Cultural policies of the European Union
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European Union culture policies aim to address and promote the cultural dimension of European integration through relevant legislation and government funding. These policies support the development of cultural activity, education or research conducted by private companies, NGO's and individual initiatives based in the EU working in the fields of cinema and audiovisual, publishing, music and crafts.
The European Commission runs Culture Programme (2007-2013), and the EU funds other cultural bodies such as the European Cultural Month, the Media Programme, the European Union Youth Orchestra and the European Capital of Culture programme.
The EU awards grants to cultural projects (233 in 2004) and has launched a web portal dedicated to Europe and Culture, responding to the European Council's expressed desire to see the Commission and the member states "promote the networking of cultural information to enable all citizens to access European cultural content by advanced technological means."
History and development
However, specific EU policy on cultural cooperation began between member states since its inclusion in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty.
Structure and strategies adopted
Institutions and bodies
The most important EU institutions through which decisions are made regarding cultural policies are:
- the European Commission acting in the areas of culture, sport and languages,
- the Committee on Culture and Education of the European Parliament,
- the Education, Youth and Culture sector of the Council of the European Union,
- and the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency of the European Commission.
List of institutions and bodies
The EU promotes cultural development through numerous institutions such as:
- Cinema of Europe
- Committee on Culture and Education
- Directorate-General for Education and Culture
- Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
- Europa Nostra
- European Audiovisual Observatory
- European Commission
- European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth
- European Film Promotion
- European Institute of Cultural Routes
- European League of Institutes of the Arts
- European Network of Information Centres
- European Union National Institutes for Culture
- European Union Youth Orchestra
- Union of the Theatres of Europe
List of programmes
The EU promotes cultural development through numerous programmes such as:
- Culture 2000
- Erasmus Mundus
- Erasmus Programme
- Europa coin programme
- European Capital of Culture
- European Cultural Month
- European Cultural Route
- European Heritage Days
- European Library
- MEDIA Programme
- Protected areas of the European Union
- Video Active
List of awards
The EU promotes cultural development through the policy of awards:
- Aristeion Prize
- Civis media prize
- Europe Book Prize
- European Border Breakers Award
- European Inventor of the Year
- European IST Grand Prize
- European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture
- European Union Prize for Literature
- Lux Prize
- Young European of the Year
List of non-EU cultural institutions, bodies and programmes
The following is a list of European institutions, bodies and programmes which may be thought to be related to the EU/EU policy, but are not:
- Council of Europe
- Compendium of cultural policies and trends in Europe
- European Broadcasting Union
- European Cultural Foundation
- European Dancehouse Network
- European Film Academy
- European Museum Forum
- University Network of the European Capitals of Culture
Policies by sector
Arts and Culture
The European Commission runs the EU's Culture Programme, which typically runs in 7 year intervals. The last Culture Programme was called Culture 2000. For the next Culture Programme (2007-2013) was spent €400 million. Current program is called "Creative Europe" (2014-2020).
Sport is largely the domain of the member states, with the EU mostly playing an indirect role. Recently the EU launched an anti-doping convention. The role of the EU might increase in the future, if (for example) the Treaty of Lisbon were to be ratified by all member states. Other policies of the EU have affected sports, such as the freedom of employment which was at the core of the Bosman ruling, which prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with EU nationality.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union. They include the 23 official languages of the European Union plus many others. EU policy is to encourage all its citizens to be multilingual; specifically, it encourages them to be able to speak two languages in addition to their mother tongue. The reason for this is not only to promote easier communication between Europeans, but also to encourage greater tolerance and respect for diversity. A number of EU funding programmes actively promote language learning and linguistic diversity. The content of educational systems remains the responsibility of individual Member States. Further information can be found at language policy.
Impact of cultural policies
Expansion of the European Union
- Bologna Process
- Cultural policy
- Culture of Europe
- Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
- European Communities
- Greater Region
- Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013
- Religion in the European Union
- Trans-cultural diffusion
- Schindler, Joerg Michael. "Culture, Politics and Europe: en route to Culture-Related Impact Assessment" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "European Commission - Culture". Ec.europa.eu. 2010-07-07. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Cultural heritage as a vehicle of cultural identity". philatelism.com. 2007-07-05. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- "Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe". Culturalpolicies.net. 1949-05-05. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Bozoki, Andras. "Cultural Policy and Politics in the European Union" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "European Commission Website". Ec.europa.eu. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "EU Prize for Literature website". Euprizeliterature.eu. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "European Commission Website". Ec.europa.eu. 2010-07-07. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Goldirova, Renata (2007-07-11). "Brussels' first-ever move into sport area set to spark controversy". EU Observer. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Fordyce, Tom (2007-07-11). "10 years since Bosman". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Language and culture section, euractiv.com
- Europe of cultures 50 years of artistic creation and cultural life from the 27 countries of the European Union with Ina
- EU Culture Portal (archived)
- Euronews - Culture
- Bocholier, Emöke. "Creative Europe Programme: renewing support to the cultural and creative sectors" (PDF). Library Briefing. Library of the European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
Gielen, P. (2015) No Culture, No Europe. On the Foundation of Politics. Valiz: Amsterdam.