Order of St Michael and St George
|Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George|
|Star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross|
| Awarded by |
Sovereign of the United Kingdom
|Motto|| Auspicium Melioris Ævi|
Token of a Better Age
|Awarded for||At the monarch's pleasure|
|Sovereign||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Grades (w/ post-nominals)|| Knight/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)|
Knight/Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
|Established||28 April 1818|
|Next (higher)||Order of the Star of India|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Indian Empire|
|Ribbon bar of the Order of St Michael and St George|
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.
The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.
The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank:
- Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
- Knight Commander (KCMG) or Dame Commander (DCMG)
- Companion (CMG)
It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.
The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over and subduing Satan in battle.
The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.
The Order was founded to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted its own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817. It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".
In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became a part of Greece. The Order's basis was revised in 1868; membership was granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
The British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order (by convention, on the advice of the Government). The next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands; now, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Grand Masters include:
- 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland
- 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge
- 1850–1904: Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge
- 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales
- 1910–1917: None
- 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales
- 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
- 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
- 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
- 1967–present: Prince Edward, 2nd Duke of Kent
The Order originally included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, and 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, and 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor are foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod; he does not, unlike his Order of the Garter equivalent (the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod), perform any duties related to the House of Lords.
- Prelate - David Urquhart (Bishop of Birmingham)
- Chancellor - The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen KT GCMG PC
- Secretary - Sir Simon McDonald KCMG KCVO
- Registrar - Sir David Manning GCMG KCVO
- King of Arms - Sir Jeremy Greenstock GCMG
- Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod - Dame DeAnne Julius DCMG CBE
Habit and insignia
Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions (such as coronations), which vary by rank:
- The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star (see below). The mantle is bound with two large tassels.
- The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold. It consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows.
At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used:
- The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and Dame Grand Cross' star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed 'Maltese Asterisk' (for want of a better description—see image of badge), with a gold ray in between each pair of arms. The Knight and Dame Commander's star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses; it does not include any gold rays. In each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan.
- The badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order; it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear it on a riband or sash, passing from the right shoulder to the left hip. Knights Commanders and male Companions wear the badge from a ribbon around the neck; Dames Commanders and female Companions wear it from a bow on the left shoulder. The badge is a seven-armed, white-enamelled 'Maltese Asterisk' (see Maltese Cross); the obverse shows St Michael trampling on Satan, while the reverse shows St George on horseback killing a dragon, both within a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order.
On certain "collar days" designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events may wear the Order's collar over their military uniform or morning wear. When collars are worn (either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations), the badge is suspended from the collar. All collars which have been awarded since 1948 must be returned to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The other insignia may be retained.
The original home of the Order was the Palace of St. Michael and St. George in Corfu, the residence of the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands and the seat of the Ionian Senate. Since 1906, the Order's chapel has been in St Paul's Cathedral in London. (The Cathedral also serves as home to the chapels of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.) Religious services for the whole Order are held quadrennially; new Knights and Dames Grand Cross are installed at these services.
The Sovereign and the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are allotted stalls in the choir of the chapel, above which their heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the dame's rank, if there is one, is used. Above the crest or coronet, the stall's occupant's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling and crest are taken down. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1906.
Precedence and privileges
Members of the Order of St Michael are assigned positions in the order of precedence in England and Wales. Wives of male members also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of female members, however, are not assigned any special precedence. (As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.)
Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders prefix "Sir", and Dames Grand Cross and Dames Commanders prefix "Dame", to their forenames. Wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames, but no equivalent privilege exists for husbands of Dames. Such forms are not used by peers and princes, except when the names of the former are written out in their fullest forms. Furthermore, honorary (foreign) members and clergymen do not receive the accolade and thus are not entitled to use the prefix "Sir" or "Dame". Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal "GCMG"; Knights Commanders and Dames Commanders use "KCMG" and "DCMG" respectively; Companions use "CMG".
Knights and Dames Grand Cross are also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They may, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights and Dames Commanders and Companions may display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.
In the satirical British television programme Yes Minister, Jim Hacker MP is told an old joke by his Private Secretary Bernard Woolley about what the various post-nominals stand for. Season 2, Episode 2 "Doing the Honours":
Woolley: In the service, CMG stands for "Call Me God". And KCMG for "Kindly Call Me God".
Hacker: What does GCMG stand for?
Woolley: "God Calls Me God".
Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, a commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (R.N.V.R.) was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953. (This is mentioned in the novel From Russia, with Love and on-screen in his obituary in Skyfall.) He was offered the KCMG (which would have elevated him from a Companion in the Order to a Knight Commander in the Order) in The Man with the Golden Gun, but he rejected that offer as he did not wish to become a public figure.
Current Knights and Dames Grand Cross
(NOTE: For clarity, the table denotes holders of the GCMG only; all other posts-nominal shown, for respective members, are for the sake of completeness alone.)
Knights and Dames Grand Cross
|Number||Name||Post-Nominals||Known for|| Year|
|1||Sayyid Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar||GCMG||Sultan of Zanzibar||1963|
|2||HRH The Duke of Kent||KG GCMG GCVO||Royal family||1967|
|3||Sir Clive Rose||GCMG||British diplomat||1981|
|4||The Rt Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen||KG AK GCMG GCVO KBE PC QC||Governor General of Australia||1982|
|5||Sir Hugh Cortazzi||GCMG||British diplomat||1984|
|6||Sir James Craig||GCMG||British diplomat||1984|
|7||Sir John Thomson||GCMG||British diplomat||1985|
|8||Sir Antony Acland||KG GCMG GCVO||British diplomat||1986|
|9||Sir John Graham||Bt GCMG||British diplomat||1986|
|10||Sir John Fretwell||GCMG||British diplomat||1987|
|11||The Rt Hon. The Lord Bridges||GCMG||British diplomat||1988|
|12||The Rt Hon. The Lord Carrington||KG GCMG CH MC PC DL||Secretary General of NATO||1988|
|13||Sir Crispin Tickell||GCMG KCVO||British diplomat||1989|
|14||The Rt Hon. The Lord Wright of Richmond||GCMG||British diplomat||1989|
|15||The Hon. Sir Shridath Ramphal||GCMG AC ONZ QC||Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations||1990|
|16||The Rt Hon. Sir Michael Somare||GCMG CH PC||Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea||1990|
|17||Dame Catherine Tizard||GCMG GCVO DBE QSO ONZ||Governor General of New Zealand||1990|
|18||The Rt Hon. The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn||KT GCMG||Governor of Hong Kong||1991|
|19||Sir Wiwa Korowi||GCMG||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||1992|
|20||Sir Reginald Palmer||GCMG||Governor General of Grenada||1992|
|21||Sir James Carlisle||GCMG||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||1993|
|22||Sir Ewen Fergusson||GCMG GCVO||British diplomat||1993|
|23||Sir Rodric Braithwaite||GCMG||British diplomat||1994|
|24||Sir Julius Chan||GCL GCMG KBE||Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea||1994|
|25||Sir Colville Young||GCMG MBE||Governor General of Belize||1994|
|26||The Rt Hon. The Lord Hannay of Chiswick||GCMG CH||British diplomat||1995|
|27||Sir Orville Turnquest||GCMG QC||Governor General of the Bahamas||1995|
|28||The Rt Hon. Sir Michael Hardie Boys||GNZM GCMG QSO||Governor General of New Zealand||1996|
|29||Sir Clifford Husbands||GCMG QC||Governor General of Barbados||1996|
|30||Sir Christopher Mallaby||GCMG GCVO||British diplomat||1996|
|31||Sir Tulaga Manuella||GCMG||Governor General of Tuvalu||1996|
|32||Sir Cuthbert Sebastian||GCMG OBE||Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis||1996|
|33||Sir Daniel Williams||GCMG||Governor General of Grenada||1996|
|34||Sir John Coles||GCMG||British diplomat||1997|
|35||Sir Silas Atopare||GCMG||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||1998|
|36||Sir John Lapli||GCMG||Governor General of the Solomon Islands||1999|
|37||Dame Pearlette Louisy||GCMG||Governor General of Saint Lucia||1999|
|38||Sir Andrew Wood||GCMG||British diplomat||2001|
|39||Sir Tomu Sione||GCMG OBE||Governor General of Tuvalu||2001|
|40||Sir John Goulden||GCMG||British diplomat||2001|
|41||The Rt Hon. The Lord Kerr of Kinlochard||GCMG||British diplomat||2001|
|42||Sir Tomasi Puapua||GCMG KBE PC||Governor General of Tuvalu||2002|
|43||Sir David Wright||GCMG LVO||British diplomat||2002|
|44||Sir Frederick Ballantyne||GCMG||Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||2002|
|45||Sir Jeremy Greenstock||GCMG||British diplomat||2003|
|46||Sir Rob Young||GCMG||British diplomat||2003|
|47||The Rt Hon. The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen||KT GCMG PC||Secretary General of NATO||2004|
|48||Sir Stephen Wall||GCMG LVO||British diplomat||2004|
|49||The Rt Hon. Sir Paulias Matane||GCL GCMG OBE KStJ||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||2005|
|50||Sir Nathaniel Waena||GCMG KStJ||Governor General of Solomon Islands||2005|
|51||The Rt Hon. The Lord Ashdown of Norton-sub-Hamdon||GCMG CH KBE PC||British diplomat||2006|
|52||The Rt Hon. The Lord Jay of Ewelme||GCMG||British diplomat||2006|
|53||Sir Emyr Parry||GCMG||British diplomat||2007|
|54||The Most Hon. Sir Kenneth O. Hall||GCMG||Governor General of Jamaica||2007|
|55||Dame Louise Lake-Tack||GCMG||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||2007|
|56||Sir David Manning||GCMG KCVO||British diplomat||2008|
|57||Sir Carlyle Glean||GCMG||Governor General of Grenada||2008|
|58||His Excellency The Most Hon. Sir Patrick Allen||ON GCMG CD||Governor General of Jamaica||2009|
|59||Sir Frank Kabui||GCMG CSI OBE||Governor General of Solomon Islands||2009|
|60||Sir Arthur Foulkes||GCMG||Governor General of the Bahamas||2010|
|61||Sir Iakoba Italeli||GCMG||Governor General of Tuvalu||2010|
|62||The Rt Hon. The Lord Ricketts||GCMG GCVO||British diplomat||2011|
|63||Sir Michael Ogio||GCMG CBE||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||2011|
|64||Sir Nigel Sheinwald||GCMG||British diplomat||2011|
|65||Sir Elliott Belgrave||GCMG QC||Governor General of Barbados||2012|
|66||Dame Cécile La Grenade||GCMG OBE||Governor General of Grenada||2013|
|67||Sir Edmund Lawrence||GCMG OBE||Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis||2013|
|68||Dame Marguerite Pindling||GCMG||Governor General of the Bahamas||2014|
|69||Sir Rodney Williams||GCMG||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||2014|
|70||The Rt Hon. The Baroness Ashton of Upholland||GCMG PC||British diplomat||2015|
|71||Sir John Sawers||GCMG||British diplomat||2015|
|72||Sir Tapley Seaton||GCMG CVO QC JP||Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis||2015|
|73||Sir Simon Fraser||GCMG||British diplomat||2016|
|74||Sir Peter Westmacott||GCMG LVO||British diplomat||2016|
- Prelate: Rt Revd David Urquhart (Lord Bishop of Birmingham)
- Chancellor: The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen KT GCMG
- Secretary: Sir Simon McDonald KCMG KCVO, Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
- Registrar: Sir David Manning GCMG KCVO
- King of Arms: Sir Jeremy Greenstock GCMG
- Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod: Dame DeAnne Julius DCMG CBE
Honorary Knights/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
|Name||Post-Nominals||Known for|| Year|
|Qaboos bin Said al Said||GCB GCMG GCVO||Sultan of Oman||1976|
|Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei||GCB GCMG||Sultan of Brunei||1984|
|Abdelaziz bin Khalifa Al Thani||GCMG||Member of the royal family of Qatar||1985|
|Gyanendra of Nepal||GCMG||Former King of Nepal||1986|
|Fidel V. Ramos||GCMG||Former President of the Philippines||1995|
|Mário Soares||GCMG||Former President of Portugal||1996|
|Aleksander Kwaśniewski||GCB GCMG||Former President of Poland||1996|
|Maumoon Abdul Gayoom||GCMG||Former President of the Maldives||1997|
|Nawaz Sharif||GCMG||Former Prime Minister of Pakistan||1997|
|Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani||GCMG||Former Emir of Qatar||1997|
|Carlos Menem||GCMG||Former President of Argentina||1998|
|Ernesto Zedillo||GCMG||Former President of Mexico||1998|
|Alberto Fujimori||GCMG||Former President of Peru||1998|
|Ong Teng Cheong||GCMG||Former President of Singapore||1998|
|János Martonyi||GCMG||Minister of Foreign Affairs||1999|
|Abdullah II of Jordan||GCB GCMG KCVO||King of Jordan||1999|
|Giuliano Amato||GCMG||Former Prime Minister of Italy||2000|
|Lamberto Dini||GCMG||Former Prime Minister of Italy||2000|
|Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark||GCB GCMG GCVO||Prince Consort of Denmark||2000|
|Emil Constantinescu||GCMG||Former President of Romania||2000|
|Thabo Mbeki||GCB GCMG||Former President of South Africa||2000|
|Nursultan Nazarbayev||GCMG||President of Kazakhstan||2000|
|Ali Abu al-Ragheb||GCMG||Former Prime Minister of Jordan||2001|
|Jorge Sampaio||GCMG||Former President of Portugal||2001|
|Anson Chan||GBM GCMG CBE JP||Former Chief Secretary of Hong Kong||2002|
|Vicente Fox||GCMG||Former President of Mexico||2002|
|Xanana Gusmão||GCMG GCL||Former Prime Minister of East Timor||2003|
|Hamid Karzai||GCMG||Former President of Afghanistan||2003|
|Alfred Moisiu||GCMG||Former President of Albania||2003|
|Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz||GCMG||Former Prime Minister of Poland||2004|
|Gianfranco Fini||GCMG||Former Deputy Prime Minister of Italy||2005|
|Kofi Annan||GCMG||Former Secretary-General of the United Nations||2006|
|Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum||GCMG||Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates||2010|
|Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan||GCMG||Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi||2010|
|Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan||GCMG||President of the United Arab Emirates||2010|
|Sabah Al Khalid Al Sabah||GCMG||Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait||2012|
|Manuel Valls||GCMG||Prime Minister of France||2014|
|Marie Louise Coleiro Preca||GCMG||President of Malta||2015|
Honorary Knights/Dames Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
|Name||Post-Nominals||Known for|| Year|
|King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa||KCMG||1979|
|Richard Armitage||KCMG, CNZM, AC||2005|
|Fazle Hasan Abed||KCMG||2010|
|Jaap de Hoop Scheffer||KCMG||2010|
|Anders Fogh Rasmussen||KCMG||2015|
|José Antonio Meade Kuribreña||KCMG||2015|
- List of people who have declined a British honour
- Order of the Bath
- Order of the British Empire
- Order of the Garter
- Order of the Thistle
- Royal Victorian Order
- Russian Order of St George
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Order of St Michael and St George.|
- "Knighthood and Chivalry", (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
- Orans, L. P. "The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George"
- Velde, F. R. (2003). "Order of Precedence in England and Wales"
- State Library of New South Wales: Nelson Meers Foundation—gallery to full set of insignia, including images of both sides of the badge and a close-up of the star.