Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp
Traded as NASDAQ: CTSH
NASDAQ-100 Component
S&P 500 Component
Industry IT services, IT consulting
Predecessor Dun & Bradstreet
Founded January 26, 1994
Founder Kumar Mahadeva
Francisco D'Souza
Headquarters Teaneck, New Jersey, United States
Area served
Key people
Francisco D'Souza (CEO)
Lakshmi Narayanan (Vice-Chairman)
Services IT, business consulting and outsourcing services
Revenue Increase US$12.416 billion (2015)[1]
Increase US$2.142 billion (2015)[1]
Profit Increase US$1.623 billion (2015)[1]
Total assets Increase US$13.065 billion (2015)[1]
Total equity Increase US$9.278 billion (2015)[1]
Number of employees
255,800 (2016 Q3)[2]

Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp is an American multinational corporation that provides custom information technology, information security, consulting, information technology outsourcing (ITO) and business process outsourcing (BPO) services. It is headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey, United States. Cognizant is listed in the NASDAQ-100 and the S&P 500 indices. It was founded as an in-house technology unit of Dun & Bradstreet in 1994,[3] and started serving external clients in 1996.[3]

It made an initial public offering in 1998, after a series of corporate splits and restructures of its parent companies. It was the first software services firm listed on the NASDAQ.[3] During the dot com bust, it grew by accepting the application maintenance work that the bigger players were unwilling to perform. Gradually, it ventured into application development, complex systems integration and consulting work. Cognizant had a period of fast growth during the 2000s, becoming a Fortune 500 company in 2011.[4] In 2015, the Fortune magazine named it as the world's fourth most admired IT services company.[5]


Cognizant began as Dun & Bradstreet Satyam Software (DBSS),[6][7] established as Dun & Bradstreet's in-house technology unit focused on implementing large-scale IT projects for Dun & Bradstreet businesses. In 1996, the company started pursuing customers beyond Dun & Bradstreet.[8]

In 1996, Dun & Bradstreet spun off several of its subsidiaries including Erisco, IMS International, Nielsen Media Research, Pilot Software, Strategic Technologies and DBSS, to form a new company called Cognizant Corporation. Three months later, in 1997, DBSS renamed itself to Cognizant Technology Solutions. In July 1997, Dun & Bradstreet bought Satyam's 24% stake in DBSS for $3.4 million.[9][10] Headquarters were moved to the United States, and in March 1998, Kumar Mahadeva was named CEO.[11] Operating as a division of the Cognizant Corporation, the company mainly focused on Y2K-related projects and web development.[12]

In 1998, the parent company, Cognizant Corporation, split into two companies: IMS Health and Nielsen Media Research.[13] After this restructuring, Cognizant Technology Solutions became a public subsidiary of IMS Health. In June 1998, IMS Health partially spun off the company, conducting an initial public offering of the Cognizant stock. The company raised $34 million, less than what the IMS Health underwriters had hoped for. They earmarked the money for debt payments and upgrading company offices.[12]

Kumar Mahadeva decided to reduce the company's dependence on Y2K projects: by Q1 1999, 26% of company's revenues came from Y2K projects, compared with 49% in early 1998. Believing that the $16.6 billion enterprise resource planning software market was saturated, Mahadeva decided to refrain from large-scale ERP implementation projects. Instead, he focused on applications management, which accounted for 37% of Cognizant's revenue in Q1 1999.[8] Cognizant's revenues in 2002 were $229 million, and the company had zero debt with $100 million in the bank.[12] During the dotcom bust, the company grew by taking on the maintenance projects that larger IT services companies did not want.[14]

In 2003, IMS Health sold its entire 56% stake in Cognizant, which instituted a poison pill provision to prevent hostile takeover attempts.[12][15] Kumar Mahadeva resigned as the CEO in 2003, and was replaced by Lakshmi Narayanan.[16] Gradually, the company's services portfolio expanded across the IT services landscape and into business process outsourcing (BPO) and business consulting. Lakshmi Narayanan was succeeded by the Kenya-born Francisco D'Souza in 2006. Cognizant experienced a period of fast growth during the 2000s, as reflected by its appearance in Fortune magazine's "100 Fastest-Growing Companies" list for ten consecutive years from 2003 to 2012.[17][18]

In September 2014, Cognizant struck its biggest deal, acquiring healthcare IT services provider TriZetto Corp for $2.7 billion.[19] Cognizant Shares, rose nearly 3 percent in premarket trading.[20]


Company acquired Country Date Business Reference
KIS Information Services (KIS) Germany Germany December 2016 IT Services [21]
Mirabeau BV Netherlands Netherlands November 2016 Digital Marketing, Customer Experience [22]
Frontica Business Solutions Norway Norway October 2016 IT Services & Solutions [23][24]
Idea Couture Canada Canada July 2016 Digital Services (Innovation and Experience Design) [25]
Heliocentric El Salvador El Salvador May 2016 BPO Services [26]
Quick Left Inc. United States USA May 2016 Mobile & Web Apps [27]
Red Associates Denmark Denmark April 2016 Human Sciences [28]
KBACE Technologies United States USA January 2016 Oracle Cloud,ERP [29]
Storebrand Baltic Lithuania Lithuania Nov 2015 Lithuanian IT unit of Norway’s Storebrand [30]
CNO Financial Group (India) India India Feb 2015 IT Application Development [31]
Odecee Australia Australia November 2014 IT, Consulting and BPO services [32]
Cadient Group United States USA October 2014 Digital Healthcare [33]
TriZetto Corp United States USA September 2014 Healthcare Payer Software, Provider Revenue Cycle Software (Consulting, Software, BPO, Hosting) [34]
itaas Interactive TV Solutions United States USA April 2014 Digital Video services [35]
ValueSource Technologies India India October 2013 IT services [36]
Equinox Consulting France France October 2013 Financial Services Consulting Firm [37]
SourceNet Solutions United States USA May 2013 BPS for Finance & Accounting [38]
C1 group (6 companies) Germany Germany December 2012 btconsult gbbb [process and technology consulting, SAP]; C:1 Solutions GmbH [consulting and enterprise solutions: SAP, BPM, ECM, ERM]; psc Management Consulting GmbH [process and technology consulting]; C:1 SetCon GmbH [software engineering and testing]; Enterprise Services AG [a Swiss company focused on process and IT consulting]; C:1 Holding GmbH [39]
Medicall PhilippinesPhilippines November 2012 Medical Transcription [40]
Excellence Data Research India India August 2012 Market Research [41]
ING US United States USA June 2012 Technology [42]
Zaffera United States USA September 2011 SAP Consulting [43]
CoreLogic India India India July 2011 Mortgage processing [44]
Galileo Performance France France June 2010 Consulting related to the measurement, management and continuous optimization of IT system performance [45]
PIPC Group United Kingdom UK May 2010 Program & Project Management Consulting [46]
UBS India Service Center India India October 2009 Business process outsourcing, industry research [47]
Pepperweed Advisors United States US 8 September 2009 Business Consulting, Program Management [48]
Invensys Rail R&D India & Invensys Operations Managed R&D Center India India India July 2009 Product Research & Engineering, Manufacturing [49]
Active Intelligence Canada Canada February 2009 Consulting, implementation and support services for Oracle Retail Merchandising, Planning and Optimization suite [50]
Strategic Vision Consulting United States US June 2008 Business Consulting for media and entertainment companies [51]
T-Systems India Germany Germany March 2008 System Integration [52]
marketRx United States US 16 November 2007 Life Sciences Analytics, healthcare KPO [53]
AimNet United States US September 2006 IT infrastructure services [54]
Fathom Consulting Canada Canada April 2005 Telecom & Automotive IT Services [55]
Ygyan Consulting India India February 2004 SAP consulting [56]
Infopulse Netherlands Netherlands December 2003 IT services [57]
Aces International United States US April 2003 Siebel CRM consulting [55]
American Express Travel-related Services account from Silverline Technologies United States US Sep 2002 Financial services [58]
UnitedHealthcare Ireland Limited Republic of Ireland Ireland June 2002 Healthcare services (a subsidiary of the UnitedHealth Group) [59]


Cognizant provides information technology, information security, consulting, ITO and BPO services. These include business & technology consulting, systems integration, application development & maintenance, IT infrastructure services, analytics, business intelligence, data warehousing, customer relationship management, supply chain management, engineering & manufacturing solutions, enterprise resource planning, research and development outsourcing, and testing solutions.

Cognizant Digital Works — created to help clients rapidly build, pilot and scale enterprise-level digital initiatives — is central to Cognizant's efforts to help clients drive business change across their operations and inform their go-to-market activities.[60]

Business model

Cognizant's original corporate headquarters in Chennai, now an offshore delivery center.

Like many other IT services firms, Cognizant follows a global delivery model based on offshore software R&D and offshore outsourcing. The company has a number of offshore development centers outside the United States and near-shore centers in the U.S., Europe and South America.

In its early years, Cognizant gained business from a number of American and European companies with the help of the Dun & Bradstreet brand. The company's senior executives envisaged the firm as a provider of high-end customer services on-par with the six contemporary major system integrators (Accenture, BearingPoint, Capgemini, E&Y, Deloitte and IBM), but at lower prices.[61]

Outsourcing controversy and hiring in the U.S.

Cognizant is number one in Top 10 companies receiving H-1B visas to bring immigrant workers to the United States. The company has been steadily increasing its U.S. work force. In January 2011, the company announced plans to expand its U.S. delivery centers, including a new 1,000-person facility in Phoenix, Arizona.[62] In February 2011, Cognizant said it had 60 full-time recruiters actively hiring in the U.S.[63]

In 2009, an investigation by the US Department of Labor (DoL) found Cognizant in violation of the H-1B provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Administrative Act. DoL found that 67 of its workers hired under the H-1B program were underpaid. According to Cognizant, this was due to unintentional administrative errors. The DoL investigation revealed that Cognizant had achieved 99.7% compliance in its management of H-1B visa-related issues.[64] The company paid US$509,607 in back wages to the 67 employees. No fines or visa restrictions were imposed, since DoL did not discover any willful violations. Joseph Petrecca, the director of the Wage and Hour Division's Northern New Jersey District Office, praised the company for taking immediate steps to correct the violations: "This level of cooperation sets a standard for others in the industry."[65]

In 2016, the company was the subject of a lawsuit by workers for Walt Disney World who said workers from India were brought into the United States on H-1B visas in order to replace them.[66] However in October 2016, federal Judge "Gregory A. Presnel" of the United States District Court in Orlando has dismissed the lawsuits stating "none of the allegedly false statements put at issue in the complaint are adequate".[67]



In addition to its global headquarters and delivery center in Teaneck, New Jersey, and the U.S. headquarters in College Station, Texas, Cognizant has 21 other U.S. delivery centers: Bentonville, Arkansas; Bridgewater, New Jersey; Des Moines, Iowa; Holliston, Massachusetts; Minot, North Dakota; Phoenix, Arizona; Southfield, Michigan; Williston, Vermont; St. Louis, Missouri; Union, New Jersey; Sacramento, California; Charlotte, North Carolina; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Washington, Pennsylvania; Malvern, Pennsylvania; Naperville, Illinois; Carmel, Indiana Linthicum, Maryland and Tampa, Florida.[68]

The company has more than 233,000 employees globally, of which over 150,000 are in India across 10 locations with a plurality in Chennai. The other centers of the company are in Bangalore, Coimbatore, Gurgaon, Noida, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata,[69] Mangalore (CoreLogic), Mumbai, and Pune. The company has local, regional, and global delivery centers in the UK, Hungary, Spain, China, Philippines, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico.[70]

Business units

Cognizant is organized into several verticals and horizontal units. The vertical units focus on specific industries such as Banking & Financial Services, Healthcare, Manufacturing and Retail. The horizontals focus on specific technologies or process areas such as Analytics, mobile computing, BPO and Testing. Both horizontal and vertical units have business consultants, who together form the organization-wide Cognizant Business Consulting (CBC) team. Cognizant is among the largest recruiters of MBAs in the industry; they are involved in business development and business analysis for IT services projects.

According to the 2015 financial statements, the major portion of Cognizant's revenues is derived from clients in the Financial Services (40.3%) and Healthcare (29.5%) industries. Other substantial revenue sources include clients from Manufacturing, Retail & Logistics (18.9%) and Communications, Information, Media & Entertainment and Technology (11.3%) industries. By geography, most of the revenue is derived from North America (78.6%) and Europe (16.2%).[60]

Corporate affairs

Marketing and branding

The company's flagship customer conference is Cognizant Community. It is held annually in the United States, Europe, Australia and Asia (Singapore, India and Japan). The summit, which features notable keynote speakers in the world of business, technology, economics and even adventure sports, has been praised as "a model industry event".[71]


Cognizant was listed on NASDAQ in 1998, and added to the NASDAQ-100 Index in 2004. After the close of trading on 16 November 2006, Cognizant moved from the mid cap S&P 400 to the S&P 500. The company claims it is in excellent financial health, reporting over $2.6 billion in cash and short term investments for the quarter ending 30 September 2012.[72] Net income for 2014 was $1.44 billion as against $1.23 billion in 2013 and 11.9 percent up in the fourth quarter to $363 million.[73]

Corporate social responsibility

Cognizant's philanthropic and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives are conducted through the Cognizant employees for the financial and administrative support of the Cognizant Foundation.[74][75] Registered in March 2005 as a "Charitable Company" under the Indian Companies Act, the Cognizant Foundation aims to help "unprivileged members of society gain access to quality education and healthcare by providing financial and technical support; designing and implementing educational and healthcare improvement programs; and partnering with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), educational institutions, healthcare institutions, government agencies and corporations".

Cognizant has a grassroots corporate social responsibility project called Outreach, for which Cognizant's employees volunteer to support schools and orphanages.[76][77]

At the 2011 Maker Faire, the company announced plans to fund a Maker Space at the New York Hall of Science, a Making the Future after-school program and a partnership with Citizen Schools to promote STEM education in the United States.[78][79]

In 2012 Cognizant Foundation made donation to Vidnyanvahini, a not-for-profit organization located in Pune in India for its Mobile Science Laboratory (MSL).

Environmental record

Cognizant's sustainability efforts include a Go Green initiative launched in 2008 focused on energy conservation, recycling, and responsible waste management.[80] In October 2012, Newsweek magazine ranked Cognizant 50th among the 500 largest publicly traded companies in America, in its annual Green Rankings.[81]

Fortune 500

Year Rank
2016 230[82]
2015 288[83]
2014 308[84]
2013 352[85]
2012 398[86]
2011 484[87]


See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "2015 annual results". Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp.
  2. "Cognizant on Twitter". Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 Mishra, Pankaj (2013-03-21). Cognizant’s Francisco D’Souza: The horizon chasers. Live Mint and the Wall Street Journal, 21 March 2013. Retrieved on 2013-07-30 from
  4. "Cognizant joins the Fortune 500 club". rediff. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  5. "World's Most Admired Companies (Information Technology services), 2015". Fortune. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  6. "'Cognizant is like a $4-billion tech startup'". Retrieved 2016-08-26.
  7. "'Dun & Bradstreet Satyam To Be Rechristened Cognizant Tech". Business Standard. 4 February 1997. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  8. 1 2 Silvia Sansoni (14 June 1999). "The contrarian". Forbes.
  9. "No modest ambitions for Cognizant". Express Computer. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  10. "Cognizant back in search of Satyam". Business Standard. 4 April 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  11. "Kumar Mahadeva quits as Cognizant chief".
  12. 1 2 3 4 International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.59. St. James Press, 2004.
  13. "Dun & Bradstreet Spinoff Will Split in Two". The New York Times. 16 January 1998. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  14. Rasheeda Bhagat (9 February 2012). "Cognizant rising by Chennai beach". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  15. IMS sees some positive impact from Cognizant sale by Eric Auchard. Rediff, 16 November 2002 | 1149 IST.
  16. "Cognizant founder steps down". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  17. Anne VanderMey (14 September 2011). "Fastest-growing: 16 all-stars". Forbes. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  18. "Cognizant in Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  19. "Cognizant Acquires TriZetto". Bloomberg TV India. 15 September 2014.
  20. "Cognizant to buy TriZetto to boost healthcare business". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  21. "CNW Group". Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  22. Cognizant. "Cognizant to Acquire Digital Marketing and Customer Experience Agency Mirabeau BV". Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  23. "Akastor agrees to sell Frontica Business Solutions to Cognizant!". Frontica.
  24. Akastor. "Akastor ASA: Akastor Completes Sale of Frontica Business Solutions to Cognizant". GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  25. "Cognizant Acquires Idea Couture, a Digital Innovation, Strategy, and Design Firm!". Yahoo!.
  26. "We are starting a new phase for our company!". Twitter.
  27. "Quick Left's Right Turn – To Cognizant". Quick Left.
  28. "Cognizant acquires 49% ownership in ReD Associates". Business Standard.
  29. "Cognizant Acquires KBACE Technologies to Enable Clients to Accelerate Journey to Cloud and Improve Business Agility".
  30. "US Cognizant to acquire 66% shares in Lithuania's Storebrand".
  31. "Insurance Company CNO Sells India Operations To Cognizant". Retrieved 2016-10-17.
  32. "Cognizant on an odyssey with new acquisition".
  33. "Cognizant acquires digital marketing agency Cadient Group". timesofindia-economictimes.
  34. (Press Release)
  35. "Cognizant buys US video solutions company". The Times of India.
  36. "KBC verkoopt ValueSource aan Cognizant". 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  37. "Cognizant Acquires Equinox Consulting, a Financial Services Consulting Firm in France". 2 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  38. "Cognizant Q2 Net up 19%; raises full-year revenue guidance". Zee News. 2013-08-06. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  39. "Cognizant to Acquire Six Companies of the C1 Group, a Leading German Consulting and IT Services Group". 21 December 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  40. "Cognizant net up 16%". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  41. "EXCELLENCE DATA RESEARCH PRIVATE LIMITED | Indian Company Info". Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  42. "Cognizant, ING US in $330 mn pact". 15 June 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  43. "Cognizant buys Zaffera,a US SAP consulting Company for an undisclosed value". The Economic Times. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  44. Suparna Goswami Bhattacharya (27 July 2011). "Cognizant to acquire CoreLogic's Indian business". DNA. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  45. "Cognizant buys Paris-based Galileo Performance". Business Standard. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  46. "Cognizant acquires PIPC". The Economic Times. 10 May 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  47. "Cognizant acquires India unit of UBS for $75m". The Times of India. 16 October 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  48. "Cognizant buys Pepperweed Advisors". The Hindu. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  49. Bureau, Our (2013-10-03). "Cognizant buys Belgian bank insurance firm's arm ValueSource". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  50. Chandra Ranganathan (11 February 2009). "Cognizant acquires Canada consulting firm Active Intelligence". Economic Times. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  51. "Cognizant acquires US firm SVC". The Economic Times. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  52. "Cognizant Tech to buy T-System's India business". Business Standard. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  53. Narayanan Madhavan (20 October 2007). "Cognizant to acquire marketRX for $135 m". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  54. "Cognizant acquires US co AimNet". The Hindu Business Line. 7 September 2006. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  55. 1 2 "Cognizant buys Fathom for $35 mn". 18 April 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  56. "Cognizant Tech Acquires Pune SAP Firm For $2 Mn". The Financial Express. 23 February 2004. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  57. "Cognizant Acquires Infopulse For $5 M". The Financial Express. 3 December 2003. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  58. "Cognizant Acquires American Express". The Financial Express. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  59. "Cognizant centre in Ireland". The Hindu Business Line. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  60. 1 2 "Cognizant Technology Solutions : Annual Report 2015" (PDF). Cognizant.
  61. Peter Cappelli; Michael Useem; Harbir Singh; Jitendra Singh (2010). The India way. Harvard Business Press. pp. 138–143. ISBN 978-1-4221-4759-7.
  62. "Cognizant Expands North American Delivery Center Footprint to Accommodate Rapid Growth". Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  63. "Twitter status". Cognizant. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  64. "Audit Results". Cognizant. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  65. "Teaneck N.J. information technology company agrees to pay more than $509,000 in back wages following U.S. Labor Department investigation". 30 March 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  66. Preston, Julia (25 January 2016). "Lawsuits Claim Disney Colluded to Replace U.S. Workers With Immigrants". New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  67. "Judge Says Disney Didn't Violate Visa Laws in Layoffs". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Oct 2016.
  68. Cognizant (2016). Contact Us – Cognizant Technology Solutions. Retrieved on 2016-05-10 from
  69. Swati Garg (February 20, 2012). "Bengal IT minister tells Cognizant growth story to lure Infy, Wipro".
  70. "Contact Us - Cognizant Technology Solutions".
  71. "Cognizant Community: a model industry event". Vinnie Mirchandani. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  72. "Cognizant (CTSH) Financials". Google Finance. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  73. "Cognizant (CTSH) Financials - Net income for 2014". Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  74. CSR World. Last accessed on 6 March 2012.
  75. "Cognizant Foundation extends aid to five NGOs". The Hindu Business Line.
  76. "Cognizant Outreach distributes notebooks". The Hindu. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  77. "Industry insights from Cognizant for AUT faculty". The Hindu. 14 May 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  78. "Cognizant to Unveil 'Making the Future' STEM Education Initiative at World Maker Faire, New York Hall of Science". Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  79. Mary Moore (12 December 2011). "Cognizant to donate $810K to Museum of Science for STEM". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  80. Cognizant goes for green I.T. Manila Bulletin. 15 August 2011.
  81. "Newsweek Green Rankings 2012". Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  82. "2015 Fortune 500 rank". Fortune. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  83. "2015 Fortune 500 rank". CNN Money. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  84. "2012 Fortune 600 rank". CNN Money. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  85. "2012 Fortune 500 rank". CNN Money. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  86. "2012 Fortune 500 rank". CNN Money. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  87. "2011 Fortune 500 rank". CNN Money. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  88. "Cognizant to assist Escorts' digital transformation of operations". The Times of India.
  89. "Cognizant to help NTUC Fairprice upgrade digital infrastructure". DealStreetAsia.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cognizant.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/3/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.