Emperor Shang of Han

Han Shangdi (漢殤帝)
Family name:Liu (劉; liú)
Given name:Long (隆, lóng)
Posthumous name:
Xiaoshang (孝殤, xiào shāng)
literary meaning: "filial and short-lived"
Posthumous name:
Shang (殤, shāng)

Emperor Shang of Han (Chinese: 漢殤帝; pinyin: Hàn Shāng Dì; Wade–Giles: Han Shang-ti; early 105 – August or September 106) was an infant emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the fifth emperor of the Eastern Han.

The Empress Dowager Deng placed him on the throne when he was barely over 100 days old, despite his having an older brother, Liu Sheng (劉勝), whose age was unknown but was likely to be young as well.

Empress Dowager Deng also kept Liu Hu (劉祜), the twelve-year-old cousin of Shangdi and future Emperor An of Han in the capital Luoyang as insurance against the baby emperor's death. Liu Hu ascended to the throne when Emperor Shang died in August or September 106; however, Dowager Deng still remained as the regent for the teenager Emperor An. A decree by Empress Dowager Deng during this reign shed light on bureaucratic inefficiency.

Family background

Then-Prince Long was born in autumn 105 to Emperor He and a concubine whose identity is unknown. Because Emperor He had, during his reign, frequently lost sons due to illnesses in childhood, according to the superstitions of the time, both Prince Long and his older brother Prince Sheng were given to foster parents outside the palace to nurture.

When Emperor He died early 106, his wife, Empress Deng Sui, retrieved the young princes back to the palace. Prince Sheng was older but regarded as frequently ill and unfit for the throne, for Empress Deng first created the infant Prince Long crown prince. The same night, he was proclaimed emperor. Empress Deng became empress dowager.


After Emperor Shang was proclaimed emperor, his brother Prince Sheng was created the Prince of Pingyuan.

Concerned that Emperor Shang might not live long, Empress Dowager Deng also kept Liu Hu, the twelve-year old cousin of Emperor Shang and future Emperor An of Han in the capital Luoyang as insurance against the infant emperor's death. (Prince Hu was the son of Prince Qing of Qinghe—who was once a crown prince under Emperor He's father Emperor Zhang but was deposed due to machinations of Emperor Zhang's wife Empress Dou. Therefore, he was viewed by some as the rightful heir.)

As Emperor Shang was an infant, actual and formal power were in Empress Deng's hands. Her brother Deng Zhi (鄧騭) became the most powerful official in the imperial government. She issued a general pardon, which benefitted the people who had had rights stripped from them for associating with the family of Empress Dou.

Late in 106, Emperor Shang died. The officials had by this time realized that Prince Sheng, his older brother, was not as ill as originally thought, and wanted to make him emperor. However, Empress Dowager Deng was concerned that he might bear a grudge at not being made emperor before his brother, and therefore insisted on making Emperor Shang's cousin Prince Hu emperor instead, and he took the throne as Emperor An.

Emperor Shang, having died as a toddler, was not given a separate tomb, as is customary for emperors. Rather, in order to avoid unnecessary expenses, he was buried in the same tomb complex as his father Emperor He.

Era name

Personal information


    Emperor Shang of Han
    Born: 105 Died: 106
    Regnal titles
    Preceded by
    Emperor He of Han
    Emperor of China
    Eastern Han
    with Empress Dowager Deng (105–106)
    Succeeded by
    Emperor An of Han
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