End-user development (EUD) or end-user programming (EUP) refers to activities and tools that allow end-users – people who are not professional software developers – to program computers. People who are not professional developers can use EUD tools to create or modify software artifacts (descriptions of automated behavior) and complex data objects without significant knowledge of a programming language. Various approaches exist, and it is an active research topic within the field of computer science and human-computer interaction. Examples include spreadsheets, scripting languages (particularly in an office suite or art application), and programming by example.
The most popular EUD tool is the spreadsheet. Due to their unrestricted nature, spreadsheets allow relatively un-sophisticated computer users to write programs that represent complex data models, while shielding them from the need to learn lower-level programming languages. Because of their common use in business, spreadsheet skills are among the most beneficial skills for a graduate employee to have, and are therefore the most commonly sought after In the United States of America alone, there are an estimated 13 million end user developers programming with spreadsheets
More recent research tries to bring programming closer to the needs of end users. The Programming by example (PbE) approach reduces the need for the user to learn the abstractions of a classic programming language. The user instead introduces some examples of the desired results or operations that should be performed on the data, and the PbE system infers some abstractions corresponding to a program that produces this output, which the user can refine. New data may then be introduced to the automatically created program, and the user can correct any mistakes made by the program in order to improve its definition.
There are two basic reasons why EUD has become popular. One is because organizations are facing delays on projects and using EUD can effectively cut the time of completion on a project. The second reason is that software tools are more powerful and easier to use.
Lessons learned from EUD solutions can significantly influence the software life cycles for commercial software products, in-house intranet/extranet developments and enterprise application deployments.
End-User Development can be defined as a set of methods, techniques, and tools that allow users of software systems, who are acting as non-professional software developers, at some point to create, modify or extend a software artifact.
Artifacts defined by end users may be objects describing some automated behavior or control sequence, such as database requests or grammar rules, which can be described with programming paradigms such as programming by demonstration, programming with examples, visual programming, or macro generation. They can also be parameters that choose between alternative predefined behaviors of an application. Other artifacts of end-user development may also refer to the creation of user-generated content such as annotations, which may be or not computationally interpretable (i.e. can be processed by associated automated functions).
Examples of end-user development include the creation and modification of:
- 3D models created with end-user oriented tools and approaches such as Sketchup
- Animation scripts used by graphic artists to describe characters, environments and how characters move to produce an intended animation
- Configuration files that blur the line between programs and data (e.g., email filters are sequenced lists of criteria and actions to take)
- Example-Centric Programming tools
- Arguably, contributions to open source projects where users of a software package contribute their own code for inclusion in the main package — in some cases, end-users participate as full-fledged developers
- Game modifications to introduce users' own characters, environments, etc. — many recent games are distributed with modification in mind
- Interaction scripts used in CRM call centres
- Process models used in workflow applications
- Prototypes and domain-specific programs written by businesspeople, engineers, and scientists to demonstrate or test specific theories
- Scientific models used in computer simulation
- Scripts and macros added to extend or automate office productivity suites and graphics applications.
- Simulations created using application definition software
- Simultaneous editing of many related items either through a batch process specified by the end user or by direct manipulation, like those available in the Lapis text editor and multi edit.
- Spreadsheet models, e.g., used for budgeting, risk analysis, interactive machine learning, or electronic circuit design
- Visual programming in the form of visual languages such as AgentSheets, LabVIEW, Scratch (programming language) or LEGO Mindstorms.
- End-user mobile app development tools such as App Inventor
- Web pages - plain HTML or HTML and scripting
- Wikis - a collaborative end-user development process
- Web Mashups in the form of visual languages such as Yahoo! Pipes.
- Visual query systems such as OptiqueVQS.
Cost-benefit modeling of end-user development
According to Sutcliffe, EUD essentially outsources development effort to the end user. Because there is always some effort to learn an EUD tool, the users' motivation depends on their confidence that it will empower their work, save time on the job or raise productivity. In this model, the benefits to users are initially based on marketing, demonstrations and word-of-mouth. Once the technology is put into use, experience of actual benefits becomes the key motivator.
This study defines costs as the sum of:
- Technical cost: the price of the technology and the effort to install it
- Learning cost: the time taken to understand the technology
- Development cost: the effort to develop applications using the technology
- Test and debugging cost: the time taken to verify the system
The first and second costs are incurred once during acquisition, whereas the third and fourth are incurred every time an application is developed. Benefits (which may be perceived or actual) are seen as:
- Functionality delivered by the technology
- Flexibility to respond to new requirements
- Usability of applications produced
- Overall quality of the applications produced
It’s simply unfathomable that we could expect security... from the vast majority of software applications out there when they’re written with little, if any, knowledge of generally accepted good practices such as specifying before coding, systematic testing, and so on.... How many X for Complete Idiots (where "X" is your favorite programming language) books are out there? I was initially amused by this trend, but recently I’ve become uneasy thinking about where these dabblers are applying their newfound knowledge.
This viewpoint assumes that all end users are equally naive when it comes to understanding software, although Pliskin and Shoval argue this is not the case, that sophisticated end users are capable of end-user development.
In response to this, the study of end-user software engineering has emerged. It is concerned with issues beyond end-user development, whereby end users become motivated to consider issues such as reusability, security and verifiability when developing their solutions.
An alternative scenario is that end users or their consultants employ declarative tools that support rigorous business and security rules at the expense of performance and scalability; tools created using EUD will typically have worse efficiency than those created with professional programming environments. Though separating functionality from efficiency is a valid separation of concerns, it can lead to a situation where end users will complete and document the requirements analysis and prototyping of the tool, without the involvement of business analysts. Thus, users will define the functions required before these experts have a chance to consider the limitations of a specific application or software framework. Senior management support for such end-user initiatives depends on their attitude to existing or potential vendor lock-in.
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- Second International Symposium on End User Development
- EUSES Consortium, a collaboration that researches end user computing
- The End User Development book
- The European Commission Network of Excellence on End-User Development
- Conference Series International Symposium on End-User Development