Elections in Hungary

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Elections in Hungary are held at two levels: general elections to elect the members of the National Assembly, and local elections to elect local authorities. European Parliament elections are also held every 5 years.

General Elections system between 1990 and 2010

The last National Assembly (Országgyűlés) elected according to the old system was elected in 2010 and had been working until 2014. The National Assembly had 386 members, elected for a four-year term. 176 members were elected in single-seat constituencies, 152 by proportional representation in multi-seat (or Regional seat) constituencies and there were 58 so-called compensation seats (or National list seats). For the latter two, an election threshold of 5% is in effect. Or in case of two parties' joint list, the threshold is 10%, in case of three or more parties: 15%.

General elections in Hungary were held in two rounds until 2010, with a second, run-off round taking place two weeks after the first. From 2014 a one-round system replaced the formerly existing system.

First round

In the first round, each voter may cast

After the polls close:

Second round

In the second round, each voter may cast

After the polls close:

Changes in the electoral system from 2012 onwards

The electoral laws were changed in 2012. The first elections to be held according to the new system were organized in 2014. The 2014 elections were held on the 6th of April. The following significant changes had been issued in the electoral system:

Minorities, that will not reach the 5% threshold (out of all minority-list votes, not out of all votes) or will not get at least one seat, will be able to send a minority spokesman to the National Assembly from 2014, who has right only to speak but not to vote. Note, that getting one seat out of the 93 is much harder for minorities, than reaching the 5% threshold out of the minority votes, because one seat means a little bit more than 1% of all the party- and minority-lists (while the 5% of the minority votes is expected much less than 1% of the total votes as there are much less than 20% minority voters). This minority spokesman solution gives the opportunity to minorities to speak in the National Assembly even if they cannot gain the approximately 1% of all votes. Practically German and Romani minorities have the chance to have MP-s, the other 13 minorities will have minority spokesman.

Nomination of candidates


On Hungarian elections citizens can vote for a party-list (or a minority-list), and in case of residing in Hungary (which is checked by showing the address card) citizens can also vote for a constituency candidate who will be responsible for the local community in the National Assembly.

Implementation of voting


In case of the 106 constituency seats, the candidate that receives the most votes (not necessarily more than 50%) in the given constituency, obtains the constituency seat and will be responsible for that local region in the National Assembly. In case of the 93 party-list seats, parties receive seats in proportion to the votes received out of all the party-list and minority-list votes. These numbers of seats obtained by the parties are calculated according to the D'Hondt method after checking out whether the party has reached the 5% threshold out of all the party-list votes and whether the minority has reached the 5% threshold out of all minority votes. If a minority-lists cannot obtain at least one seat then the first candidate on the minority-list will be minority spokesman, who has right to speak in the National Assembly but is not allowed to vote.

It is possible that the same person is a constituency candidate and a party-list candidate in the same time. If this person has obtained the seat in their constituency and would also obtain a seat because of the party-list that they are listed on then the next candidate in the party-list replaces the candidate that already has obtained a constituency seat. So for example someone being the 50th on a party-list can obtain a seat in the National Assembly even if their party has only won 30 party-list seats, if at least 20 candidates listed earlier than them win in their local constituency. (this rule has simplified as there is no county level between the constituency level and the national level)

Generally big parties place their most important (national level) politicians only on the party-lists, because these people want to deal only with national level issues (like becoming minister). They represent citizens who voted for their parties and not the citizens of their local community, which is the responsibility of those MP-s that obtain constituency seats. On the other hand, leaders of small parties usually qualify both on their party-lists and in their local constituencies because of maximizing votes; the leader of a small party might be much more famous or much more popular than an ordinary local politician of a big party.


A by-election is an election held to fill a constituency seat that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections. In case of the vacancy of a party-list seat, the next person on the list that is still interested, gets to the National Assembly.[4] This rule has not changed. Note, that by-elections from 2012 are held according to the new system, so only one round is held and no minimum turnout is needed, while the constituencies are the same until 2014.

Latest general elections

 Summary of the 6 April 2014 election to the National Assembly (Országgyűlés)
Parties and coalitions Party list Constituency Total seats
Votes % +/− Seats Votes Seats Seats +/− % +/−
FideszKDNP party alliance
Fidesz–KDNP pártszövetség
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union (Fidesz)
Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség
2,264,780 44.87 Decrease7.86 30 2,165,342 87 117 Decrease110 66.83 Decrease1.3
Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP)
Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt
7 9 16 Decrease20
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP)
Magyar Szocialista Párt
1,290,806 25.57 Increase6.27 21 1,317,879 8 29 Decrease30 19.10 Increase3.82
Together – Party for a New Era (Együtt)
Együtt – A Korszakváltók Pártja
New 2 1 3 New
Democratic Coalition (DK)
Demokratikus Koalíció
3 1 4
Dialogue for Hungary (PM)
Párbeszéd Magyarországért
1 0 1
Hungarian Liberal Party (MLP)
Magyar Liberális Párt
1 0 1
Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik)
Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom
1,020,476 20.22 Increase3.55 23 1,000,637 0 23 Decrease24 11.56 Decrease0.62
Politics Can Be Different (LMP)
Lehet Más a Politika
269,414 5.34 Decrease2.14 5 244,191 0 5 Decrease11 2.51 Decrease1.64
Hungarian Workers' Party
Magyar Munkáspárt
28,323 0.56 Increase0.45 0 12,716 0 0 Steady0 0 0
The Homeland Not For Sale Movement Party (HNEM)
A Haza Nem Eladó Mozgalom Párt
23,507 0.47 New 0 23,037 0 0 New 0 0
Alliance of Mária Seres (SMS)
Seres Mária Szövetségesei
22,219 0.44 Decrease0.45 0 20,229 0 0 Steady0 0 0
Party of Greens (Greens)
Zöldek Pártja
18,557 0.37 Increase0.37 0 9,392 0 0 Steady0 0 0
Social Democratic Hungarian Civic Party (Soc Dems)
Szociáldemokraták Magyar Polgári Pártja
15,073 0.3 Increase0.22 0 12,232 0 0 Steady0 0 0
Together 2014 Party
Együtt 2014 Párt
14,085 0.28 New 0 6,361 0 0 New 0 0
Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary (SEM)
Sportos és Egészséges Magyarországért Párt
12,563 0.25 New 0 11,746 0 0 New 0 0
Community for Social Justice People's Party (KTI)
Közösség a Társadalmi Igazságosságért Néppárt
10,969 0.22 New 0 10,551 0 0 New 0 0
Democratic Community of Welfare and Freedom (JESZ)
Jólét és Szabadság Demokratikus Közösség
9,925 0.2 New 0 13,051 0 0 New 0 0
Gypsy Party of Hungary (MCP)
Magyarországi Cigány Párt
8,810 0.17 New 0 9,030 0 0 New 0 0
Independent Smallholders Party (FKGP)
Független Kisgazdapárt
8,083 0.16 Increase0.16 0 7,175 0 0 Steady0 0 0
Unity Party (ÖP)
Összefogás Párt
6,552 0.13 Increase0.06 0 6,887 0 0 Steady0 0 0
New Dimension Party (ÚDP)
Új Dimenzió Párt
2,100 0.04 New 0 1,706 0 0 New 0 0
New Hungary Party (ÚMP)
Új Magyarország Párt
1,578 0.03 New 0 2,018 0 0 New 0 0
Others and Independent candidates 34,432 0 0 Decrease1 0 Decrease0.26
13 minority lists (needed 22,022 votes/list for a mandate) 19,543 0.38
Total (turnout 61.73% Decrease2.63pp) 5,047,363 100% 93 4,908,608 106 199 Decrease187 100%
Source: National Election Office (100.00% reporting)

Past elections

The previous general elections (2010) in the country resulted in an overwhelming majority win for the conservative opposition party Fidesz (which gained a 2/3 supermajority by winning the 68% of the seats (52.7% of the votes)), as well the dramatic rise of the far-right newcomers Jobbik (12.2% of seats, 16.7% of votes), who were just 2.5% short of the former ruling Hungarian Socialist Party (15.3% of seats, 19.3% of votes).

The green liberal, social progressivist Politics Can Be Different (4.1% of seats, 7.5% of votes) was also newcomer, while the liberal conservative formerly parliamentary Hungarian Democratic Forum (2.7% of votes) could not achieve the 5% threshold, and the formerly parliamentary (and also member of the coalition government before 2009) Alliance of Free Democrats was not able to run on the election because of the large decrease of popularity.

This election has changed the balance of power in the National Assembly of Hungary the most significantly since the end of the communist one-party system, as two brand new political forces could have got to the National Assembly while two formerly parliamentary parties fell out and the support of previous ruling party had significantly decreased (from 48.2% to 15.3% of seats, from 40.3% to 19.3% of votes).

Composition of the National Assembly since 1990

33 93 21 21 164 44 10
209 69 20 22 38 26 2
134 24 148 17 48 14 1
178 20 164 24
190 20 141 23 11 1
59 16 227 36 47 1
29 9 5 117 16 23

Figure shows the inaugural session of the terms. Later few changes can happen. For example, in 1993, the nationalist-radicalist members of MDF quit the party and founded the MIÉP which had got to the National Assembly only once in 1998. In 2011 some MSZP members quit the party led by former prime minister Ferenc Gyurcsány and founded the DK. In some instances vacancy happens. In case of the vacancy of the constituency seats by-elections must be held in the mentioned constituency, which may change the composition of the National Assembly.

Prime ministers and their governments since 1989

Parties   MSZMP / MSZP   Fidesz   MDF   Independent

# Picture Name From Until Political Party Cabinet Assembly
Miklós Németh
23 October 1989 23 May 1990 MSZP Németh
35 József Antall 23 May 1990 12 December 1993
MDF Antall
1 (1990)
36 Péter Boross
12 December 1993 21 December 1993 MDF Boross
Péter Boross 21 December 1993 15 July 1994
37 Gyula Horn 15 July 1994 8 July 1998 MSZP Horn
2 (1994)
38 Viktor Orbán 8 July 1998 27 May 2002 Fidesz Orbán I
3 (1998)
39 Péter Medgyessy 27 May 2002 29 September 2004
Independent Medgyessy
4 (2002)
40 Ferenc Gyurcsány 29 September 2004 9 June 2006 MSZP Gyurcsány I
9 June 2006 14 April 2009
Gyurcsány II
5 (2006)
41 Gordon Bajnai 14 April 2009 29 May 2010 Independent Bajnai
(38) Viktor Orbán 29 May 2010 6 June 2014 Fidesz Orbán II
6 (2010)
9 June 2014 Incumbent Orbán III
7 (2014)

1 SZDSZ left the Gyurcsány II Cabinet on 20 April 2008 and kept supporting it externally.

2 The Bajnai Cabinet was supported externally by SZDSZ.

Local elections

Elections for mayors and municipalities (Hungarian: Helyi önkormányzati választások) occur every four years in the autumn following the general elections. On the local elections, the following are elected directly by the voters:

in Budapest

in the towns/cities with county rank:

in the counties (excluding towns/cities with county rank):

The chairman of the County Council is elected by the members of the Council, unlike the Lord Mayor of Budapest or the Mayors of towns/cities with county rank, which are elected directly by people.

Latest local elections

The last but one election of local authorities took place in 2006 amidst the protests and demonstrations against the government of Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány.

Presidential elections

The President of Hungary, who has a largely ceremonial role under the country's constitution, is elected by the members of the National Assembly to serve for a term of five years (maximum two times), and has to quit their political party (if they have one) in order to be impartial and able to express the unity of the nation (so the "Political Party" column refers to their party membership, prior to becoming president).

Presidents of Hungary:

# Picture Name From Until Political party Notes
Mátyás Szűrös 18 October 1989 2 May 1990 Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) interim president

(until the formation of the first freely elected National Assembly)

1 Árpád Göncz 2 May 1990 4 August 2000 Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) president of the republic
2 Ferenc Mádl 4 August 2000 5 August 2005 Non-partisan president of the republic
3 László Sólyom 5 August 2005 6 August 2010 Non-partisan president of the republic
4 Pál Schmitt 6 August 2010 2 April 2012
Fidesz president of the republic
László Kövér 2 April 2012 10 May 2012 Fidesz acting president
5 János Áder 10 May 2012 Incumbent Fidesz president of the republic

Parties   Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP)   Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ)   Fidesz

The non-partisan Ferenc Mádl had been elected by the Fidesz-FKgp-MDF government in 2000, while the also non-partisan László Sólyom (former President of the Constitutional Court) had been elected president as the opposition Fidesz's and MDF's candidate in 2005. The minor party of the coalition government (SZDSZ) did not support the superior coalition government party's (MSZP) candidate, therefore Mr. Sólyom could win as an opposition candidate.

European Parliament elections

Since the EU expansion to Romania and Bulgaria, Hungary delegates 22 members to the European Parliament based on the Nice treaty. Any EU citizens with residence in Hungary have the right to vote for a party-list. In case of the EU elections there are no constituency votes.

The latest EP election in Hungary took place on 7 June 2009, which was the second one at all, after the 2004 EP election, which took place on 13 June 2004, bit more than a month after the EU expansion to 10 Eastern European countries.


Summary of the 2004 and 2009 European Parliament elections
Parties Votes 2004 % 2004 Seats 2004 Votes 2009 % 2009 Seats 2009 Difference
National Party European party
Fidesz - Hungarian Civic Union (Fidesz)[5] EPP 1,457,750 47.40 12 1,632,309 56,36 14 +2
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) PES 1,054,921 34.30 9 503,140 17,37 4 -5
Jobbik none did not run - - 427,773 14,77 3 +3
Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) ECR 164,025 5.33 1 153,660 5.31 1 0
Politics Can Be Different (LMP)[6] none did not exist - - 75,522 2.61 0 -
Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) ELDR 237,908 7.74 2 62,527 2.16 0 -2
Hungarian Communist Workers' Party (Munkáspárt) none[7] 56,221 1.83 0 27,817 0.96 0 0
Gypsy Alliance Party (MCF) none did not run - - 13,431 0.46 0 -
Total (turnout 36,31%)[8] 3,075,450 100.0 24 2,896,179 100.0 22
Source: Valasztas.hu


The Constitution of Hungary prescribes two ways to hold a referendum (Article 8[9]):

The Constitution imposes a number of prohibitions on matters on which a referendum can be held, including amending Constitution, budget, taxing, obligations from international agreements, military operations, etc.[9]

Required voter turnout for the referendum to be valid is 50%. The decision made by a referendum is binding on the Parliament.[9]

Past referendums

There was one referendum in People's Republic of Hungary: referendum of 1989. There were 4 questions, all 4 passed.

There were 5 referendums in modern Hungary:

See also



    1. "Az új választókerületek népesség-arányai".
    2. "Under pressure, Hungary PM drops contested voting rules". Reuters. 4 January 2013.
    3. "Hungarian voter registration found unconstitutional".
    4. "10. A megüresedett mandátum betöltése". Nemzeti Választási Iroda - (in Hungarian).
    5. Common list with the Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) in the 2009 election
    6. Common list with the Humanist Party (HP)
    7. The Hungarian Communist Workers' Party left the European Left in May
    8. In the previous election in 2004 turnout was 38.5%
    9. 1 2 3 "The Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-02.

    External links

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