Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism
Electromagnetism 


The covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism refers to ways of writing the laws of classical electromagnetism (in particular, Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force) in a form that is manifestly invariant under Lorentz transformations, in the formalism of special relativity using rectilinear inertial coordinate systems. These expressions both make it simple to prove that the laws of classical electromagnetism take the same form in any inertial coordinate system, and also provide a way to translate the fields and forces from one frame to another. However, this is not as general as Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime or nonrectilinear coordinate systems.
This article uses the classical treatment of tensors and Einstein summation convention throughout and the Minkowski metric has the form diag (+1, −1, −1, −1). Where the equations are specified as holding in a vacuum, one could instead regard them as the formulation of Maxwell's equations in terms of total charge and current.
For a more general overview of the relationships between classical electromagnetism and special relativity, including various conceptual implications of this picture, see Classical electromagnetism and special relativity.
Covariant objects
Preliminary 4vectors
Lorentz tensors of the following kinds may be used in this article to describe bodies or particles:
 where γ(u) is the Lorentz factor at the 3velocity u.
 where is 3momentum, is the kinetic energy, and is rest mass.
 The d'Alembertian operator is denoted: .
The signs in the following tensor analysis depend on the convention used for the metric tensor. The convention used here is +, corresponding to the Minkowski metric tensor:
Electromagnetic tensor
The electromagnetic tensor is the combination of the electric and magnetic fields into a covariant antisymmetric tensor whose entries are Bfield quantities. ^{[1]}
and the result of raising its indices is
where E is the electric field, B the magnetic field, and c the speed of light.
Fourcurrent
The fourcurrent is the contravariant fourvector which combines electric current density j and electric charge density ρ.
Fourpotential
The electromagnetic fourpotential is a covariant fourvector containing the electric potential (also called the scalar potential) ϕ and magnetic vector potential (or vector potential) a, as follows:
The differential of the electromagnetic potential is
Electromagnetic stress–energy tensor
The electromagnetic stress–energy tensor can be interpreted as the flux density of the momentum 4vector, and is a contravariant symmetric tensor that is the contribution of the electromagnetic fields to the overall stress–energy tensor:
where ε_{0} is the electric permittivity of vacuum, μ_{0} is the magnetic permeability of vacuum, the Poynting vector is
and the Maxwell stress tensor is given by
The electromagnetic field tensor F constructs the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor T by the equation:
where η is the Minkowski metric tensor. Notice that we use the fact that
which is predicted by Maxwell's equations.
Maxwell's equations in vacuo
In vacuo (or for the microscopic equations, not including macroscopic material descriptions), Maxwell's equations can be written as two tensor equations.
The two inhomogeneous Maxwell's equations, Gauss's Law and Ampère's law (with Maxwell's correction) combine into (with +−−− metric):^{[2]}
while the homogeneous equations – Faraday's law of induction and Gauss's law for magnetism combine to form:
where F^{αβ} is the electromagnetic tensor, J^{α} is the 4current, ε^{αβγδ} is the LeviCivita symbol, and the indices behave according to the Einstein summation convention.
The first tensor equation corresponds to four scalar equations, one for each value of β. The second tensor equation actually corresponds to 4^{3} = 64 different scalar equations, but only four of these are independent. Using the antisymmetry of the electromagnetic field one can either reduce to an identity (0 = 0) or render redundant all the equations except for those with λ, μ, ν = either 1,2,3 or 2,3,0 or 3,0,1 or 0,1,2.
Using the antisymmetric tensor notation and comma notation for the partial derivative (see Ricci calculus), the second equation can also be written more compactly as:
In the absence of sources, Maxwell's equations reduce to:
which is an electromagnetic wave equation in the field strength tensor.
Maxwell's equations in the Lorenz gauge
The Lorenz gauge condition is a Lorentzinvariant gauge condition. (This can be contrasted with other gauge conditions such as the Coulomb gauge; if it holds in one inertial frame it will generally not hold in any other.) It is expressed in terms of the fourpotential as follows:
In the Lorenz gauge, the microscopic Maxwell's equations can be written as:
Lorentz force
Charged particle
Electromagnetic (EM) fields affect the motion of electrically charged matter: due to the Lorentz force. In this way, EM fields can be detected (with applications in particle physics, and natural occurrences such as in aurorae). In relativistic form, the Lorentz force uses the field strength tensor as follows.^{[3]}
Expressed in terms of coordinate time t, it is:
where p_{α} is the fourmomentum, q is the charge, and x^{β} is the position.
In the comoving reference frame, this yields the 4force
where u^{β} is the fourvelocity, and τ is the particle's proper time, which is related to coordinate time by dt = γdτ.
Charge continuum
The density of force due to electromagnetism, whose spatial part is the Lorentz force, is given by
and is related to the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor by
Conservation laws
Electric charge
The continuity equation:
expresses charge conservation.
Electromagnetic energy–momentum
Using the Maxwell equations, one can see that the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor (defined above) satisfies the following differential equation, relating it to the electromagnetic tensor and the current fourvector
or
which expresses the conservation of linear momentum and energy by electromagnetic interactions.
Covariant objects in matter
Free and bound 4currents
In order to solve the equations of electromagnetism given here, it is necessary to add information about how to calculate the electric current, J^{ν} Frequently, it is convenient to separate the current into two parts, the free current and the bound current, which are modeled by different equations;
where
Maxwell's macroscopic equations have been used, in addition the definitions of the electric displacement D and the magnetic intensity H:
where M is the magnetization and P the electric polarization.
Magnetizationpolarization tensor
The bound current is derived from the P and M fields which form an antisymmetric contravariant magnetizationpolarization tensor ^{[1]}
which determines the bound current
Electric displacement tensor
If this is combined with F^{μν} we get the antisymmetric contravariant electromagnetic displacement tensor which combines the D and H fields as follows:
The three field tensors are related by:
which is equivalent to the definitions of the D and H fields given above.
Maxwell's equations in matter
The result is that Ampère's law,
 ,
and Gauss's law,
 ,
combine into one equation:
The bound current and free current as defined above are automatically and separately conserved
Constitutive equations
Vacuum
In a vacuum, the constitutive relations between the field tensor and displacement tensor are:
Antisymmetry reduces these 16 equations to just six independent equations. Because it is usual to define F^{μν} by
the constitutive equations may, in a vacuum, be combined with GaussAmpère law to get:
The electromagnetic stress–energy tensor in terms of the displacement is:
where δ_{α}^{π} is the Kronecker delta. When the upper index is lowered with η, it becomes symmetric and is part of the source of the gravitational field.
Linear, nondispersive matter
Thus we have reduced the problem of modeling the current, J^{ν} to two (hopefully) easier problems — modeling the free current, J^{ν}_{free} and modeling the magnetization and polarization, . For example, in the simplest materials at low frequencies, one has
where one is in the instantaneously comoving inertial frame of the material, σ is its electrical conductivity, χ_{e} is its electric susceptibility, and χ_{m} is its magnetic susceptibility.
The constitutive relations between the and F tensors, proposed by Minkowski for a linear materials (that is, E is proportional to D and B proportional to H), are:^{[4]}
where u is the 4velocity of material, ε and μ are respectively the proper permittivity and permeability of the material (i.e. in rest frame of material), and denotes the Hodge dual.
Lagrangian for classical electrodynamics
Vacuum
The Lagrangian density for classical electrodynamics is
In the interaction term, the fourcurrent should be understood as an abbreviation of many terms expressing the electric currents of other charged fields in terms of their variables; the fourcurrent is not itself a fundamental field.
The Euler–Lagrange equation for the electromagnetic Lagrangian density can be stated as follows:
Noting
 ,
the expression inside the square bracket is
The second term is
Therefore, the electromagnetic field's equations of motion are
which is one of the Maxwell equations above.
Matter
Separating the free currents from the bound currents, another way to write the Lagrangian density is as follows:
Using Euler–Lagrange equation, the equations of motion for can be derived.
The equivalent expression in nonrelativistic vector notation is
See also
 Relativistic electromagnetism
 Electromagnetic wave equation
 Liénard–Wiechert potential for a charge in arbitrary motion
 Nonhomogeneous electromagnetic wave equation
 Moving magnet and conductor problem
 Electromagnetic tensor
 Proca action
 Stueckelberg action
 Quantum electrodynamics
 Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory
Notes and references
 1 2 Vanderlinde, Jack (2004), classical electromagnetic theory, Springer, pp. 313–328, ISBN 9781402026997
 ↑ Classical Electrodynamics by Jackson, 3rd Edition, Chapter 11 Special Theory of Relativity
 ↑ The assumption is made that no forces other than those originating in E and B are present, that is, no gravitational, weak or strong forces.
 ↑ D.J. Griffiths (2007). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Dorling Kindersley. p. 563. ISBN 8177582933.
Further reading
 Einstein, A. (1961). Relativity: The Special and General Theory. New York: Crown. ISBN 0517029618.
 Misner, Charles; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0716703440.
 Landau, L. D.; Lifshitz, E. M. (1975). Classical Theory of Fields (Fourth Revised English Edition). Oxford: Pergamon. ISBN 0080181767.
 R. P. Feynman; F. B. Moringo; W. G. Wagner (1995). Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. AddisonWesley. ISBN 0201627345.