Demography of England
The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources, estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably.
The population at the time of the 2011 census was 53,012,456
- Male: 26,069,148
- Female: 26,943,308
- Total: 53,012,456
- Total Fertility Rate: 1.97 (higher than Germany – 1.42 & Italy – 1.40, lower than France – 2.02)
Place of birth
Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows:
|Country of birth||2001||2011|
|United Kingdom UK not otherwise specified||6,499||0.01%|
|EU EU Member Countries||695,045||1.41%||1,980,259||3.73%|
|EU Other EU Member Countries (joined pre 2001)||894,908||1.69%|
|EU Other EU Member Countries (joined post 2001)||1,085,351||2.04%|
|UN Other Countries||3,396,116||6.91%||4,961,698||9.36%|
|Country of birth||Estimated population, 2013||Estimated population, 2014||Estimated population, 2015|
|Republic of Ireland||315,000||317,000||318,000|
| Ages attained
|Population|| % of total
| % per year|
of age band
- January 2001 – December 2003
- Males: 76.24 years
- Females: 80.72 years
- January 2002 – December 2004
- Males: 76.55 years
- Females: 80.91 years
- January 2003 – December 2005
- Males: 76.92 years
- Females: 81.14 years
The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups:
|Ethnic group|| 2001|
|White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy||54,895||0.1|
|Asian or Asian British: Indian||1,028,546||2.1||1,395,702||2.6|
|Asian or Asian British: Pakistani||706,539||1.4||1,112,282||2.1|
|Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi||275,394||0.6||436,514||0.8|
|Asian or Asian British: Chinese||220,681||0.5||379,502||0.7|
|Asian or Asian British: Asian Other||237,810||0.5||819,403||1.6|
|Asian or Asian British: Total||2,468,970||5.1||4,143,403||
|Black or Black British: Caribbean||561,246||1.1||591,016||1.1|
|Black or Black British: African||475,938||1.0||977,741||1.8|
|Black or Black British: Other||95,324||0.2||277,857||0.5|
|Black or Black British: Total||1,132,508||2.3||1,846,614||
|Mixed: White and Caribbean||231,424||0.5||415,616||0.8|
|Mixed: White and African||76,498||0.2||161,550||0.3|
|Mixed: White and Asian Other||184,014||0.4||332,708||0.6|
|Mixed: Other Mixed||151,437||0.3||283,005||0.3|
|British Mixed: Total||643,373||1.4||1,192,879||
|Other: Any other ethnic group||214,619||0.4||327,433||0.6|
Notes for table above
- New category created for the 2011 census
- In 2001, listed under the 'Chinese or other ethnic group' heading.
- New category created for the 2011 census
- Source: 2001 Census KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for local Authorities and 2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales.
|Rank||Language||Usual residents aged 3+||Proportion|
|5||Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya)||216,196||0.42%|
Respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses gave their religions as follows:
|Religion not stated||3,776,515||7.69%||3,804,104||7.18%|
- Demography of the United Kingdom
- Demography of Scotland
- Demography of Wales
- Demography of Northern Ireland
- Demography of London
- Demography of Birmingham
- Demography of Greater Manchester
- United Kingdom Census 2011
- National Statistics Socio-economic Classification
- Census 2001 Ethnic Codes
- Lists of UK locations with large ethnic minority populations
- List of English districts by population
- List of urban areas in England by population
- List of towns and cities in England by historical population
- "2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "National Statistics Online – Live births". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- Prior, Francis (2004). BC Life in Britain and Ireland Before the Romans. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0007126934.
- S. Broadberry et al (2010), "English Medieval Population: Reconciling Time Series and Cross Sectional Evidence", Table 7 (Preprint, p.22); S. Broadberry et al (2010), "British Economic Growth 1270–1870", Table 18 (Preprint, p. 54); see also S. Broadberry et al (2015), British Economic Growth 1270–1870, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1107070783, Chapter 1, and Table 5.06, pg 205
See also B. Campbell (1990), "People and Land in the Middle Ages, 1066–1500", in Robert A. Dodgshon and Robin A. Butlin (eds), Historical Geography of England and Wales, 2nd edition. Elsevier. ISBN 1483288412, pp. 69–122 for discussion of drivers and trends underlying the numbers.
- Wrigley and Schofield, "The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A reconstruction.", Harvard University Press, 1981, Table 7.8, pgs. 208-9,
- At the time of the first census. Census officials estimated that there had been an increase of 77% in the preceding 100 years. In each county women were in the majority. Notes for 1801 taken from Kent 1800–1899 – A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century Bob Ogley (Froglets Publications 2003) ISBN 1-872337-51-1. Wrigley and Schofield estimate 8,664,000 based on birth and death records.]
- Vision of Britain a population through time England, Retrieved 9 August 2013
- 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011 (PDF), ONS, 12 December 2011, retrieved 9 August 2013
- Census 2001 Key Statistics – Local Authorities KS05 Country of birth, Accessed 6 September 2014
- 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012
- "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth, January 2014 to December 2014". Office for National Statistics. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016. Figures given are the central estimates. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
- UK Statistics (27 March 2011). "2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries". UK Statistics. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Neighbourhood Statistics. "Life Expectancy at Birth for City of London, London, England". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- "View:England". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- National Statistics
- Populstat population figure site – main source for 1801–1991
- Genealogical documents
- England map by county population