|Emperor of Japan|
November 10, 765|
Awaji Island (Hyōgo)
|Burial||Awaji no misasagi (Hyōgo)|
|Spouse||Awata no Morone|
|Mother||Tagima no Yamashiro|
Emperor Junnin (淳仁天皇 Junnin-tennō, 733 – November 10, 765) was the 47th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. The seventh son of Prince Toneri and a grandson of Emperor Temmu, his reign spanned the years 758 to 764.
Before his ascension to the throne, his name (imina) was Ōi-shinnō (Ōi-no-ō). He was the seventh son of Prince Toneri, a son of Emperor Tenmu. And although his father died when he was three, he was not given any rank or office at the court. In the older Japanese documents, he is usually referred to as Haitei (廃帝), the unthroned emperor. The posthumous name of Emperor Junnin was given by Emperor Meiji a thousand years later.
Ascension and reign
In 757 the Empress Kōken, his third cousin appointed him to be her crown prince instead of Prince Funado, who had been appointed to this position in the will of the Emperor Shōmu. In the tenth year of Kōken-tennō 's reign (称徳天皇十年), on December 7, 758 (Tenpyō-shōhō 2, 1st day of the 8th month), the empress abdicated and the succession (senso) passed to her adopted son. Shortly afterwards, Emperor Jimmu is said to have ascended to the throne (sokui). In 760 (Tenpyō-hōji 4), additional coins were put into circulation—copper coins bearing the words Mannen Ten-hō, silver coins bearing the words Teihei Genhō, and gold coins bearing the words Kaiki Shōhō.
The years of Junnin's reign, 758–765, are more specifically encompassed within a single era name or nengō.Tenpyō-hōji Junnin seemingly had very little power and was a mere figurehead. In 764, six years after Empress Kōken had stepped down, the former empress reclaimed the throne during the Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion, forcing Junnin to abdicate.
Death and mausoleum
On November 10, 765 (Tenpyō-jingo 1, 23rd day of the 10th month) the former emperor died while in exile. The site of Junnin's actual grave is unknown, and he is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Awaji. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Junnin's mausoleum: It is formally named Awaji no misasagi.
Though Junnin had, technically, been emperor, he was not featured on the official List of Japanese Emperors until the late nineteenth century. In 1870, Emperor Meiji conferred the posthumous name and title by which Emperor Junnin is now known. His place in the traditional order of succession was confirmed at the same time as announcements about Emperor Kōbun and Emperor Chukyo were made public.
Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three or four men at a time, and they were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of their careers. During Junnin's reign, this group of Daijō-kan included:
- Taishi, Fujiwara Oshikatsu, also known as Emi no Oshikatsu (恵美押勝) (formerly Fujiwara no Nakamaro) (藤原仲麻呂).
- Taihō, Fujiwara Oshikatsu.
- Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Oshikatsu.
- Sadaijin, Fujiwara no Toyonari (藤原豊成).
- Udaijin, Fujiwara no Toyonari (藤原豊成).
- Naidaijin (not appointed)
Consorts and children
- Awata no Morone (粟田諸姉), widow of Fujiwara no Mayori, the first son of Fujiwara no Nakamaro
- Unknown woman
- Princess Yamao (山於女王), Saiō in Ise Shrine 758–765
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 淳仁天皇 (47)
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 59.
- Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 275; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 143-144; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 75–78., p. 75, at Google Books
- Brown, pp. 264; prior to Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long ,and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name decreased after Jomei's reign.
- Brown, p. 275, Varley, p. 143.
- Brown, p. 275.
- Titsingh, p. 75; Brown, p. 275; Varley, p. 44, 144; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have achieved senso and sokui in the same year, until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Appert, Georges et al. (1888). Ancien japon, pp. 29–30.
- Titsingh, p. 75.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420.
- Appert, Georges and Hiroji Kinoshita. (1888). Ancien japon. Tokyo: Kokubunsha. OCLC 4429674
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
|Emperor of Japan Junnin
| Succeeded by|