Civilian Conservation Corps

Poster by Albert M. Bender, Illinois WPA Art Project Chicago (1935)

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal. Originally for young men ages 18–23, it was eventually expanded to young men ages 17–28.[1] Robert Fechner was the head of the agency. It was a major part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal that provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men, and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. At the same time, it implemented a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter, clothing, and food, together with a small wage of $30 (about $547 in 2015[2]) a month ($25 of which had to be sent home to their families).[3]

CCC-built bridge across Rock Creek in Little Rock, Arkansas

The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.[4] Principal benefits of an individual's enrollment in the CCC included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability.[5] Implicitly, the CCC also led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources; and the continued need for a carefully planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources.[6]

During the time of the CCC, enrollees planted nearly 3 billion trees to help reforest America, constructed trails, lodges and related facilities in more than 800 parks nationwide and upgraded most state parks, updated forest fire fighting methods, and built a network of service buildings and public roadways in remote areas.[7]

CCC workers constructing a road, 1933.
CCC camps in Michigan; the tents were soon replaced by barracks built by Army contractors for the enrollees.[8]

The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans. Approximately 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression.[9]

Despite its popular support, the CCC was never a permanent agency. It depended on emergency and temporary Congressional legislation and funding to operate. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, and Congress voted to close the program.[10]


As governor of New York, Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. Long interested in conservation,[11] as president, he proposed to Congress a full-scale national program on March 21, 1933:[12]

I propose to create [the CCC] to be used in complex work, not interfering with abnormal employment, and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control and similar projects. I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only through the prevention of great present financial loss, but also as a means of creating future national wealth.

He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, housing, uniforms, and medical care for working in the national forests and other government properties. The Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933 which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, a former labor union official who served until 1939. The organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. The order indicated that the program was to be supervised jointly by four government departments: Labor, which recruited the young men, War, which operated the camps, and Agriculture and Interior, which organized and supervised the work projects. A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative from each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program. To end the opposition from labor unions (which wanted no training programs started when so many of their men were unemployed)[13] Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the American Machinists Union, as director of the corps. William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor.[14]

US Army

Reserve officers from the U.S. Army were in charge of the camps, but there was no military training. General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program[15] but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army.[16] But the Army also found numerous benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni corporals and sergeants. CCC also provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the leadership performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers. The CCC provided lessons which the Army used in developing its wartime and mobilization plans for training camps.[17]


Early Years, 1933–1934

A blue-grey map of a road, covered with assorted lines
A CCC map of the planned route of a parkway in Texas, drafted in 1934. The Corps worked in numerous parks throughout the state during the early 1930s, constructing everything from benches to highways.

The legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Roosevelt made his request to Congress on March 21, 1933; the legislation was submitted to Congress the same day; Congress passed it by voice vote on March 31; Roosevelt signed it the same day, then issued an executive order on April 5 creating the agency, appointing its director (Fechner), and assigning War Department corps area commanders to begin enrollment. The first CCC enrollee was selected April 8 and subsequent lists of unemployed men were supplied by state and local welfare and relief agencies for immediate enrollment. On April 17 the first camp, NF-1, Camp Roosevelt,[18] was established at George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. On June 18, the first of 161 soil erosion control camps was opened, in Clayton, Alabama.[19] By July 1, 1933 there were 1,463 working camps with 250,000 junior enrollees (18–25 years of age); 28,000 veterans; 14,000 American Indians; and 25,000 Locally Enrolled (or Experienced) Men (LEM).[20][21]


The typical CCC enrollee was a U.S. citizen, unmarried, unemployed male, 18–25 years of age. Normally his family was on local relief. Each enrollee volunteered and, upon passing a physical exam and/or a period of conditioning, was required to serve a minimum six-month period, with the option to serve as many as four periods, or up to two years, if employment outside the Corps was not possible. Enrollees worked 40 hours a week over five days, sometimes including Saturdays if poor weather dictated. In return they received $30 a month with a compulsory allotment of $22–25 sent to a family dependent, as well as food, clothing, and medical care.[22]

Following the second Bonus Army march on Washington D.C., President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6129 (May 11, 1933) to amend the CCC program, to include work opportunities for veterans. Veteran qualifications differed from the junior enrollee; one needed to be certified by the Veterans Administration by application. They could be any age, and married or single as long as they were in need of work. Veterans were generally assigned to entire veteran camps.[23] Enrollees were eligible for the following "rated" positions to help with camp administration: senior leader, mess steward, store keeper and two cooks; assistant leader, company clerk, assistant educational advisor and three second cooks. These men received additional pay ranging from $36 to $45 per month depending on their rating.


Inside of CCC barracks at Milford, Utah. Two of the men are sitting on footlockers that were used by the CCC workers to hold their personal possessions.

Each CCC camp was located in the area of particular conservation work to be performed, and organized around a complement of up to 200 civilian enrollees in a designated numbered "company" unit. The CCC camp was a temporary community in itself, structured to have barracks (initially Army tents) for 50 enrollees each, officer/technical staff quarters, medical dispensary, mess hall, recreation hall, educational building, lavatory and showers, technical/administrative offices, tool room/blacksmith shop and motor pool garages.

The company organization of each camp had a dual-authority supervisory staff: firstly, Department of War personnel or Reserve officers (until July 1, 1939), a "company commander" and junior officer, who were responsible for overall camp operation, logistics, education and training; and secondly, ten to fourteen technical service civilians, including a camp "superintendent" and "foreman", employed by either the Departments of Interior or Agriculture, responsible for the particular field work. Also included in camp operation were several non-technical supervisor LEMs, who provided knowledge of the work at hand, "lay of the land," and paternal guidance for inexperienced enrollees.[24][25] Enrollees were organized into work detail units called "sections" of 25 men each, according to the barracks they resided in.[26] Each section had an enrollee "senior leader" and "assistant leader" who were accountable for the men at work and in the barracks.

Work classifications

CCC workers with picks and shovels building road in Utah between Milford and Beaver

The CCC performed 300 types of work projects within ten approved general classifications:

  1. Structural improvements: bridges, fire lookout towers, service buildings
  2. Transportation: truck trails, minor roads, foot trails and airport landing fields
  3. Erosion control: check dams, terracing, and vegetable covering
  4. Flood control: irrigation, drainage, dams, ditching, channel work, riprapping
  5. Forest culture: planting trees and shrubs, timber stand improvement, seed collection, nursery work
  6. Forest protection: fire prevention, fire pre-suppression, firefighting, insect and disease control
  7. Landscape and recreation: public camp and picnic ground development, lake and pond site clearing and development
  8. Range: stock driveways, elimination of predatory animals
  9. Wildlife: stream improvement, fish stocking, food and cover planting
  10. Miscellaneous: emergency work, surveys, mosquito control[27]

The responses to this seven-month experimental conservation program were enthusiastic. On October 1, 1933 Director Fechner was directed to arrange for a second period of enrollment. By January 1934, 300,000 men were enrolled. In July 1934 this cap was increased by 50,000 to include men from Midwest states that had been affected by drought. The temporary tent camps had also developed to include wooden barracks. An education program had been established, emphasizing job training and literacy.[21]:10

Approximately 55% of enrollees were from rural communities, a majority of which were non-farm; 45% came from urban areas.[28] Level of education for the enrollee averaged 3% illiterate, 38% less than eight years of school, 48% did not complete high school, 11% were high school graduates.[23] At the time of entry, 70% of enrollees were malnourished and poorly clothed. Few had work experience beyond occasional odd jobs. Peace was maintained by the threat of "dishonorable discharge". "This is a training station; we're going to leave morally and physically fit to lick 'Old Man Depression,'" boasted the newsletter, Happy Days, of a North Carolina camp.


Because of the power of the Solid South white Democrats in Congress, who insisted on racial segregation, the New Deal programs were racially segregated; blacks and whites rarely worked alongside each other. At this time, all the states of the South had passed legislation imposing racial segregation and, since the turn of the century, laws and constitutional provisions that disenfranchised most blacks; they were excluded from formal politics. Because of discrimination by white officials at the local and state levels, blacks in the South did not receive as many benefits as whites from New Deal programs.

In the first few weeks of operation, CCC camps in the North were integrated. By July 1935, however, all the camps in the United States were segregated.[29]

A total of 200,000 blacks were enrolled in the CCC; they served in 143 all-black camps and received equal pay and housing. Black leaders lobbied to secure leadership roles. Adult white men held the major leadership roles in all the camps. Director Robert Fechner refused to appoint black adults to any supervisory positions except that of education director in the all-black camps.[30]

Indian Division

The CCC operated an entirely separate division for members of federally recognized tribes: the Indian Emergency Conservation Work (IECW or CCC-ID). Native men from reservations worked on roads, bridges, clinics, shelters, and other public works near their reservations. Although they were organized as groups classified as camps, no permanent camps were established for Native Americans. Instead, organized groups moved with their families from project to project, and were provided with an additional rental allowance in their pay.[31] The CCC often provided the only paid work, as many reservations were in remote rural areas. Enrollees had to be between the ages of 17 and 35.

During 1933, about half the male heads of households on the Sioux reservations in South Dakota were employed by the CCC-ID.[32] With grants from the Public Works Administration (PWA), the Indian Division built schools and conducted an extensive road-building program in and around many reservations to improve infrastructure. The mission was to reduce erosion and improve the value of Indian lands. Crews built dams of many types on creeks, then sowed grass on the eroded areas from which the damming materials had been taken. They built roads and planted shelter-belts on federal lands. The steady income helped participants regain self-respect and many used the funds to improve their lives. John Collier the federal Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Daniel Murphy, the director of the CCC-ID, both based the program on Indian self-rule and the restoration of tribal lands, governments, and cultures. The next year, Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which ended allotments and helped preserve tribal lands, and encouraged tribes to re-establish self-government.

Collier said of the CCC-Indian Division, "no previous undertaking in Indian Service has so largely been the Indians' own undertaking". Education programs also trained participants in gardening, stock raising, safety, native arts, and some academic subjects.[33] IECW differed from other CCC activities in that it explicitly trained men in skills to be carpenters, truck drivers, radio operators, mechanics, surveyors, and technicians. With the passage of the National Defense Vocational Training Act of 1941, enrollees began participating in defense-oriented training. The government paid for the classes and, after individuals completed courses and passed a competency test, guaranteed automatic employment in the defense work. A total of 85,000 Native Americans were enrolled in this training. This proved valuable social capital for the 24,000 alumni who later served in the military and the 40,000 who left the reservations for city jobs supporting the war effort.

Program expansion, 1935–1936

Responding to favorable public opinion to alleviate unemployment, Congress approved the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935, on April 8, 1935, which included continued funding for the CCC program through March 31, 1937. The age limit was expanded to 18-28 to include more men.[21]:11[34] From April 1, 1935 to March 31, 1936 was the period of greatest activity and work accomplished by the CCC program. Enrollment had peaked at 505,782 in about 2,900 camps by August 31, 1935, followed by a reduction to 350,000 enrollees in 2,019 camps by June 30, 1936.[35] During this period the public response to the CCC program was overwhelmingly popular. A Gallup poll of April 18, 1936 asked "Are you in favor of the CCC camps?"; 82% of respondents said yes, including 92% of Democrats and 67% of Republicans.[36]

Change of purpose, 1937–1938

On June 28, 1937 the Civilian Conservation Corps was legally established, transferred from its original designation as the Emergency Conservation Work program. Funding was extended for three more years by Public Law No. 163, 75th Congress, effective July 1, 1937. Congress changed the age limits to 17–23 years old, and changed the requirement that enrollees be on relief to "not regularly in attendance at school, or possessing full time employment."[37] The 1937 law mandated the inclusion of vocational and academic training for a minimum of 10 hours per week. Students in school were allowed to enroll during (summer) vacation.[38] During this period, the CCC forces contributed to disaster relief following 1937 floods in New York, Vermont, and the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, and response and clean-up after the 1938 hurricane in New England.

Conservation to Defense, 1939–1940

In 1939 Congress ended the independent status of the CCC, transferring it to the control of the Federal Security Agency. The National Youth Administration, U.S. Employment Service, the Office of Education, and the Works Progress Administration also had some responsibilities. About 5,000 Reserve officers for the camps were affected, as they were transferred to federal Civil Service, and military ranks and titles were eliminated. Despite the loss of overt military leadership in the camps by July 1940, with war underway in Europe and Asia, the government directed an increasing number of CCC projects on resources for national defense. It developed infrastructure for military training facilities and forest protection. By 1940 the CCC was no longer wholly a relief agency, was rapidly losing its non-military character, and it was becoming a system for work-training, as its ranks had become increasingly younger, with little experience.[39]

Decline and disbandment 1941–1942

Although the CCC was probably the most popular New Deal program, it never was authorized as a permanent agency. The program was reduced in scale as the Depression waned and employment opportunities improved. After conscription (the draft) began in 1940, fewer eligible young men were available. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Roosevelt administration directed all federal programs to emphasize the war effort. Most CCC work, except for wildland firefighting, was shifted onto U.S. military bases to help with construction.

The CCC disbanded one year earlier than planned, as the 77th United States Congress ceased funding it. Operations were formally concluded at the end of the federal fiscal year on June 30, 1942. The end of the CCC program and closing of the camps involved arrangements to leave the incomplete work projects in the best possible state, the separation of about 1,800 appointed employees, the transfer of CCC property to the War and Navy Departments and other agencies, and the preparation of final accountability records. Liquidation of the CCC was ordered by Congress by the Labor-Federal Security Appropriation Act (56 Stat. 569) on July 2, 1942; and virtually completed on June 30, 1943.[40] Liquidation appropriations for the CCC continued through April 20, 1948.

Some former CCC sites in good condition were reactivated from 1941 to 1947 as Civilian Public Service camps where conscientious objectors performed "work of national importance" as an alternative to military service. Other camps were used to hold Japanese, German and Italian Americans interned under the Western Defense Command's Enemy Alien Control Program, as well as Axis prisoners of war.[41] Most of the Japanese American internment camps were built by the people held there. After the CCC disbanded, the federal agencies responsible for public lands organized their own seasonal fire crews, modeled after the CCC. These have performed a firefighting function formerly done by the CCC and provided the same sort of outdoor work experience for young people. Approximately 47 young men have died while in this line of duty.

A CCC pillowcase on display at the CCC Museum in Michigan

Legacy and memory

Civilian Conservation Corps Museums

CCC notable alumni and administrators


Statue of CCC worker in Santa Fe, New Mexico

In several cities where CCC workers worked, statues were erected to commemorate them.[42]

Representation in other media

The CCC model

The CCC program was never officially terminated. Congress provided funding for closing the remaining camps in 1942 with the equipment being reallocated.[46] It became a model for conservation programs that were implemented in the period after World War II. Present-day corps are national, state and local programs that engage primarily youth and young adults (ages 16–25) in community service, training and educational activities. The nation's approximate 113 corps programs operate in 41 states and the District of Columbia. During 2004, they enrolled more than 23,000 young people. The Corps Network, known originally as the National Association of Service and Conservation Corps (NASCC), works to expand and enhance corps-type programs throughout the country. The Corps Network began in 1985, when the nation's first 24 Corps directors banded together to secure an advocate at the federal level and a repository of information on how best to start and manage a corps. Early financial assistance from the Ford, Hewlett and Mott Foundations was critical to establishing the association.

Another similar program is the National Civilian Community Corps, part of the AmeriCorps program, a team-based national service program in which 18- to 24-year-olds spend 10 months working for non-profit and government organizations.

Student Conservation Association

The CCC program became a model for the creation of team-based national service youth conservation programs such as the Student Conservation Association (SCA). The SCA, founded in 1959, is a nonprofit organization that offers conservation internships and summer trail crew opportunities to more than 4,000 people each year. The SCA mission is to build a new generation of conservation managers by inspiring lifelong stewardship of the environment and communities by engaging high school and college-age volunteers in hands-on service to the land. SCA program is active nationwide in the USA, including national and state parks, forests, wildlife refuges, seashores and historic sites. SCA National Headquarters is located in Charlestown, New Hampshire with regional offices across the country.

California Conservation Corps

In 1976, Governor of California Jerry Brown established the California Conservation Corps. This new program had many similar characteristics - residential centers, high expectations for participation, emphasis on hard work on public lands. Young adults from different backgrounds were recruited for a term of one-year. Corps members attended a training session called the Corpsmember Orientation Motivation Education and Training (COMET) program before being assigned to one of the various centers. Life at CCC centers is rigorous, starting with early morning exercises, breakfast, roll call and a full day's work. After hours include education, life skills workshops, community meetings, volunteerism. Project work is also similar to the original CCC of the 1930s - work on public forests, state and federal parks.

Texas Conservation Corps

Established in 1995, Environmental Corps, now Texas Conservation Corps (TxCC), is an American YouthWorks program which allows youth, ages 17 to 28, to contribute to the restoration and preservation of parks and public lands in Texas. The only conservation corps in Texas, TxcC is a 501(c)3 non profit corporation based in Austin, Texas, which serves the entire state. Their work ranges from disaster relief to trail building to habitat restoration. TxCC has done projects in national, state, and city parks.

Montana Conservation Corps

The Montana Conservation Corps (MCC) is a registered 501(c)3 non-profit organization with a mission to equip young people with the skills and values to be vigorous citizens who improve their communities and environment. Collectively, MCC crews contribute more than 90,000 work hours each year. The MCC was established in 1991 by Montana's Human Resource Development Councils in Billings, Bozeman and Kalispell. Originally, it was a summer program for disadvantaged youth, although it has grown into an AmeriCorps-sponsored non-profit organization with six regional offices that serve Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota. All regions also offer MontanaYES (Youth Engaged in Service) summer programs for teenagers who are 14 to 16 years old.

Washington Conservation Corps

The Washington Conservation Corps (WCC) is a sub-agency of the Washington State Department of Ecology. It employs men and women 18 to 25 years old in a program to protect and enhance Washington's natural resources. WCC is a part of the AmeriCorps program.

Minnesota Conservation Corps

Conservation Corps Minnesota & Iowa provides environmental stewardship and service-learning opportunities to youth and young adults while accomplishing conservation, natural resource management projects and emergency response work through its Young Adult Program and the Summer Youth Program. These programs emphasize the development of job and life skills by conservation and community service work.

Vermont Youth Conservation Corps

The Vermont Youth Conservation Corps (VYCC) is a non-profit, youth service and education organization that hires Corps Members, aged 16–24, to work on high-priority conservation projects in Vermont. Through these work projects, Corps Members develop a strong work ethic, strengthen their leadership skills, and learn how to take personal responsibility for their actions. VYCC Crews work at VT State Parks, U.S. Forest Service Campgrounds, in local communities, and throughout the state's back country. The VYCC has also given aid to a similar program in North Carolina, which is currently in its infancy.

Conservation Legacy

Conservation Legacy is a non-profit employment, job training, and education organization with locations across the United States including Arizona Conservation Corps in Tucson and Flagstaff, AZ, Southwest Conservation Corps in Durango and Salida, Colorado, and Southeast Conservation Corps in Chattanooga, TN. Conservation Legacy also operates an AmeriCorps VISTA team serving to improve the environment and economies of historic mining communities in the American West and Appalachia. Conservation Legacy also hosts the Environmental Stewards Program - providing internships with federal, state, municipal and NGO land management agencies nationwide.[47] Conservation Legacy formed as a merger of the Southwest Youth Corps, San Luis Valley Youth Corps, The Youth Corps of Southern Arizona, and Coconino Rural Environmental Corps.

Conservation Legacy engages young adults ages 14 to 26 and US military veterans of all ages in personal and professional development experiences involving conservation projects on public lands. Corp members live, work, and learn in teams of six to eight for terms of service ranging from 3 months to 1 year.

See also


  1. "Timeline . The Civilian Conservation Corps . American Experience . WGBH - PBS". American Experience.
  2. "Inflation Calculator: Bureau of Labor Statistics". Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  3. John A. Salmond, The Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 1933–1942: a New Deal case study (1967)
  4. Perry H. Merrill, Roosevelt's Forest Army, A History of the Civilian Conservation Corps (1981) p. 196
  5. "Conservation: Poor Young Men, Time February 6, 1939 online
  6. Robert Allen Ermentrout, "Forgotten Men: The Civilian Conservation Corps," (1982) p. 99
  7. "CCC Legacy Home". ccclegacy.
  8. Rosentreter, Roger L. "Roosevelt's Tree Army". Michigan History Magazine.
  9. Alysa Landry, "Franklin Delano Roosevelt: A New Deal for Indians", Indian Country Today, August 9, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016
  10. Wirth, pp. 105, 142-144
  11. John A. Salmond, The Civilian Conservation Corps 1933–1942: a New Deal case study. (1967), ch. 1 online edition
  12. "Message to Congress on Unemployment Relief. March 21," The Presidential Papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933 (1938)
  13. Neil M. Maher, Nature's New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement (2009), p. 79
  14. On the formation see Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal (1973), pp. 255-266
  15. Darby, Jean Douglas. MacArthur, Twenty-First Century Books, 1989, p. 47
  16. Imparato, Edward T., editor Effect of the Civilian Conservation Corps Project upon Army Activity and Readiness for Emergency General MacArthur Speeches and Reports 1908–1964, Turner Publishing Company, 2000, p. 58
  17. Charles E. Heller, "The U.S. Army, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and Leadership for World War II, 1933-1942," Armed Forces & Society (2010) 36#3 pp 439-453 online
  18. "Camp Roosevelt, NF-1". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008.
  19. "Timeline. Surviving the Dust Bowl. American Experience . WGBH - PBS". Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  20. Ermentrout, p. 15
  21. 1 2 3 Fechner, Robert, Director (1938). Pamphlet: Objectives and Results of the Civilian Conservation Corps Program. Washington, D.C: Civilian Conservation Corps.
  22. Wirth, Conrad L. (1980). Parks, Politics and the People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 94–99. ISBN 0-8061-1605-6.
  23. 1 2 Ermentrout, Robert Allen (1982). Forgotten Men: The Civilian Conservation Corps. Smithtown, NY: Exposition Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-682-49805-X.
  24. "Your CCC, A Handbook for Enrollees," Happy Days Pub. Co., Inc. (1940) pp. 8–13
  25. Ermentrout, pp. 16, 76-77
  26. "United States Army Civilian Conservation Corps. Company 114th," Francis P. Waversak, Stone Walls, Spring 1990 p. 23
  27. Merrill, Perry H. (1981) Roosevelt's Forest Army, A History of the Civilian Conservation Corps, p. 9
  28. "Your CCC, A Handbook for Enrollees", Happy Days Pub. Co., Inc. (1940) p. 9
  29. Kay Rippelmeyer (2015). The Civilian Conservation Corps in Southern Illinois, 1933-1942. Southern Illinois Press. pp. 98–99.
  30. Gower, Calvin W. (1976). "The Struggle of Blacks for Leadership Positions in the Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933–1942". Journal of Negro History. 61 (2): 123–135. JSTOR 2717266.
  31. Gower, Calvin W. (1972). "The CCC Indian Division: Aid for Depressed Americans, 1933–1942". Minnesota History. 43 (1): 3–13.
  32. Bromert, Roger (1978). "The Sioux and the Indian-CCC". South Dakota History. 8 (4): 340–356.
  33. Hanneman, Carolyn G. (1999). "Baffles, Bridges, and Bermuda: Oklahoma Indians and the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 77 (4): 428–449.
  34. "Digital Archives".
  35. Ermentrout, p. 33
  36. Public Opinion, 1935–1946, ed. by Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk (1951), p. 111
  37. Civilian Conservation Corps, "Standards of Eligibility and Selection for Junior Enrollees," United States Dept. of Labor, Office of the Secretary, August 1, 1938
  38. Ermentrout, pp. 48–49, 51
  39. Ermentrout, pp. 55, 62, 64
  40. Wirth, Conrad L., Civilian Conservation Corps Program of the US Dept. of the Interior, March 1933 to June 30, 1942, a Report to Harold L. Ickes, January 1944
  41. "Civilian Conservation Corps". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  42. "CCC Statues". National New Deal Preservation Association. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  43. jtf87. "American Experience (TV Series 1988– )". IMDb.
  44. dimplet (November 2, 2009). ""American Experience" Civilian Conservation Corps (TV Episode 2009)". IMDb.
  45. "Another Author: Book Review: HITCH - Making Good In Hard Times". February 19, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2016..
  46. "Timeline . The Civilian Conservation Corps . American Experience . WGBH - PBS". American Experience.
  47. "Home - Conservation Legacy".

Further reading

Indian Division

Primary sources

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