Empress Ma (Jianwen)

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ma (馬).

Empress Ma (1378–1402), formally Empress Xiaominrang (孝愍讓皇后), was the Empress Consort to Jianwen Emperor and the second Empress Consort of China's Ming Dynasty.[1]

Family background

Born in 1378, daughter of Ma Quan (馬全). She married the Crown Prince, Zhu Yunmen, grandson of Hongwu Emperor as the Crown Princess.

As Empress

After Zhu Yunmen ascended the throne in 1399, she was made Empress. She had two sons, Zhu Wenkui, Crown Prince Hejian and Zhu Wengui, Prince Huai of Run, both posthumously honored.


In 1402, Zhu Di Prince of Yan sacked Nanjing, and she committed self-immolation and died in the palace.


Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Empress Xiaocigao
Empress of China
Succeeded by
Empress Renxiaowen
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