In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent[1]) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two. Valency is the number of chemical bonds formed, which may be covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.


Water Hardness

Main article: Water hardness

The divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to the properties of water that cause it to be hard, such as the formation of limescale.[2]

See also


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