Europe ? ?
15 December 2003 14 December 2005 European Union Police Mission in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUPOL PROXIMA/FYROM Macedonia Europe ?
16 July 2004 14 July 2005 European Union Rule of Law Mission in Georgia EUJUST THEMIS Georgia Europe ?
15 December 2005 14 June 2006 European Union Police Advisory Team in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUPAT Macedonia Europe
2015 2016 EUMAM RCA Central African Republic Africa

Ongoing operations


See also


  1. You want know more about the mission and receive news ? and Le Club
  2. European Union External Action > EU Operations
  3. Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307-325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220, p. 311.
  4. EU troops prepare for Bosnia swap BBC News, 23 October 2004
  5. EU council adopts military action in Chad, Central African Republic - People's Daily Online
  6. Missions & Operations Foreign & Commonwealth Office
  7. NATO > Current Operations and Missions
  8. Brookes Tigner, JDW 9 January 2008.
  9. EU troops one step closer to Chad deployment EU Observer 28 July 2007
  10. "EU to end Guinea-Bissau security mission". BBC News. 2 August 2010.
  11. EU
  12. European Union External Action
  13. B92 News
  14. NATO > Current Operations and Missions
  15. USEC DR Congo The Council of the European Union
  16. Council of the European Union, Note Technique: Projet "Modernisation de l'Administration des FARDC" Formation en Technologies d’Information au profit des Forces Armées de la RDC, November 2008
  17. U.S. Embassy Brussels, EU: Help Us Reform Congo's Army, 09BRUSSELS1606, 1 December 2009, via United States diplomatic cables leak
  18. Sharon Wiharta, 'Peacebuilding: the new international focus on Africa,' SIPRI Yearbook 2006, Oxford University Press, p.154.
  19. SIPRI Yearbook 2007-2011.
  20. Somalia allows military ships only from France, United States and India to enter its territorial waters.
  21. European Union Somalia Training Mission
  22. NATO > Current Operations and Missions
  23. European Union External Action > EUCAP NESTOR
  24. Global Governance Institute > Analysis of EUCAP NESTOR
  25. NATO > Current Operations and Missions
  26. European Union External Action > EUTM Mali
  27. "EU military operation in support of humanitarian assistance operations in Libya". European Union. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  28. Eupol Afghanistan. See also ISIS Europe, [ An Opportunity for Whom?]
  29. NATO > Current Missions and Operations
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