Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

Central and Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies
LocationSoviet Union, Soviet-occupied Central Europe and Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe
Result Anti-Communist partisans defeated
 Soviet Union
People's Republic of Albania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
Czechoslovak Republic
 East Germany
People's Republic of Hungary
People's Republic of Poland
Romanian People's Republic
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Romanian Partisans
Baltic Partisans
Polish Partisans
Ukrainian Partisans
Hungarian Revolutionaries
Bulgarian Partisans
Croatian Partisans
Albanian Partisans
Serbian Partisans
Slovenian Partisans
Moldovian Partisans
Belarusian Partisans

The Central and Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies fought on after the official end of the Second World War against the Soviet Union and the communist states formed under Soviet occupation and support.

Prominent movements include:

In Poland

The 'cursed soldiers' (Polish: Żołnierze wyklęci) is a name applied to a variety of Polish resistance movements that were formed in the later stages of World War II and afterwards. Created by former members of the Polish underground resistance organizations of World War II, these organizations continued the struggle against the pro-Soviet government of Poland well into the 1950s.

Most of these anti-communist groups ceased operations in the late 1940s or 1950s. However, the last known 'cursed soldier', Józef Franczak, was killed in an ambush as late as 1963, almost 20 years after the Soviet take-over of Poland.[1]

In the Baltic States

Ants Kaljurand, Estonian resistance fighter for the Forest Brothers

The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; Estonian: metsavennad, Latvian: meža brāļi, Lithuanian: miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II.[2] The Soviet Army occupied the independent Baltic states in 1940–1941 and, after a period of German occupation, again in 1944–1945. As Stalinist repression intensified over the following years, 50,000 residents of these countries used the heavily forested countryside as a natural refuge and base for armed anti-Soviet resistance.

Resistance units varied in size and composition, ranging from individually operating guerrillas, armed primarily for self-defense, to large and well-organized groups able to engage significant Soviet forces in battle.

Ion Gavrila Ogoranu, leader of Fagaras resistance movement

In Romania

An armed resistance movement against the communist regime in Romania was active from the late 40s to the mid-50s, with isolated individual fighters remaining at large until the early 1960s. The groups were concentrated in the Carpathian Mountains, although a resistance movement had also developed in Northern Dobruja. Armed resistance was the most structured form of resistance against the communist regime. After the overthrow of Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1989, the details about what was called “anti-communist armed resistance” were made public, thanks to the desecretization of the Securitate archives.[3]

See also


  1. „Lalek” ostatni partyzant Rzeczypospolitej
  2. Buttar, Prit (2013). Between Giants, the Battle for the Baltics in World War II. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781780961637.
  3. Ion Gavrilă Ogoranu, Brazii se frâng dar nu se îndoiesc, vol II, Editura Marineasa, Timișoara, 2001
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