Continued fraction

"Recurring fraction" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Repeating decimal.
A finite continued fraction, where is a non-negative integer, is an integer, and is a positive integer, for .

In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number, then writing this other number as the sum of its integer part and another reciprocal, and so on.[1] In a finite continued fraction (or terminated continued fraction), the iteration/recursion is terminated after finitely many steps by using an integer in lieu of another continued fraction. In contrast, an infinite continued fraction is an infinite expression. In either case, all integers in the sequence, other than the first, must be positive. The integers are called the coefficients or terms of the continued fraction.[2]

Continued fractions have a number of remarkable properties related to the Euclidean algorithm for integers or real numbers. Every rational number / has two closely related expressions as a finite continued fraction, whose coefficients ai can be determined by applying the Euclidean algorithm to . The numerical value of an infinite continued fraction is irrational; it is defined from its infinite sequence of integers as the limit of a sequence of values for finite continued fractions. Each finite continued fraction of the sequence is obtained by using a finite prefix of the infinite continued fraction's defining sequence of integers. Moreover, every irrational number is the value of a unique infinite continued fraction, whose coefficients can be found using the non-terminating version of the Euclidean algorithm applied to the incommensurable values and 1. This way of expressing real numbers (rational and irrational) is called their continued fraction representation.

It is generally assumed that the numerator of all of the fractions is 1. If arbitrary values and/or functions are used in place of one or more of the numerators or the integers in the denominators, the resulting expression is a generalized continued fraction. When it is necessary to distinguish the first form from generalized continued fractions, the former may be called a simple or regular continued fraction, or said to be in canonical form.

The term continued fraction may also refer to representations of rational functions, arising in their analytic theory. For this use of the term, see Padé approximation and Chebyshev rational functions.

Motivation and notation

Consider a typical rational number 415/93, which is around 4.4624. As a first approximation, start with 4, which is the integer part; 415/93 = 4 + 43/93. Note that the fractional part is the reciprocal of 93/43 which is about 2.1628. Use the integer part, 2, as an approximation for the reciprocal to get a second approximation of 4 + 1/2 = 4.5; 93/43 = 2 + 7/43. The remaining fractional part, 7/43, is the reciprocal of 43/7, and 43/7 is around 6.1429. Use 6 as an approximation for this to get 2 + 1/6 as an approximation for 93/43 and 4 + 1/2 + 1/6, about 4.4615, as the third approximation; 43/7 = 6 + 1/7 . Finally, the fractional part, 1/7, is the reciprocal of 7, so its approximation in this scheme, 7, is exact (7/1 = 7 + 0/1) and produces the exact expression 4 + 1/2 + 1/6 + 1/7 for 415/93.

The expression 4 + 1/2 + 1/6 + 1/7 is called the continued fraction representation of 415/93. This can be represented by the abbreviated notation 415/93 = [4; 2, 6, 7]. (Note that it is customary to replace only the first comma by a semicolon.) Some older textbooks use all commas in the (n + 1)-tuple, e.g., [4, 2, 6, 7].[3][4]

If the starting number is rational, then this process exactly parallels the Euclidean algorithm. In particular, it must terminate and produce a finite continued fraction representation of the number. If the starting number is irrational, then the process continues indefinitely. This produces a sequence of approximations, all of which are rational numbers, and these converge to the starting number as a limit. This is the (infinite) continued fraction representation of the number. Examples of continued fraction representations of irrational numbers are:

Continued fractions are, in some ways, more "mathematically natural" representations of a real number than other representations such as decimal representations, and they have several desirable properties:

Basic formula

A continued fraction is an expression of the form

where ai and bi are either rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers. If bi = 1 for all i the expression is called a simple continued fraction. If the expression contains a finite number of terms, it is called a finite continued fraction. If the expression contains an infinite number of terms, it is called an infinite continued fraction. [6]

Thus, all of the following illustrate valid finite simple continued fractions:

Examples of finite simple continued fractions
Formula Numeric Remarks
All integers are a degenerate case
Simplest possible fractional form
First integer may be negative
First integer may be zero

Calculating continued fraction representations

Consider a real number . Let be the integer part of and let be the fractional part of . Then the continued fraction representation of is , where is the continued fraction representation of .

To calculate a continued fraction representation of a number , write down the integer part (technically the floor) of . Subtract this integer part from . If the difference is 0, stop; otherwise find the reciprocal of the difference and repeat. The procedure will halt if and only if is rational. This process can be efficiently implemented using the Euclidean algorithm when the number is rational.

Find the continued fraction for
Step Real Number Integer part Fractional part Simplified Reciprocal of f Simplified
Continued fraction form for or is :

The number can also be represented by the continued fraction expansion ; refer to Finite continued fractions below.

Notations for continued fractions

The integers , etc., are called the coefficients or terms of the continued fraction.[2] One can abbreviate the continued fraction

in the notation of Carl Friedrich Gauss

or as


or in the notation of Pringsheim as

or in another related notation as

Sometimes angle brackets are used, like this:

The semicolon in the square and angle bracket notations is sometimes replaced by a comma.[3][4]

One may also define infinite simple continued fractions as limits:

This limit exists for any choice of and positive integers .

Finite continued fractions

Every finite continued fraction represents a rational number, and every rational number can be represented in precisely two different ways as a finite continued fraction, with the conditions that the first coefficient is an integer and other coefficients being positive integers. These two representations agree except in their final terms. In the longer representation the final term in the continued fraction is 1; the shorter representation drops the final 1, but increases the new final term by 1. The final element in the short representation is therefore always greater than 1, if present. In symbols:

[a0; a1, a2, , an − 1, an, 1] = [a0; a1, a2, , an − 1, an + 1].
[a0; 1] = [a0 + 1].

For example,

2.25 = 2 + 1/4 = [2; 4] = 2 + 1/3 + 1/1 = [2; 3, 1]
−4.2 = −5 + 4/5 = −5 + 1/1 + 1/4 = [−5; 1, 4] = −5 + 1/1 + 1/3 + 1/1 = [−5; 1, 3, 1].

Continued fractions of reciprocals

The continued fraction representations of a positive rational number and its reciprocal are identical except for a shift one place left or right depending on whether the number is less than or greater than one respectively. In other words, the numbers represented by and are reciprocals. For instance if is an integer and then

and .

If then

and .

The last number that generates the remainder of the continued fraction is the same for both and its reciprocal.

For example,

and .

Infinite continued fractions

Every infinite continued fraction is irrational, and every irrational number can be represented in precisely one way as an infinite continued fraction.

An infinite continued fraction representation for an irrational number is useful because its initial segments provide rational approximations to the number. These rational numbers are called the convergents of the continued fraction. The larger a term is in the continued fraction, the closer the corresponding convergent is to the irrational number being approximated. Numbers like π have occasional large terms in their continued fraction, which makes them easy to approximate with rational numbers. Other numbers like e have only small terms early in their continued fraction, which makes them more difficult to approximate rationally. The golden ratio ϕ has terms equal to 1 everywhere—the smallest values possible—which makes ϕ the most difficult number to approximate rationally. In this sense, therefore, it is the "most irrational" of all irrational numbers. Even-numbered convergents are smaller than the original number, while odd-numbered ones are larger.

For a continued fraction [a0; a1, a2, ], the first four convergents (numbered 0 through 3) are

a0/1, a1a0 + 1/a1, a2(a1a0 + 1) + a0/a2a1 + 1, a3(a2(a1a0 + 1) + a0) + (a1a0 + 1)/ a3(a2a1 + 1) + a1

In words, the numerator of the third convergent is formed by multiplying the numerator of the second convergent by the third quotient, and adding the numerator of the first convergent. The denominators are formed similarly. Therefore, each convergent can be expressed explicitly in terms of the continued fraction as the ratio of certain multivariate polynomials called continuants.

If successive convergents are found, with numerators h1, h2, and denominators k1, k2, then the relevant recursive relation is:

hn = anhn − 1 + hn − 2,
kn = ankn − 1 + kn − 2.

The successive convergents are given by the formula

hn/kn = anhn − 1 + hn − 2/ankn − 1 + kn − 2

Thus to incorporate a new term into a rational approximation, only the two previous convergents are necessary. The initial "convergents" (required for the first two terms) are 01 and 10. For example, here are the convergents for [0;1,5,2,2].

n −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
an     0 1 5 2 2
hn 0 1 0 1 5 11 27
kn 1 0 1 1 6 13 32

When using the Babylonian method to generate successive approximations to the square root of an integer, if one starts with the lowest integer as first approximant, the rationals generated all appear in the list of convergents for the continued fraction. Specifically, the approximants will appear on the convergents list in positions 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, … , 2k−1, ... For example, the continued fraction expansion for 3 is [1;1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,…]. Comparing the convergents with the approximants derived from the Babylonian method:

n −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
an     1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
hn 0 1 1 2 5 7 19 26 71 97
kn 1 0 1 1 3 4 11 15 41 56
x0 = 1 = 1/1
x1 = 1/2(1 + 3/1) = 2/1 = 2
x2 = 1/2(2 + 3/2) = 7/4
x3 = 1/2(7/4 + 3/7/4) = 97/56

Properties of infinite continued fractions

Baire space is a topological space on infinite sequences of natural numbers. The infinite continued fraction provides a homeomorphism from Baire space to the space of irrational real numbers (with the subspace topology inherited from the usual topology on the reals). The infinite continued fraction also provides a map between the quadratic irrationals and the dyadic rationals, and from other irrationals to the set of infinite strings of binary numbers (i.e. the Cantor set); this map is called the Minkowski question mark function. The mapping has interesting self-similar fractal properties; these are given by the modular group, which is the subgroup of Mobius transformations having integer values in the transform. Roughly speaking, continued fraction convergents can be taken to be Mobius transformations acting on the (hyperbolic) upper half-plane; this is what leads to the fractal self-symmetry.

Some useful theorems

If , , , is an infinite sequence of positive integers, define the sequences and recursively:

Theorem 1. For any positive real number
Theorem 2. The convergents of [; , , ] are given by
Theorem 3. If the th convergent to a continued fraction is /, then

Corollary 1: Each convergent is in its lowest terms (for if and had a nontrivial common divisor it would divide , which is impossible).

Corollary 2: The difference between successive convergents is a fraction whose numerator is unity:

Corollary 3: The continued fraction is equivalent to a series of alternating terms:

Corollary 4: The matrix

has determinant plus or minus one, and thus belongs to the group of unimodular matrices .

Theorem 4. Each (th) convergent is nearer to a subsequent (th) convergent than any preceding (th) convergent is. In symbols, if the th convergent is taken to be , then
for all .

Corollary 1: The even convergents (before the th) continually increase, but are always less than .

Corollary 2: The odd convergents (before the th) continually decrease, but are always greater than .

Theorem 5.

Corollary 1: Any convergent is nearer to the continued fraction than any other fraction whose denominator is less than that of the convergent.

Corollary 2: Any convergent which immediately precedes a large quotient is a near approximation to the continued fraction.



are successive convergents, then any fractions of the form


where is a nonnegative integer and the numerators and denominators are between the and terms inclusive, are called semiconvergents, secondary convergents, or intermediate fractions. Often the term is taken to mean that being a semiconvergent excludes the possibility of being a convergent, rather than that a convergent is a kind of semiconvergent.

The semiconvergents to the continued fraction expansion of a real number include all the rational approximations which are better than any approximation with a smaller denominator. Another useful property is that consecutive semiconvergents and are such that .

Best rational approximations

One can choose to define a best rational approximation to a real number x as a rational number n/d, d > 0, that is closer to x than any approximation with a smaller or equal denominator. The simple continued fraction for x generates all of the best rational approximations for x according to three rules:

  1. Truncate the continued fraction, and possibly reduce its last term.
  2. The reduced term cannot have less than half its original value.
  3. If the final term is even, half its value is admissible only if the corresponding semiconvergent is better than the previous convergent. (See below.)

For example, 0.84375 has continued fraction [0;1,5,2,2]. Here are all of its best rational approximations.

Continued fraction  [0;1]   [0;1,3]   [0;1,4]   [0;1,5]   [0;1,5,2]   [0;1,5,2,1]   [0;1,5,2,2] 
Rational approximation 1 3/4 4/5 5/6 11/13 16/19 27/32
Decimal equivalent 1 0.75 0.8 ~0.83333 ~0.84615 ~0.84211 0.84375
Error +18.519% −11.111% −5.1852% −1.2346% +0.28490% −0.19493% 0%

The strictly monotonic increase in the denominators as additional terms are included permits an algorithm to impose a limit, either on size of denominator or closeness of approximation.

The "half rule" mentioned above is that when ak is even, the halved term ak/2 is admissible if and only if |x − [a0 ; a1, , ak − 1]| > |x − [a0 ; a1, , ak − 1, ak/2]| [7] This is equivalent[7] to:[8]

[ak; ak − 1, , a1] > [ak; ak + 1, ].

The convergents to x are best approximations in an even stronger sense: n/d is a convergent for x if and only if |dxn| is the least among all approximations m/c with cd; that is, we have |dxn| < |cxm| so long as c < d. (Note also that |dkxnk| → 0 as k → ∞.)

Best rational within an interval

A rational that falls within the interval (x, y), for 0 < x < y, can be found with the continued fractions for x and y. When both x and y are irrational and

x = [a0; a1, a2, , ak − 1, ak, ak + 1, ]
y = [a0; a1, a2, , ak − 1, bk, bk + 1, ]

where x and y have identical continued fraction expansions up through ak−1, a rational that falls within the interval (x, y) is given by the finite continued fraction,

z(x,y) = [a0; a1, a2, , ak − 1, min(ak, bk) + 1]

This rational will be best in the sense that no other rational in (x, y) will have a smaller numerator or a smaller denominator.

If x is rational, it will have two continued fraction representations that are finite, x1 and x2, and similarly a rational y will have two representations, y1 and y2. The coefficients beyond the last in any of these representations should be interpreted as +∞; and the best rational will be one of z(x1, y1), z(x1, y2), z(x2, y1), or z(x2, y2).

For example, the decimal representation 3.1416 could be rounded from any number in the interval [3.14155, 3.14165]. The continued fraction representations of 3.14155 and 3.14165 are

3.14155 = [3; 7, 15, 2, 7, 1, 4, 1, 1] = [3; 7, 15, 2, 7, 1, 4, 2]
3.14165 = [3; 7, 16, 1, 3, 4, 2, 3, 1] = [3; 7, 16, 1, 3, 4, 2, 4]

and the best rational between these two is

[3; 7, 16] = 355/113 = 3.1415929....

Thus, 355/113 is the best rational number corresponding to the rounded decimal number 3.1416, in the sense that no other rational number that would be rounded to 3.1416 will have a smaller numerator or a smaller denominator.

Interval for a convergent

A rational number, which can be expressed as finite continued fraction in two ways,

z = [a0; a1, , ak − 1, ak, 1] = [a0; a1, , ak − 1, ak + 1]

will be one of the convergents for the continued fraction expansion of a number, if and only if the number is strictly between

x = [a0; a1, , ak − 1, ak, 2] and
y = [a0; a1, , ak − 1, ak + 2]

The numbers x and y are formed by incrementing the last coefficient in the two representations for z. It is the case that x < y when k is even, and x > y when k is odd.

For example, the number 355/113 has the continued fraction representations

355/113 = [3; 7, 15, 1] = [3; 7, 16]

and thus 355/113 is a convergent of any number strictly between

[3; 7, 15, 2] = 688/219 ≈ 3.1415525
[3; 7, 17] = 377/120 ≈ 3.1416667

Comparison of continued fractions

Consider x = [a0; a1, ] and y = [b0; b1, ]. If k is the smallest index for which ak is unequal to bk then x < y if (−1)k(akbk) < 0 and y < x otherwise.

If there is no such k, but one expansion is shorter than the other, say x = [a0; a1, , an] and y = [b0; b1, , bn, bn + 1, ] with ai = bi for 0 ≤ in, then x < y if n is even and y < x if n is odd.

Continued fraction expansions of π

To calculate the convergents of π we may set a0 = ⌊π⌋ = 3, define u1 = 1/π − 3 ≈ 7.0625 and a1 = ⌊u1⌋ = 7, u2 = 1/u1 − 7 ≈ 15.9966 and a2 = ⌊u2⌋ = 15, u3 = 1/u2 − 15 ≈ 1.0034. Continuing like this, one can determine the infinite continued fraction of π as

[3;7,15,1,292,1,1,…] (sequence A001203 in the OEIS).

The fourth convergent of π is [3;7,15,1] = 355/113 = 3.14159292035..., sometimes called Milü, which is fairly close to the true value of π.

Let us suppose that the quotients found are, as above, [3;7,15,1]. The following is a rule by which we can write down at once the convergent fractions which result from these quotients without developing the continued fraction.

The first quotient, supposed divided by unity, will give the first fraction, which will be too small, namely, 3/1. Then, multiplying the numerator and denominator of this fraction by the second quotient and adding unity to the numerator, we shall have the second fraction, 22/7, which will be too large. Multiplying in like manner the numerator and denominator of this fraction by the third quotient, and adding to the numerator the numerator of the preceding fraction, and to the denominator the denominator of the preceding fraction, we shall have the third fraction, which will be too small. Thus, the third quotient being 15, we have for our numerator (22 × 15 = 330) + 3 = 333, and for our denominator, (7 × 15 = 105) + 1 = 106. The third convergent, therefore, is 333/106. We proceed in the same manner for the fourth convergent. The fourth quotient being 1, we say 333 times 1 is 333, and this plus 22, the numerator of the fraction preceding, is 355; similarly, 106 times 1 is 106, and this plus 7 is 113.

In this manner, by employing the four quotients [3;7,15,1], we obtain the four fractions:

3/1, 22/7, 333/106, 355/113, .

These convergents are alternately smaller and larger than the true value of π, and approach nearer and nearer to π. The difference between a given convergent and π is less than the reciprocal of the product of the denominators of that convergent and the next convergent. For example, the fraction 22/7 is greater than π, but 22/7π is less than 1/7 × 106 = 1/742 (in fact, 22/7π is just more than 1/791 = 1/7 × 113).

The demonstration of the foregoing properties is deduced from the fact that if we seek the difference between one of the convergent fractions and the next adjacent to it we shall obtain a fraction of which the numerator is always unity and the denominator the product of the two denominators. Thus the difference between 22/7 and 3/1 is 1/7, in excess; between 333/106 and 22/7, 1/742, in deficit; between 355/113 and 333/106, 1/11978, in excess; and so on. The result being, that by employing this series of differences we can express in another and very simple manner the fractions with which we are here concerned, by means of a second series of fractions of which the numerators are all unity and the denominators successively be the product of every two adjacent denominators. Instead of the fractions written above, we have thus the series:

3/1 + 1/1 × 71/7 × 106 + 1/106 × 113

The first term, as we see, is the first fraction; the first and second together give the second fraction, 22/7; the first, the second and the third give the third fraction 333/106, and so on with the rest; the result being that the series entire is equivalent to the original value.

Generalized continued fraction

A generalized continued fraction is an expression of the form

where the an (n > 0) are the partial numerators, the bn are the partial denominators, and the leading term b0 is called the integer part of the continued fraction.

To illustrate the use of generalized continued fractions, consider the following example. The sequence of partial denominators of the simple continued fraction of π does not show any obvious pattern:


However, several generalized continued fractions for π have a perfectly regular structure, such as:

The first two of these are special cases of the arctangent function with π = 4 arctan (1).

This continued fraction of pi uses the Nilakantha series and an exploit from Leonhard Euler.[9]

Other continued fraction expansions

Periodic continued fractions

The numbers with periodic continued fraction expansion are precisely the irrational solutions of quadratic equations with rational coefficients; rational solutions have finite continued fraction expansions as previously stated. The simplest examples are the golden ratio φ = [1;1,1,1,1,1,…] and 2 = [1;2,2,2,2,…], while 14 = [3;1,2,1,6,1,2,1,6…] and 42 = [6;2,12,2,12,2,12…]. All irrational square roots of integers have a special form for the period; a symmetrical string, like the empty string (for 2) or 1,2,1 (for 14), followed by the double of the leading integer.

A property of the golden ratio φ

Because the continued fraction expansion for φ doesn't use any integers greater than 1, φ is one of the most "difficult" real numbers to approximate with rational numbers. Hurwitz's theorem[10] states that any real number k can be approximated by infinitely many rational m/n with

While virtually all real numbers k will eventually have infinitely many convergents m/n whose distance from k is significantly smaller than this limit, the convergents for φ (i.e., the numbers 5/3, 8/5, 13/8, 21/13, etc.) consistently "toe the boundary", keeping a distance of almost exactly away from φ, thus never producing an approximation nearly as impressive as, for example, 355/113 for π. It can also be shown that every real number of the form a + bφ/c + dφ, where a, b, c, and d are integers such that adbc = ±1, shares this property with the golden ratio φ; and that all other real numbers can be more closely approximated.

Regular patterns in continued fractions

While there is no discernable pattern in the simple continued fraction expansion of π, there is one for e, the base of the natural logarithm:

which is a special case of this general expression for positive integer n:

Another, more complex pattern appears in this continued fraction expansion for positive odd n:

with a special case for n = 1:

Other continued fractions of this sort are

where n is a positive integer; also, for integral n:

with a special case for n = 1:

If In(x) is the modified, or hyperbolic, Bessel function of the first kind, we may define a function on the rationals p/q by

which is defined for all rational numbers, with p and q in lowest terms. Then for all nonnegative rationals, we have

with similar formulas for negative rationals; in particular we have

Many of the formulas can be proved using Gauss's continued fraction.

Typical continued fractions

Most irrational numbers do not have any periodic or regular behavior in their continued fraction expansion. Nevertheless, Khinchin proved that for almost all real numbers x, the ai (for i = 1, 2, 3, …) have an astonishing property: their geometric mean is a constant (known as Khinchin's constant, K ≈ 2.6854520010…) independent of the value of x. Paul Lévy showed that the nth root of the denominator of the nth convergent of the continued fraction expansion of almost all real numbers approaches an asymptotic limit, approximately 3.27582, which is known as Lévy's constant. Lochs' theorem states that nth convergent of the continued fraction expansion of almost all real numbers determines the number to an average accuracy of just over n decimal places.

Generalized continued fraction for square roots

Continued fraction techniques are one method of computing square roots.

The identity






leads via recursion to the generalized continued fraction for any square root:[11]






Pell's equation

Continued fractions play an essential role in the solution of Pell's equation. For example, for positive integers p and q, and non-square n, it is true that p2nq2 = ±1 if and only if p/q is a convergent of the regular continued fraction for n.

Continued fractions and dynamical systems

Continued fractions also play a role in the study of dynamical systems, where they tie together the Farey fractions which are seen in the Mandelbrot set with Minkowski's question mark function and the modular group Gamma.

The backwards shift operator for continued fractions is the map h(x) = 1/x − ⌊1/x called the Gauss map, which lops off digits of a continued fraction expansion: h([0; a1, a2, a3, ]) = [0; a2, a3, ]. The transfer operator of this map is called the Gauss–Kuzmin–Wirsing operator. The distribution of the digits in continued fractions is given by the zero'th eigenvector of this operator, and is called the Gauss–Kuzmin distribution.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

The Lanczos algorithm uses a continued fraction expansion to iteratively approximate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large sparse matrix.[12]

Examples of rational and irrational numbers

Number r 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
123 ar 123
ra 123
12.3 ar 12 3 3
ra 12 37/3 123/10
1.23 ar 1 4 2 1 7
ra 1 5/4 11/9 16/13 123/100
0.123 ar 0 8 7 1 2 5
ra 0 1/8 7/57 8/65 23/187 123/1000
ϕ =
5 + 1/2
ar 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ra 1 2 3/2 5/3 8/5 13/8 21/13 34/21 55/34 89/55 144/89
ϕ =
5 + 1/2
ar 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ra 2 3/2 5/3 8/5 13/8 21/13 34/21 55/34 89/55 144/89 233/144
2 ar 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ra 1 3/2 7/5 17/12 41/29 99/70 239/169 577/408 1393/985 3363/2378 8119/5741
1/2 ar 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ra 0 1 2/3 5/7 12/17 29/41 70/99 169/239 408/577 985/1393 2378/3363
3 ar 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
ra 1 2 5/3 7/4 19/11 26/15 71/41 97/56 265/153 362/209 989/571
1/3 ar 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
ra 0 1 1/2 3/5 4/7 11/19 15/26 41/71 56/97 153/265 209/362
3/2 ar 0 1 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 6
ra 0 1 6/7 13/15 84/97 181/209 1170/1351 2521/2911 16296/18817 35113/40545 226974/262087
³2 ar 1 3 1 5 1 1 4 1 1 8 1
ra 1 4/3 5/4 29/23 34/27 63/50 286/227 349/277 635/504 5429/4309 6064/4813
e ar 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 6 1 1
ra 2 3 8/3 11/4 19/7 87/32 106/39 193/71 1264/465 1457/536 2721/1001
π ar 3 7 15 1 292 1 1 1 2 1 3
ra 3 22/7 333/106 355/113 103993/33102 104348/33215 208341/66317 312689/99532 833719/265381 1146408/364913 4272943/1360120

ra: rational approximant obtained by expanding continued fraction up to ar

History of continued fractions

Cataldi represented a continued fraction as & & & with the dots indicating where the following fractions went.

See also


  2. 1 2 Pettofrezzo & Byrkit (1970, p. 150)
  3. 1 2 Long (1972, p. 173)
  4. 1 2 Pettofrezzo & Byrkit (1970, p. 152)
  5. Weisstein, Eric W. "Periodic Continued Fraction". MathWorld.
  6. Darren C. Collins, Continued Fractions, MIT Undergraduate Journal of Mathematics,
  7. 1 2 M. Thill (2008), "A more precise rounding algorithm for rational numbers", Computing, 82: 189–198, doi:10.1007/s00607-008-0006-7
  8. Shoemake, Ken (1995), "I.4: Rational Approximation", in Paeth, Alan W., Graphic Gems V, San Diego, California: Academic Press, pp. 25–31, ISBN 0-12-543455-3
  9. Foster, Tony (June 22, 2015). "Theorem of the Day: Theorem no. 203". Robin Whitty. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
  10. Theorem 193: Hardy, G.H.; Wright, E.M. (1979). An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers (Fifth ed.). Oxford.
  11. Ben Thurston, "Estimating square roots, generalized continued fraction expression for every square root", The Ben Paul Thurston Blog
  12. Martin, Richard M. (2004), Electronic Structure: Basic Theory and Practical Methods, Cambridge University Press, p. 557, ISBN 9781139643658.
  13. Sandifer, Ed (February 2006). "How Euler Did It: Who proved e is irrational?" (PDF). MAA Online.
  14. "E101 – Introductio in analysin infinitorum, volume 1". Retrieved 2008-03-16.


External links

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