Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist) (historical)

Communist Party of Spain (Marxist-Leninist)
Partido Comunista de España (marxista-leninista)
Founded 1964 (1964)
Dissolved 1992 (1992)
Merger of Merger of Communist Party of Spain (PCE) splinter groups
Merged into Together with Spanish National Liberation Front and Vanguardia Socialista gave origin to the Revolutionary and Patriotic Antifascist Front (FRAP)
Headquarters France
Newspaper Revolución Española
Vanguardia obrera
Youth wing Communist Youth of Spain (Marxist–Leninist)
Affiliated union Oposición Sindical Obrera (1964-1977)
Asociación Obrera Asambleista (1977-1992)
Student Federación Universitaria Democrática Española (1967-1968)
Affiliated artists Unión Popular de Artistas
Legal wing Republican Left (1979-1981)
Ideology Marxism-Leninism
Third-Worldism (1964-1978)
Maoism (1964-1976)
Hoxhaism (1976-1992)[1]
National affiliation Convención Republicana de los Pueblos de España (1976-1983)
International affiliation Aligned with the Communist Party of China (1964-1976)
Aligned with the Albanian Party of Labour (1976-1992)
Armed wing (1973-1977) Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front
Colors Red
Town councillors (1979-1983)
5 / 67,505


Election symbol
Party flag

The Communist Party of Spain (Marxist-Leninist) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (marxista-leninista), PCE (m-l)) was a communist political party in Spain, formed in 1964 through the merger of splinter groups of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).

PCE(m-l) followed the line of the Communist Party of China and Maoism until 1976, when it took the side of the Party of Labour of Albania against the Chinese, during the events that led to the Sino-Albanian split.


The PCE(m-l) party was formed by communists dissatisfied that the Communist Party of Spain, under the leadership of Santiago Carrillo, had abandoned the armed struggle in 1964. It remained small throughout its existence and in 1968 it shrunk further when a sector of its militants abandoned the party to join the Organisation of Marxist–Leninists of Spain.[3]

In January 1971, at the time when the need was felt to renew the fight against the Francoist rule of Spain, the then Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist), together with the Spanish National Liberation Front (FELN) and Vanguardia Socialista, took part in the foundation of the Revolutionary and Patriotic Antifascist Front (FRAP)[4] at a meeting in Paris held in a house owned by American writer Arthur Miller. The PCE(m-l) launched then the Coordinating Committee of the Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front, which held its constituent conference in 1974, and was designed to coordinate student insurrections against the Francisco Franco dictatorial regime based on the model of the student demonstrations of May 1968 in France. Initially the Front was led by Julio Álvarez del Vayo, FELN leader and a former member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party.

Other fronts of PCE(m-l) were:

PCE(m-l) published Revolución Española. In 1977, during the Spanish transition to democracy, it started publishing Vanguardia obrera as the organ of the Central Committee of the party. A split surged in the party in 1981, with a dissident group forming a parallel PCE(m-l) and publishing its own version of Vanguardia obrera.

The sixth and last congress of PCE(m-l) was held in 1992, voting to dissolve the party. An agreement was made to form a new group, the Partido Comunista Democratico, but that was never carried out. The main leader of PCE(m-l), Raúl Marco, had broken away in 1991 to form the Colectivo Octubre, which evolved into Organización Comunista Octubre.

Now, Organización Comunista Octubre with another communist organizations of Spain has founded again the PCE(m-l).

Congresses of PCE(m-l)


  1. Consuelo Laíz (1994). La lucha final, los partidos de la izquierda radical durante la Transición española. S.L. CYAN. PROYECTOS Y PRODUCCIONES EDITORIALES, Madrid. ISBN 9788481980646
  2. As "Izquierda Republicana".
  3. Fermí Rubiralta, De Castelao a Mao. Laiovento, 1998 pg. 75
  4. El olvidado Álvarez del Vayo

External links

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