Dalit Panthers

Dalit Panthers
दलित पैंथर
Leader Arun Kamble, Raja Dhale[1]
Bappusaheb Bhosale
Founder Namdeo Dhasal
J V Pawar
Founded 29 May 1972 [2]
Succeeded by Dalit Panthers of India
Ideology Dalit Socialism
Party flag

Dalit Panthers is a revolutionary anti-caste organization, founded by Namdeo Dhasal and J V Pawar on 29 May 1972 in Maharashta.[2][3] Later on many dalit activists joined this organization, but Namdeo Dhasal,[4] Raja Dhale,[5] J V Pawar and Arun Kamble were the original leaders of Dalit Panther, which saw its heyday in the 1970s and through the 1980s.


Untouchability is the most violent form of exploitation on the surface of the earth, which survives the ever changing forms of power structure. Today it is necessary to seek its soil, its root causes. If we understand them , we can definitely strike at the heart of exploitation. The oppression of dalits still exists despite the lives and work of our two great leaders--Jyotiba Phule and Babasaheb Ambedkar. It is not only alive, it is stronger. Hence, unless we understand and give shape to the revolutionary content latent in the downtrodden lives of the Untouchables, not a single individual seeking a social revolution would be able to remain alive in India. ... The Dalit is no longer merely an untouchable outside the village walls and the scriptures. He is an untouchable, and he is a Dalit, but he is also a worker, a landless labourer, a proletarian. And unless we strengthen this growing revolutionary unity of the many with all our efforts, our existence has no future.

"Dalit Panthers' Manifesto" in The Exercise of Freedom: An Introduction to Dalit Writing, Ed. Satyanarayana and Tharu

Dalit Panthers is inspired by Black Panther Party, a revolutionary movement amongst African-Americans, which emerged in the United States and functioned from 1966-1982. The initiative to form the Dalit Panther Movement was taken up by Namdeo Dhasal at Mumbai.The name of the organization was borrowed from the 'Black Panther' Movement of the USA. They called themselves "Panthers" because they were supposed to fight for their rights like panthers, and not get suppressed by the strength and might of their oppressors.

The US Black Panther Party always acknowledged and supported the Dalit Panther Party through the US Black Panther Newspaper which circulated weekly throughout the world from 1967-1980.

Its organization was modeled after the Black Panther. The members were young men belonging to Neo-Buddhists and Scheduled Castes. Most of the leaders were literary figures whose age ranged between 20 to 30 and academic qualifications ranged from Non-matric to M.A. The controversy over the article "Kala Swatantrya Din" (Black Independence Day) by Dhale which was published in "Sadhana" (Special issue of the 15 August 1972) created a great sensation and publicised the Dalit Panthers through Maharashtra. The Panther's full support to Dhale during this controversy brought Dhale into the movement and made him a prominent leader. With the publicity of this issue through the media, Panther branches sprang up spontaneously in many parts of Maharashtra.

The Dalit Panther emerged to fill the vacuum created in Dalit politics of Maharashtra with the Republican Party of India founded by Ambedkar splitting into many factions. The Dalit Panthers led to a renaissance in Marathi literature and arts. They advocated and practised radical politics outside the framework of both parliamentary and Marxist–Leninist politics, fusing Ambedkar, Phule and Marx. Crucially, the Dalit Panthers helped popularise the term 'Dalit' to refer to untouchable communities. Their influence was strongly felt in Karnataka and many other states. This manifesto issued in 1973 combines the Ambedkarite spirit with a broader Marxist framework and heralds the rise of autonomous Dalit perspective in post-Independence India.[6]

The Dalit Panther movement was a radical departure from earlier Dalit movements. Its initial thrust on militancy through the use of rustic arms and threats, gave the movement a revolutionary coloration.


Namantar Andolan

See also

Further reading


  1. "The Dalit Panther's first leap". Indian Express. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  2. 1 2 Rajawat, p. 325
  3. Michael, S. M. (2007). Dalits in modern India: vision and values. SAGE. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-7619-3571-1. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
  4. "Namdeo Dhasal, Maharashtra's firebrand Dalit poet and founder of Dalit Panthers Party, dies at 64 : India, News". India Today. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  5. "Dalit Panther founder launches new body". The Times of India. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  6. Satyanarayana and Tharu (2013). The Exercise of Freedom: An Introduction to Dalit Writing. New Delhi: Navayana. p. 55. ISBN 9788189059613.
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