Consideration and Initiating Structure

Consideration and Initiating Structure are two dimensions of leader behavior identified in 1945 as a result of the Ohio State Leadership Studies.

According to the findings of these studies, leaders exhibit two types of behaviors :

to facilitate goal accomplishment.

Ohio State Leadership Studies

Prior to 1945 most studies of leadership sought to identify the individual traits of effective leaders.

Trait theories of leadership were the first to attempt a systematic approach of studying leadership. However these studies yielded disappointing results when no set of traits were found that explained effective leadership.

In 1945, a group of researchers at the Ohio State University sought to identify the observable behaviors of leaders instead of identifying personality traits.

the Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)

To accomplish this they generated a list of 1790 statements. This was narrowed down to 150 statements designed to measure nine different dimensions of leader behavior. These statements were used to develop the Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ).

Consideration and Initiating structure


Consideration is the extent to which a leader exhibits concern for the welfare of the members of the group.

This factor is oriented towards interpersonal relationships, mutual trust and friendship.

This leadership style is people-oriented.

Some of the statements used to measure this factor in the LBDQ are:

Initiating structure

Initiating Structure is the extent to which a leader defines leader and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how tasks are to be accomplished by the group.

This leadership style is task-oriented.

Some of the statements used to measure this factor in the LBDQ are:


External links

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