| Other names
|3D model (Jmol)|| Interactive image|
|Molar mass||103.12 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||178 to 182 °C (352 to 360 °F; 451 to 455 K)|
|Boiling point||175.2 °C (347.4 °F; 448.3 K)|
|GHS signal word||WARNING|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|>650 mg kg−1 (oral, rat)|
Related alkanoic acids
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Dimethylglycine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine with the structural formula (CH3)2NCH2COOH. It can be found in beans and liver. It can be formed from trimethylglycine upon the loss of one of its methyl groups. It is also a byproduct of the metabolism of choline.
When DMG was first discovered, it was referred to as Vitamin B16, but, unlike true B vitamins, deficiency of DMG in the diet does not lead to any ill-effects and it is synthesized by the human body in the citric acid (or Krebs) cycle meaning it does not meet the definition of a vitamin.
Dimethylglycine has been suggested for use as an athletic performance enhancer, immunostimulant, and a treatment for autism, epilepsy, or mitochondrial disease. Published studies on the subject have shown little to no difference between DMG treatment and placebo in autism spectrum disorders.
This compound is commercially available as the free form amino acid, and as the hydrochloride salt [2491-06-7 ]. DMG may be prepared by the alkylation of glycine via the Eschweiler–Clarke reaction. In this reaction, glycine is treated with aqueous formaldehyde in formic acid that serves as both solvent and reductant. Hydrochloric acid is added thereafter to give the hydrochloride salt. The free amino acid may been obtained by neutralization of the acid salt, which has been performed with silver oxide.
- H2NCH2COOH + 2 CH2O + 2 HCOOH → (CH3)2NCH2COOH + 2 CO2 + 2 H2O
- "dimethylglycine - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "Dimethylglycine". About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products. Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. December 8, 2009.
- Chinnery P, Majamaa K, Turnbull D, Thorburn D (2006). Chinnery, PF, ed. "Treatment for mitochondrial disorders". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (1): CD004426. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004426.pub2. PMID 16437486.
- Bolman WM, Richmond JA (June 1999). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial of low-dose dimethylglycine in patients with autistic disorder". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 29 (3): 191–4. doi:10.1023/A:1023023820671. PMID 10425581.
- Kern JK, Miller VS, Cauller PL, Kendall PR, Mehta PJ, Dodd M (March 2001). "Effectiveness of N,N-dimethylglycine in autism and pervasive developmental disorder". Journal of Child Neurology. 16 (3): 169–73. doi:10.1177/088307380101600303. PMID 11305684.
- Lin, Jen-Cheng; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien (2016). "N,N-dimethylglycine differentially modulates psychotomimetic and antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in mice". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 71: 7–13. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2016.06.002. ISSN 0278-5846.
- Clarke, H. T.; Gillespie, H. B.; Weisshaus, S. Z. (1933). "The Action of Formaldehyde on Amines and Amino Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 55 (11): 4571. doi:10.1021/ja01338a041.