Coat of arms of the Philippines
|Coat of arms of the Philippines |
Eskudo ng Pilipinas
Sagisag ng Pilipinas
|Armiger||Republic of the Philippines|
|Adopted||3 July 1946|
|Escutcheon||Paleways of two (2) pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three (3) mullets equidistant from each other; and, in point of honour, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays|
|Compartment||Beneath shall be the scroll with the Name of the Country in Filipino inscribed thereon|
|Motto||Republika ng Pilipinas|
Bald eagle of the United States|
and lion rampant of Spain (the charge of Kingdom of León)
|Part of a series on the|
The Coat of Arms of the Philippines (Filipino: Eskudo ng Pilipinas or Sagisag ng Pilipinas) features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac) which were placed under martial law by Governor-General Ramón Blanco during the Philippine Revolution, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
On the blue field on the dexter side is the American bald eagle of the United States, and on the red field on the sinister side is the lion rampant of the coat of arms of Castile and León, both representing the country's colonial past.
The blazon of the coat of arms from Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines (Republic Act 8491) is as follows:
|“||...Paleways of two (2) pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three (3) mullets equidistant from each other; and, in point of honor, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays. Beneath shall be the scroll with the words "REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS", inscribed thereon.||”|
Its original blazoning according to Commonwealth Act No. 731 is:
|“||Pale ways of two pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three golden stars equidistant from each other; in point of honor, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays; in sinister base gules, the Lion Rampant of Spain; in dexter base azure, the American eagle displayed proper. Beneath, a scroll with the words 'Republic of the Philippines' inscribed thereon.||”|
"... By these presents I assign, as the special coat-of-arms of the said city of Manila in the Filipinas Islands, a shield which shall have in the center of its upper part a golden castle on a red field, closed by a blue door and windows, and which shall be surmounted by a crown; and in the lower half on a blue field a half lion and half dolphin of silver, armed and langued gules–that is to say, with red nails and tongue. The said lion shall hold in his paw a sword with guard and hilt. ... "— English translation from Blair and Robertson's "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898"
The design of the arms of Manila had changed throughout the years, the castle had adopted various different forms, a crowned sea lion was present later, and in the late 20th century, a crown was placed above the castle itself.
Along with this, the lesser arms of the Spanish monarch was used. The design patterned after the national standard of Spain consisted of three fleur-de-lis surrounded by a quartered flag of Castille and Aragon, represented by two golden castles located on the red field and two red lions on a white field. Minor details of the arms had changed over the years but the basic design elements remained.
During the 1896 Philippine Revolution, the Filipino leaders had no permanent political symbol, but, two different emblems were easily adopted. Both consisted of an equilateral triangle, but differed on what symbols were placed inside the triangle. Many documents of the Katipunan bore a letter K which stood for Kalayaan (Liberty), while some had the rising mythological sun in the center. General Emilio Aguinaldo, officially the first President of the Philippines, adopted the mythological sun and the three stars in each angle of the equilateral triangle as his emblem.
During the American Occupation, a law was enacted prescribing a new coat of arms for the islands. The Spanish-era arms of the City of Manila were used until 1905, when the Philippine Commission adopted the "new arms and great seal of the Philippine Islands" designed by Gaillard Hunt of the US State Department. It consisted of thirteen alternating red-and-white stripes representing the Thirteen Colonies; a chief blue above, the honor color, and over them in an oval the arms of Manila with the castle of Spain and the sea lion prominently displayed. It also bore as its crest an American eagle, the symbol of United States. Beneath the shield was the scroll with the words Philippine Islands. It remained unaltered until the inauguration of Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935.
During the Commonwealth, extensive reform was made to the government in preparation for Philippine independence. One of major changes was changing the symbol for Filipinos. "The Arms and Great Seal of the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines" was approved in 1935, the number of stripes reduced from thirteen to two and three five-pointed stars added. The sea lion was made gold instead of silver and the eagle was slightly enlarged and placed closer to the arm. The word Commonwealth of the Philippines replaced Philippine Islands in the scroll below; it also incorporated the modified coat of arms of the City of Manila.
On 15 December 1938, President Manuel L. Quezon created the Special Committee of Arms of the Philippines. After almost two years of study, the committee recommended certain modifications to the coat of arms of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. They recommended that the eight-ray Philippine sun must be the point of honor. It was revised in 1940. It featured two stripes, blue on the sinister (right) side and red on the dexter (left) side of the shield; a white field above, studded with three five-pointed stars equidistant from each other; over them, the eight-rayed sun with each ray flanked on the both sides by minor rays inside an oval. On the crest is the American eagle, its talon grasping an olive branch with eight leaves and eight fruits, and the left talon grasping three spears. Beneath the shield was the scroll with the inscription Philippines.
After providing the various branches of the government with their own symbols, President Quezon created the Philippine Heraldic Committee in 1940. The committee was assigned the studying and recommending the designs and symbolism for official seals of Philippines' political subdivision, cities, and government institutions. The heraldic work of the committee was suspended during the Pacific War.
During the Second Philippine Republic, a more nationalistic policy were adopted and the seal was revised. Foreign components of the Filipino heraldic symbol which previously represented its colonial links to Spain and United States were removed. Instead, salient features of the flag and seal of the short-lived Philippine Republic were incorporated, consisting of the eight-ray mythological sun and three stars located beneath the equilateral triangle. Written within three sets of two marginal lines of the three sides of the triangle were Kalayaan, Kapayapaan, Katarungan (Liberty, Peace, Justice). Around the seal was a double marginal circle within which was written Republika ng Pilipinas (Republic of the Philippines).
After World War II, President Sergio Osmeña reactivated the Philippine Heraldic Committee. The current design pursuant to Commonwealth Act No. 731 was approved by the Congress of the Philippines on 3 July 1946. It was designed by Captain Galo B. Ocampo, Secretary of the Philippine Heraldry Committee.
During the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos, Isang Bansa, Isang Diwa (One Nation, One Spirit) became the national motto of the Philippines. It was immediately incorporated into the national seal, replacing the words Republic of the Philippines, which were originally inscribed in a scroll beneath the arms. The decree for this purpose was approved by the Office of the President on 9 June 1978. However, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, the decree was revoked.
Republic Act No. 8491 specifies a Great Seal for the Republic of the Philippines:
The Spanish East Indies
During the Spanish Colonial Period, the lesser arms of the Spanish Sovereign were used. The seal of Manila was also issued under royal decree by Philip II (for whom the islands were named) in 1596. Note that the Pillars of Hercules or the Golden Fleece were not always displayed and the arms themselves were sometimes solely used.
|Coat of Arms of the Spanish East Indies (1565–1898)|
|1565–1580||1580–1668||1668–1700||1700–1868; 1874–1898||1868–1870; 1873–1874||1871–1873|
|Arms under the House of Habsburg.||The Habsburg arms, with half-arches added to the crown.||Same arms, with crown's arches bent.||Arms under the House of Bourbon.||Arms of the Provisional Government and the First Spanish Republic; royal crown replaced with mural crown and inescutcheon with Bourbon Arms removed.||Inescutcheon shows arms of the House of Savoy during the brief reign of Amadeo I.|
First Philippine Republic (1898-1901)
|Coat of Arms of the First Philippine Republic, a revolutionary government by Emilio Aguinaldo, shows the three stars and a sun in a red triangular field. Had been used until his capture by the American forces in 1901 in the Philippine–American War.||1898-1901||Malolos Constitution|
American Colony and Japanese occupation
After the signing of the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded control of the Philippines and several other possessions to the United States of America. The following arms were used in the period after the cession, during the Commonwealth, and throughout the Second World War.
|Insular and Commonwealth arms (1898–1946)|
|Coat of arms of the Philippine Islands designed by Gaillard Hunt. Used by the Insular Government, which reported to the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs. The banderole bore the words "Philippine Islands".||1905–1935||Act No. 1365|
|First version of the Commonwealth arms, used by the Commonwealth of the Philippines. First used under President Manuel L. Quezon, it was also used by the Philippine government-in-exile when the country was occupied by Japan during the Second World War.||1935–1940, 1941–1946|| Act No. 4258,|
Commonwealth Act No. 614
|Short-lived second version of the Commonwealth arms, approved on 19 August 1940 under Commonwealth Act No. 602. Its use was not widespread and the previous arms were restored on 23 February 1941 by Commonwealth Act No. 614.||1940–1941||Commonwealth Act No. 602|
|Japanese period (1942–1945)|
|Emblem of the Second Philippine Republic.||1943||Act No. 5|
|Coat of arms of the Second Philippine Republic. Introduced by the Japanese puppet state's government. The inscription on the banderole was "Pilipinas" (Philippines).||1943–1945||Act No. 17|
The following were used upon the Islands' achievement of full sovereignty in 1946. The Arms as designed by Capt. Galo B. Ocampo have retained their basic design since, with only minor alterations made due to political and cultural considerations.
|Arms of the then-newly independent Republic of the Philippines, used throughout the Third Republic and the early Fourth Republic. Essentially restored on 10 September 1986 by Memorandum Order No. 34 following the 1986 People Power Revolution. The scroll bore the country's official name in English. The Administrative Code of 1987 provided that the inscription on the scroll could also be rendered in the national language. Presently, the name of the country is shown in Filipino.||1946–1978, 1986–present|| Commonwealth Act No. 731,|
Memorandum Order No. 34, s. 1986
|In 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos changed the inscription to the national motto at the time, Isang Bansa, Isang Diwa (One Country, One Spirit).||1978–1986||Presidential Decree No. 1413, s. 1978|
|The arms as per the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines (Republic Act 8491), the scroll's inscription bears the country's official name in Filipino, Republika ng Pilipinas (Republic of the Philippines) and the lion and eagle charges were removed. These arms, however, remain unused since no referendum legally required to approve them has been called.||1998 (introduced)||Republic Act 8491|
|The standardized version of the Arms currently in use. The banderole bears the country's official name in Filipino, Republika ng Pilipinas (Republic of the Philippines).||1998–present|
A stylized form of the arms is used on the jersey of the Philippine men's national basketball team, and appears with the word "Pilipinas" emblazoned above it. In addition, many coats of arms of national and private institutions, as well as Philippine towns and cities, are inspired by the national coat of arms.
- "Republic Act No. 8491". Official Gazette. February 12, 1998. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "Presidential Decree No. 1413, s. 1978". Official Gazette. June 9, 1978. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- "Memorandum Order No. 34, s. 1986". Official Gazette. September 10, 1986. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- Footnotes to Philippine History
- "Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - Republic Act No. 8491". Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Guevara 2005, p. 104.
- http://www.gov.ph/1987/07/25/executive-order-no-292-book-ichapter-4-national-symbols-and-official-languages/. Missing or empty
- Malacañan Presidential Museum
- Coat of arms under American administration
- Seals of the Katipunan
- Illustrations of Coats of arms of the Philippines: American administration, Commonwealth and Proposed