A contralto (Italian pronunciation: [konˈtralto]) is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type.[1] The contralto's vocal range is fairly rare; similar to, but different from the alto, and almost identical to that of a countertenor, typically between the F below middle C (F3 in scientific pitch notation) to the second F above middle C (F5), although at the extremes some voices can reach the E below middle C (E3) or the second B above middle C (B5).[1] The contralto voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic contralto.


"Contralto" is primarily meaningful only in reference to classical and operatic singing, as other traditions lack a comparable system of vocal categorization. The term "contralto" is only applied to female singers; men singing in a similar range are called "countertenors".[2] The Italian terms "contralto" and "alto" are not synonymous, the latter technically denoting a specific vocal range in choral singing without regard to factors like tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal facility, and vocal weight.[3]

A true contralto is often regarded as the rarest of the female voices, and is present in as few as one percent of the population. Some vocal theorists have found that the vocal folds are thicker than those present in other female voices. Studies have used cameras to photograph visible differences which are also found in countertenors.

Voice type

Contralto voice range (F3–F5) notated on the treble staff (left) and on piano keyboard in green with dot marking middle C (C4).
{ \new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" } f4 f''4 }

The contralto has the lowest vocal range of the female voice types, with the lowest tessitura.[2][4]

The contralto voice range is between tenor and mezzo-soprano. Although tenors and baritones are usually male singers, some women can sing as low and are called "female tenors" or "female baritones." With the exception of very rare female singers such terms are usually informal (slang). More formal terminology[5] would be contralto profundo (tenor) and contralto basso or oktavistka(baritone) but these are not traditionally named among the fach system.

Some of the rare contraltos that can sing the female equivalent of tenor and baritone include Zarah Leander,[6][7] Ruby Helder,[8] Bally Prell.[9]

Subtypes and roles in opera

Within the contralto voice type category are three generally recognized subcategories: coloratura contralto, lyric contralto, and dramatic contralto. These subtypes do not always apply with precision to individual singers; some exceptional dramatic contraltos, such as Ernestine Schumann-Heink and Sigrid Onégin, were technically equipped to perform not only heavy, dramatic music by the likes of Wagner but also florid compositions by Donizetti.


The coloratura contralto has a light, agile voice ranging very high for the classification and atypically maintains extensive coloratura and high sustaining notes, specializing in florid passages and leaps. Given its deviations from the classification's norms, this voice type is quite rare.


The lyric contralto voice is lighter than a dramatic contralto but not capable of the ornamentation and leaps of a coloratura contralto. This class of contralto, lighter in timbre than the others, is the most common today and usually ranges from the E below middle C (E3) to the second G above middle C (G5).


The dramatic contralto is the deepest, darkest, and heaviest contralto voice, usually having a heavier tone and more power than the others. Singers in this class are rare.

True operatic contraltos are rare, and the operatic literature contains few roles written specifically for them. Contraltos sometimes are assigned feminine roles like Angelina in La Cenerentola, Rosina in The Barber of Seville, Isabella in L'italiana in Algeri, and Olga in Eugene Onegin, but more frequently they play female villains or assume trouser roles originally written for castrati. A common saying among contraltos is that they may play only "witches, bitches, or britches."[10]

Examples of contralto roles in the standard operatic repertoire include the following:.[10]

* indicates a role that may also be sung by a mezzo-soprano.

See also


  1. 1 2 McKinney, James (1994). The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults. Genovex Music Group. ISBN 978-1-56593-940-0.
  2. 1 2 Appelman, D. Ralph (1986). The Science of Vocal Pedagogy: Theory and Application. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20378-6.
  3. Stark, James (2003). Bel Canto: A History of Vocal Pedagogy. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8614-3.
  4.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Contralto". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  5. Contralto Corner Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Peucker, Brigitte. "The Material Image: Art and The Real in Film". 2007. p. 120
  7. Rosa Sala Rose. "Zarah Leander and the Leibstandarte SS". 15 December 2012.
  8. "Contralto Update: English Contralto Profondo Ruby Helder". Contralto Corner. 20 September 2013.
  9. "Contralto Profondo Bally Prell Added To The Contralto Corner", Contralto Corner. 14 July 2015.
  10. 1 2 Boldrey, Richard (1994). Guide to Operatic Roles and Arias. Caldwell Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-877761-64-5.

Further reading

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