|Province of Cavite|
Cavite Provincial Capitol
|Nickname(s): Historical Capital of the Philippines|
Location in the Philippines
|Coordinates: 14°16′N 120°52′E / 14.27°N 120.87°ECoordinates: 14°16′N 120°52′E / 14.27°N 120.87°E|
|Region||Calabarzon (Region IV-A)|
|Established||March 10, 1614|
|• Type||Sangguniang Panlalawigan|
|• Governor||Jesus Crispin Remulla (UNA)|
|• Vice-Governor||Ramon Revilla III (Lakas-CMD)|
|• Total||1,574.17 km2 (607.79 sq mi)|
|• Land||1,426.06 km2 (550.60 sq mi)|
|Area rank||67th out of 81|
|Highest elevation||716 m (2,349 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|• Rank||1st out of 81|
|• Density||2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||2nd out of 81|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities|
|• Districts||1st to 7th districts of Cavite|
|• Ethnic groups|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)46|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-CAV|
|* Although Imus is the officially-designated capital and seat of government by P.D. 1163, de facto the provincial government functions from and remains in Trece Martires.|
Cavite (Filipino: Lalawigan ng Kabite; Tagalog pronunciation: [ˈkabite]; Chabacano: Provincia de Cavite) is a province in the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the Calabarzon region on Luzon island. Situated just 21 kilometers (13 mi) south of the capital, it is one of the most industrialized and fastest growing provinces because of its close proximity to Metro Manila. With a population of 3,678,301 in 2015, it is the most populated province in the country.
For over 300 years, the province has been known as the "Historical Capital of the Philippines" and was the cradle of the Philippine Revolution, the renouncement of Spanish colonial control, which culminated in the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite.
Cavite is surrounded by Laguna province to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas province to the south. To the west lies the West Philippine Sea. It is located within the Greater Manila Area, not to be confused with adjacent Metro Manila, the defined capital region. The urban influence of the metropolis together with easy accessibility, adequate infrastructure and comparatively fresh natural setting makes the picturesque province an ideal refuge.
Cavite is the second smallest province (with the Province of Rizal being the smallest) in the Calabarzon region. Cavite occupies land area of 1,427.06 square kilometres (550.99 sq mi) which is approximately 8.72 percent of Calabarzon's total land area, 2.74 percent of the regional area and 0.48 per cent of the total land area of the Philippines. The municipalities of Maragondon and Silang have the biggest land areas, comprising 165.49 square kilometres (63.90 sq mi) and 156.41 square kilometres (60.39 sq mi) respectively, while the municipality of Noveleta has the smallest land area as indicated by 5.41 square kilometres (2.09 sq mi) or 0.38 percent of the provincial total and area.
Topography and slope
Situated at the entrance of Manila Bay, Cavite is characterized by rolling hinterlands punctuated by hills; shoreline fronting Manila Bay at sea level; and rugged portion at the boundary with Batangas where the Dos Picos mountains are located. The province has two mountain ranges.
- The lowest lowland area is the coastal plain in particular. These areas have extremely low ground level of 0 to 2 metres (0.0 to 6.6 ft) elevation compared to the high tide level of about 0.8 meters (2 ft 7 in) from the mean sea level (msl). These are the cities of Cavite, Bacoor and the municipalities of Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, northern part of Carmona and eastern part of Ternate.
- The lowland area consists of the coastal and alluvial plains. These areas have flat ground slope of less than 0.5% and low ground elevation of 2 to 30 metres (6 ft 7 in to 98 ft 5 in). The alluvial plain can be found in the city of Imus and southern part of General Trias. Into these municipalities forms the transition area between the coastal plain and the central hilly area. It also covers some areas of Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza and Carmona.
- The third topography type is the central hilly area, generally found on the mountain foot slope. It forms the rolling tuffaceous plateau. This topography includes steep hills, ridges and elevated inland valley. The plateau is characterized with ground elevation ranging from 30 meters (98 ft) to nearly 400 meters (1,300 ft). Its ground slope ranges from 0.5 to 2%. The city of Trece Martires and Dasmariñas and the municipalities of General Emilio Aguinaldo, General Mariano Alvarez, Indang, Maragondon, Ternate, Silang and Carmona have this kind of topography.
- The last topography type is upland mountainous area, found in Magallanes, Amadeo, Tagaytay, Mendez, Alfonso, southern part of Maragondon and Carmona. They are situated at a very high elevation above 400 meters (1,300 ft) with slopes of more than 2%. The Tagaytay ridge has an average elevation of 610 metres (2,000 ft) with Mount Sungay (now People's Park in the Sky) at 14°8′31.71″N 121°1′19.02″E / 14.1421417°N 121.0219500°E, the highest elevation in the province at 716 metres (2,349 ft). The mountain was much higher before with an elevation of 752 meters (2,467 ft), topped by rock formations that resembled horns (Sungay in Tagalog) hence the name. The prominence of the mountain was leveled in half during the construction of Peoples Park in the Sky during the Marcos administration.
- Balot Island, located at the mouth of Ternate River
- Caballo Island
- El Fraile Island
- Carabao Island
- La Monja Island, located west of Corregidor
- Limbones Island, located off Maragondon coast near Batangas border
- Pulo ni Burunggoy (now Island Cove Resort) [formerly Covelandia] located in Bacoor Bay
- Santa Amalia Island, located NW of Corregidor
Land resources and distribution
Cavite's land resources are categorized into two: forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. Forest lands are being maintained as they play a great role for the ecological balance of the province aside from the fact that they are home to numerous flora and fauna that needs to be protected and preserved. Correspondingly, the alienable and disposable lands are the built-up areas as well as production areas. These lands are intended for urban, economic and demographic developments.
Cavite province lies in the western monsoon forest zone. This location is very beneficial for the formation of tropical rainforests, which are characteristically made through natural vegetation. In 2007, the existing forest area within the province totaled only to 8,625 hectares (21,310 acres). These forest areas were categorized as Protected Landscape under the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and the rest, unclassified forest (Non-NIPAS). A total of 4,000 hectares (9,900 acres) are located within the Mounts Palay-Palay–Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape, a protected area in Ternate and Maragondon created by Proclamation Number 1594 on October 26, 1976. The park lies at the border of Cavite and Batangas and encompasses three peaks, Palay-Palay, Pico de Loro and Mataas na Gulod. The five (5) unclassified forests are found along Tagaytay Ridge, Maragondon, Magallanes, Ternate and Alfonso. The other mountain peaks in the province are Mt. Buntis, Mt. Nagpatong, Mt. Hulog and Mt. Gonzales (Mt. Sungay).
Cavite's forest provides an abundance of different forest products. Bamboo, a member of the grass family, is one of the most available forest products found in the municipalities of Ternate, Magallanes, Maragondon and General Aguinaldo throughout the year.
These lands are being used in various ways, either for agriculture, residences, open areas, etc. Based on the Cavite Provincial Physical Framework Plan 2005–2010, Cavite's alienable and disposable lands are further classified into production lands and built-up areas. Production lands in Cavite are intended for agriculture, fishery and mining. On the other hand, built-up areas are mainly for residential areas, commercial, industrial and tourism areas.
Majority of production land-use is for agriculture. Considering that 50.33% of the total provincial land area is engaged into agriculture, it can be generalized that in spite of rapid urbanization in the province, Cavite remains to have an agricultural economy that makes food security attainable. Some of the major crops being produced in the province are rice, corn, coffee, coconuts, cut flowers and vegetables.
Included in the agricultural land use are livestock farms that range from piggery, poultry, goat and cattle farms. The climatic suitability of Cavite makes the province ideal for integrated farming, having crops and livestock raising in one farm.
Fishery is also another major component of the agricultural sector. Having rich marine resources and long coastlines, the province is home to numerous fishery activities providing livelihood to many Caviteños. In some lowland and even upland areas, fishery, in the form of fish ponds are also producing considerable amount of fish products. Some areas in Cavite are also engaged in fish processing and production of fish products like fish sauce.
Mining is the third component of production land-use in the province. As of 2009, there are 15 mining and quarrying areas operating in Cavite. Extraction includes filling materials, gravel, and sand.
The built-up areas are mainly composed of residential and industrial sites. This also includes commercial and business areas where commerce is transpiring. According to the 2007 Census of Population and Housing by the National Statistics Office of the Philippines, there are 611,450 occupied housing units in Cavite.
Moreover, according to the Housing and Land-Use Regulatory Board, there are around 1,224 housing subdivisions with issued license to sell in the province until 2009 which occupies an area of 9,471 hectares.
Meanwhile, the industrial sector also develops rapidly in the province. For 2009, operational industrial estates cover around 2,939 hectares (7,260 acres). Tourism establishments are also considered built-up areas such as golf courses, leisure farms, resorts and the likes.
The hydrological network of the province is composed of seven major rivers and its tributaries. These river systems generally flows from the highlands of Tagaytay and Maragondon to Manila Bay. Numerous springs, waterfalls and rivers found in the upland areas of the province, have been developed for tourism. In the lowland areas, hundreds of artesian wells and deep wells provide water supply for both residential and irrigation purposes.
Cavite shoreline stretches about 123 kilometres (76 mi). The communities located along the coast are Cavite City, Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza, Naic, Maragondon, and Ternate. The richness of Cavite's coastal resources is a major producer of oysters and mussels. The fishing industry also produces shrimp and bangus (milkfish). The western coastline are lined with of pale gray sand beaches popular with tourists. Thus, fishery and tourism contributes to the economic activity of the province.
These rivers are known to have various tributaries passing through the municipalities of the province:
Cavite is composed of several soil types according to soil surveys conducted by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). Classification of soil types in a specific area is a very important consideration in identifying its most fitted land-use. This way, utmost productivity can be achieved.
The lowland area of Cavite is generally composed of Guadalupe clay and clay loam. It is characterized as coarse and granular when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. Its substratum is solid volcanic tuff. These types of soils are suited to lowland rice and corn while those in the upland are suited for orchard and pasture. Guadalupe clay adobes are abundant in the southern part of Bacoor and Imus bordering Dasmariñas. The soil is hard and compact and difficult to cultivate that makes it generally unsuitable for diverse cropping. It is very sticky when wet and granular when dry. Forage grass is advised for this type of soil. Hydrosol and Obando sand are found along Bacoor Bay. The shoreline of Rosario, Tanza, Naic and Ternate are lined with Guadalupe sand.
The central area principally consists of Magallanes loam with streaks of Magallanes clay loam of sandy texture. This is recommended for diversified farming such as the cultivation of upland rice, corn, sugarcane, vegetables, coconut, coffee, mangoes and other fruit trees. The steep phase should be forested or planted to rootcrops. The eastern side of Cavite consists of Carmona clay loam with streaks of Carmona clay loam steep phase and Carmona sandy clay loam. This type of soil is granular with tuffaceaous material and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is planted to rice with irrigation or sugarcane without irrigation. Fruit trees such as mango, avocado and citrus are also grown in this type of soil. Guingua fine sandy loam is found along the lower part of Malabon and Alang-ilang River at Noveleta.
The type of soils that dominate the upland areas are Tagaytay loam and Tagaytay sandy loam with mountain soil undifferentiated found on the south-eastern side bordering Laguna province. Also on the southern tip are Magallanes clay and Mountain soil undifferentiated with interlacing of Magallanes clay loam steep phase. The Tagaytay loam contains fine sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it bakes and becomes hard when dry. About one-half of this soil type is devoted to upland rice and upland crops. On the other hand, Tagaytay sandy loam is friable and granular with considerable amount of volcanic sand and underlain by adobe clay. Mountain soil undifferentiated is forested with bamboos found in the sea coast. Cavite also has the Patungan sand characterized by pale gray to almost white sand with substratum of marine conglomerates which are found at Sta. Mercedes in Maragondon and in some coastlines of Ternate.
Mineral resources and reserves
The greater parts of Cavite are composed of volcanic materials, tuff, cinders, basalt, breccias, agglomerate and interbeddings of shales, and sandstones. The dormant and active volcanoes (Taal) are within these volcanic areas and have been the sources of volcanic materials which form the Tagaytay Cuesta. The drainage systems are deeply entrenched in the tuffs, eroding thin interbedded sandstones and conglomerate rocks which are the sources of little reserves of sand and gravel in the larger stream. Adobe stone quarries also flourish in the tuff areas.
Cavite coastal areas have marl and conglomerate sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks which are prominent in the high, mountainous regions of western part of the province. Black sands are found in Kawit while Noveleta has its own salt products. Magallanes has gravel deposits while reserves of sand and gravel materials are found in Alfonso, Carmona, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Naic, Ternate, Maragondon and Silang.
Cavite belongs to Type 1 climate based on the Climate Map of the Philippines by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Being a Type 1, Cavite has two pronounced seasons – the dry season, which usually begins in November and ends in April, and the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October. The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Am" (Tropical Monsoon Climate).
|Climate data for Cavite|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 29
|Average low °C (°F)|| 23
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 13
The name "Cavite" comes from the Hispanicized form of kawit or it may be a corruption of kalawit, Tagalog words for "hook", in reference to the small hook-shaped peninsula jutting out to Manila Bay. The name originally applied to the peninsula, Cavite La Punta (now Cavite City) and the adjacent lowland coastal area of Cavite Viejo (now Kawit).
Another theory proposes that the name is a Hispanicized form of kabit, Tagalog for "joined", "connected", or "attached", referring to the peninsula's topographical relation to the mainland. Edmund Roberts, in his 1821 memoir, stated that the "natives" called it Caveit due to the "crooked point of land extending into the sea."
The present Cavite City was once a mooring place for Chinese junks trading that came to trade with the settlements around Manila Bay. The land was formerly known as "Tangway". Archeological evidence in coastal areas show prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Sulu or Borneo.
Spanish colonial period
The Spanish colonizers who arrived in the late 16th century saw the unusual tongue of land jutting out on Manila Bay and saw its deep waters as the main staging ground where they could launch their bulky galleons. It would later become the most important port linking the colony to the outside world through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. In 1571, Spanish colonizers established the port and City of Cavite and fortified the settlement as a first line of defense for the city of Manila. Galleons were built and fitted at the port and many Chinese merchants settled in the communities of Bacoor and Kawit, opposite the Spanish city to trade silks, porcelain and other oriental goods.
"A defensive curtained wall was constructed the length of Cavite's western side," beginning from the entrance, "La Estanzuela", and continuing to the end of the peninsula, "Punta de Rivera", with the eastern shore unprotected by a wall. Cavite contained government offices, churches, mission buildings, Spanish homes, Fort San Felipe and the Rivera de Cavite shipyard. Docks were in place to construct galleons and galleys, but without a dry dock, ships were repaired by careening along the beach.
Fort San Felipe, La Fuerza de San Felipe, was built between 1609 and 1616. This quadrilateral structure of curtained walls, with bastions at the corners, contained 20 cannons facing the seashore. Three infantry companies, 180 men each, plus 220 Pampangan infantry, garrisoned the fort.:142–143
The galleons Espiritu Santo and San Miguel, plus six galleys were constructed between 1606 and 1616. From 1729 to 1739, "the main purpose of the Cavite shipyard was the construction and outfitting of the galleons for the Manila to Acapulco trade run."
The vibrant mix of traders, Spanish seamen from Spain and its Latin-American colonies as well as local residents gave rise to the use of pidgin Spanish called Chabacano.
In 1614, the politico-military jurisdiction of Cavite was established. As with many other provinces organized during the Spanish colonial era, Cavite City, the name of the capital, was applied to the whole province, Cavite. The province covered all the present territory except for the town of Maragondon, which used to belong to the Corregimiento of Mariveles. Maragondon was ceded to Cavite in 1754 when Bataan province was created from Pampanga province. Within Maragondon is a settlement established in 1660 by Christian exiles brought in by the Jesuits from Ternate in the Maluku Islands, and named this land Ternate after their former homeland.
Owing to its military importance, Cavite had been attacked by foreigners in their quest to conquer Manila and the Philippines. The Dutch made a surprise attack on the city in 1647, pounding the port incessantly, but were repulsed. In 1672, the British occupied the port during their two-year control in the Philippines.
In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon to Spanish conquistadores and their families. The religious orders began acquiring these lands, with some donated, enlarging vast haciendas (estates) in Cavite during the 18th and 19th century, enriching themselves. These haciendas became the source of bitter conflicts between the friar orders and Filipino farmers and pushed a number of Caviteños to live as outlaws. This opposition to the friar orders was an important factor that drove many Cavite residents to support reform, and later, independence.
In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province through the Battle of Alapan. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end - the proclamation of the First Republic of the Philippines on June 12, 1898 in Kawit.
During the Spanish–American War, American forces attacked the Spanish squadron in Cavite. The Spanish defeat marked the end of Spanish rule in the country.
American colonial period & World War II
The military built of founding general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active in January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946 and the 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was active again on October 28, 1944 to June 30, 1946 and stationed in Cavite during the military conflicts and engagements against the Japanese Occupation.
From May 7, 1942 to August 15, 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army repeatedly entered the provinces in Cavite with the recognized guerrillas of the Cavite Guerrilla Forces and the Filipino-American Cavite Guerrilla Forces (FACGF) under Colonel Mariano Castañeda of the Philippine Constabulary to attack the occupying Japanese troops as the Filipinos attempted to recapture Cavite. After the initial conflict insurgencies persisted in Cavite in 1944 supported by local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units and Caviteňo resistance. Before the liberation in Cavite in 1945 by joint U.S. and Filipino soldiers and aiding the Caviteño resistance groups was liberated the clearing province and defeats Japanese.
In January 1, to August 15, 1945, combined Filipino and American troops along with the Caviteño guerrilla fighters liberated in Cavite from the Japanese forces begins the Battle for the Liberation of Cavite at the end of World War II.
|Population census of|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Cavite had a total population of 3,678,301 in the 2015 census, making it the most populous (if independent cities are excluded from Cebu), and the second most densely populated province in the country. The tremendous increase can be observed in the year 1990 when industrialization was introduced in the province. Investors established their businesses in different industrial estates that magnetized people to migrate to Cavite due to job opportunities the province offers. Another factor attributed to the increase of population is the mushrooming of housing subdivisions. Since Cavite is proximate to Metro Manila, people working in the metropolitan area choose to live in the province together with their families. Natural increase also contributes to the increase in population. The population density of the province based on the 2015 census was 2,300 inhabitants per square kilometre or 6,000 inhabitants per square mile.
Among the cities and municipalities in Cavite, the city of Dasmariñas has the biggest population with 659,019 people while the municipality of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo has registered the smallest population with 22,220 people.
Cavite is classified as predominantly urban having 90.69 percent of the population concentrated in the urban areas, while 9.21 percent of the population reside in the rural areas.
In line with national statistics, the majority (70%) of the population are Roman Catholic while the strong presence of the Christian Churches such as the mainline Evangelical Churches (UCCP, UNIDA, IEMELIF, Methodist, Baptist and Assemblies Of God), Christian Fellowships (Jesus Is Lord, Bread of Life, Christ's Commission Fellowship, Jesus Is Alive Christian Ministry - Bacoor, Jesus Christ Spreading the Good News) that accounts for 10%, and other Christian Churches such as the United Pentecostal Churches, Seventh-day Adventist and numerous Oneness groups, have increased the population of the other Christian Churches. Iglesia ni Cristo account for 4% of the population and Members Church of God International. While adherents of the Aglipayan Church account for 20% of the total Cavite population.
The main languages spoken are Tagalog, Chabacano and English. Due to the province's proximity to Metro Manila a large number of people migrated to Cavite from farther provinces, resulting in a significant usage of Bikol, Cebuano and Ilokano.
Chabacano in Cavite
Chavacano or Chabacano is a Spanish-based creole language and known in linguistics as Philippine Creole Spanish. Chabacano is originally spoken by majority of the Caviteños that lived in Cavite City and Ternate after the arrival of the Spaniards three centuries ago. The various dialects of Chabacano were formed out of necessity like all languages, though scholars and laypersons disagree about exactly when and where it all began. The various language groups working at the Cavite naval base needed a way to communicate with each other, and to the soldiers who were barking the orders in less-than-genteel Spanish. It was from this situation that Cavite Chabacano began as a simplified form of Spanish – a pidgin language that later developed into a mixed, or creole language. The fact that the first Chabacanos learned their Spanish from the coarse language of soldiers is probably why they were called Chabacanos in the first place.
However, some historians disagree with parts of this story and say that Chabacano did not emerge until almost a century later when Catholic Malays settled in Cavite after the Spaniards had abandoned the Spice Islands to the Dutch in 1662. These Malays, known as the Mardicas (likely from the Malay word merdeka meaning "free"), settled in Ternate, the town named after their original homeland. They joined with many other language groups to defend Manila from yet another Chinese warlord, Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong).
Now used almost exclusively in Cavite City and coastal Ternate, Chabacano enjoyed its widest diffusion and greatest splendor in Spanish and American period of Filipino history, when newspapers and literary outputs flourished. Cavite Chabacano was spoken with relative ease because it was essentially a simplification of Castillan morphology patterned after the Tagalog syntax. Gradually and naturally, it acquired the sounds present in the Spanish phonological system. After World War II, creole Spanish speakers within the capital of the archipelago vanished. Around 30,000 Caviteños still speak Chabacano.
Culture and traditions
Aside from the celebrations of town fiestas, the province of Cavite celebrates festivals as forms of thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest. Some of these festivals are also observed in honor of the historical legacies passed from one generation to another generation. In fact, the province fetes the renowned Kalayaan Festival which is given a great social importance in commemoration of the heroism of its people. The annual Fiesta de la Reina del Provincia de Cavite is a grandiose fiesta celebration in honor of the patroness of the province, the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga. The image is enshrined at San Roque Church in Cavite City. Her feastday is celebrated every 2nd and 3rd Sunday of November.
Traditions and fiesta celebrations include Mardicas, a war dance held in Ternate town. Karakol street dancing with a fluvial procession is usually held in coastal towns. There is also a pre-colonial ritual called the Sanghiyang as a form of thanksgiving and to heal the sick. Another cultural tradition is the Live via Crucis or Kalbaryo ni Hesus held during Holy Week. The Maytinis or word prayer that is annually held in Kawit every December 24 before the beginning of the midnight Mass.
|Fiesta de la Reina de Caracol||Rosario||Held every 3rd weekend of May and 1st weekend of October. It celebrates the feast of the town patroness Nuestra Señora Virgen del Santissimo Rosario, Reina de Caracol starting with the traditional Caracol or "Karakol", which traditionally has two parts, the "Caracol del Mar" or fluvial procession and the "Caracol dela Tierra" or "karakol sa lupa". Caracol started in the town of Rosario and after how many years it spread to the whole province.|
|Fiesta de la Reina de Cavite City||Cavite City||Celebrated every 2nd and 3rd Sunday of November in honor of Cavite city's patroness, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga. It is also known as Cavite City fiesta.|
|Valenciana Festival||General Trias||A month-long celebration held in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Church is decorated with beautiful flowers. Every month of May.|
|Irok Festival||Indang||Done during the celebration of Indang Day. Float parade, street dancing, sports activities, lantern contest made out of irok leaves and a grand parade are held in the town plaza. Celebrated every November 30 to December 2.|
|Kabutenyo Festival||General Mariano Alvarez||Celebration and thanksgiving for bountiful mushrooms. Activities includes street dancing, trade fair and culinary contest with mushroom as main ingredients. Every March 13.|
|Kakanindayog Festival||Imus||The festival is celebrated to promote the native kakanin & other delicacies which the city is well known for such as Puto Lansong. Celebrates every month of October in honor of the city's patroness Nuestra Señora del Pilar and the founding anniversary of the city through street dancing and the traditional "Karakol" procession.|
|Kalayaan Festival||Provincewide||It is a 2-week-long province wide event held annually from May 28 to June 12. As its name suggests, the series of events for the festival are held to celebrate the independence day season.|
|Kawayan Festival||Maragondon||Held every 7th day of September wherein a group of street dancers parade in indigenous materials. An exhibit of bamboo products likewise done in the town plaza.|
|Marching Band Festival||Bacoor||To promote the musical heritage of the city & boost tourism through its number of marching bands around the country. Celebrated every 2nd weekend of May in honor of St. Michael the Archangel & Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary.|
|Mardicas||Ternate||Fluvial parades carrying the image of Sto. Niño are held and continue in the streets of the municipality and ends in the churchyard. Karakol and street dancing in beautiful and colorful costumes with brass band music. Every 3rd weekend of January.|
|Maytinis||Kawit||Re-enactment of Christ's birth on midnight of December 24 through a procession of colorful floats & costumes.|
|Pahimis Festival||Amadeo||Also Called the "Coffee Festival" as way of thanksgiving for abundant harvest of coffee in the municipality. Trade fair, street dancing, beauty pageant, coffee convention are the usual activities done during the occasion. Free flowing drinking of coffee is offered to everybody. Celebrates every 2nd week of February|
|Paskuhan sa Imus||Imus||A month-long festival of Christmas holiday. The city is decorated with thousands of lights, a dazzling array of lanterns of all shapes and a food fair featuring the best of Cavite products.|
|Pista ng mga Puso Festival||Tagaytay City||Festival held annually on Valentine's Day in honor of the city's patroness Our Lady of Lourdes. There are Karakol dancers parading and marching all over the city.|
|Regada Festival||Cavite City||Also called the "Water Festival", the festival consists of games, street dancing, photo exhibit, trade fair, concert and water splashing. The festival is done three days from June 22–24 done in celebration of St. John the Baptist.|
|Sapyaw Festival||Tanza||Street dancing are done all over the streets of the municipality with their attractive and very colorful costumes. Various barangays join the dancing in honor of St. Augustine. Every 20th day of August.|
|Silang Prutas Festival||Silang||Celebration and thanksgiving for bountiful fruits harvested in the said municipality. Activities includes street dancing, trade fair and culinary contest with fruits as the main source of income. Celebrates every February 2 in honor of the town's patroness Our Lady of Candelaria.|
|Sorteo ng Bukid||Carmona||Local festival held every three years of February to relive the old practice of distributing agricultural lots to deserving farmers through raffle draws.|
|Sumilang Festival||Silang||Recognized as an agriculture event. The occasion is participated in by dancers who come from the agricultural sector. Every February 1 to 3 in celebration of the feast of Our Lady of Candelaria.|
|Tahong Festival||Bacoor||Different cuisines with tahong as main ingredient are on exhibit at the town plaza. Culinary contest are held annually. Various activities are done such as beauty contest. Tahong symposium and seminars are held for culture of Tahong. Every September 29.|
|Tinapa Festival||Rosario||The festival is celebrated to promote and perpetuate the image of Rosario as the place where smoked fish called "Tinapang Salinas" originates. Celebrates every month of October in honor of the town's patroness Nuestra Señora del Santissimo Rosario Reina de Caracol.|
|Wagayway Festival||Imus||Every 28th day of May, household display of Philippine flag is encouraged during the festival, and simultaneous waving of flags in the streets of Cavite. Different activities such as exhibits, trade fair, product displays are held. It also commemorates the Battle of Alapan and as a kick-off celebration of the provincewide Kalayaan Festival.|
|Paru-paro Festival||Dasmariñas||Every 26th day of November, it commemorates the city of Dasmariñas. From a municipality to a beautiful city, which reflects the metamorphosis of a butterfly.|
- Foundation Day
Cavite Province celebrates its foundation every March 10
- Birthday of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
This is celebrated every March 22 in commemoration of the birth of the First President of the Republic.
- Independence Day
This is celebrated every June 12 in Kawit as a re-enactment of the historic proclamation of Philippine independence at the mansion of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
Cavite is predominantly an agriculture province. Cavite's economy is largely dependent to agriculture. Despite urbanization and industrialization, still, a significant number of Caviteños are engaged into agribusinesses. Data gathered from Office of the Provincial Agriculturist shows that though the province lies in the industrial belt, the agricultural land is about 49.38 percent or 70,466.53 hectares of the total land area of the Province. This is 1,176.5 hectares bigger than that of the declared agricultural lands in 2008 (69,290.03 hectares).
The municipality of Maragondon has the biggest area intended for agriculture, accounts for 14.57% of the total provincial agricultural lands while Cavite City has no longer available land for agriculture related activities and industries. If based on total agricultural lands, we may say that the major players in agriculture in the Province are Maragondon, Silang, Indang, Naic and Alfonso. Of the seven districts in the province, the top three with the widest agricultural area are District VII comprising 43,587.01 hectares or 61.85 percent of the total agricultural areas with 27,115 farmers followed by District VI with 17.40 percent or 12,257.71 hectares having 8,701 farmers and District V comprising 10,248.55 hectares with 10,295 farmers. The municipality of Silang has the most number of farmers. The municipality of Maragondon only ranks 3rd in terms of number of farmers. This can be attributed to highly mechanized operation and vast plantation of rice. The same is true with Gen. Trias and Naic, known as the rice producing municipalities in Cavite. The number of farmers increased by 6.5% that corresponds to around 3,097 farmers. The increase in the number of farmers was due to worldwide recession which led to work displacement of some Caviteños. Silang is dominated by pineapple and coffee plantations as well as with cutflower production.
Industry and commerce
Cavite has twelve (12) economic zones. The largest economic zone under development is located in Gen. Trias, the PEC Industrial Park with 177 hectares intended for garments, textiles, semiconductors, food processing and pharmaceuticals.
- Vermosa (Ayala Land) — Imus and Dasmariñas
- Vista City (Vista Land) — Bacoor and Dasmariñas (shared with Las Piñas and Muntinlupa)
- Lancaster New City (ProFriends) — Imus, Kawit and General Trias
- Maple Grove (Megaworld) — General Trias
- Southwoods City (Megaworld) — Carmona (shared with Biñan, Laguna)
- Suntrust Ecotown (Megaworld) — Tanza
- Twin Lakes Tagaytay (Megaworld) — Alfonso (shared with Laurel, Batangas)
- South Forbes City (Cathay Land) — Silang
Cavite is a historic, picturesque and scenic province providing a place conducive for both business and leisure. Tagaytay serves as the main tourist center.
Historical attraction and sites are Fort San Felipe and Sangley Point, both in Cavite City; Corregidor Island; General Trias; Calero Bridge, Noveleta; Battle of Alapan Marker and Flag in Imus; Zapote Bridge in Bacoor; Battle of Binakayan Monument in Kawit; Tejeros Convention Site in Rosario; and Aguinaldo Shrine, the site of the declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit. Several old churches stand as glorious reminders of how the Catholic faith has blossomed in the Province of Cavite. Existing museums include Geronimo de los Reyes Museum, General Trias; Museo De La Salle, Dasmariñas; Philippine Navy Museum, Cavite City; Baldomero Aguinaldo Museum, Kawit; and Cavite City Library Museum, Cavite City. There are eight (8) world-class golf courses in the province. Natural wonders are mostly found in the upland areas such as Tagaytay Ridge, Macabag Cave in Maragondon, Balite Falls in Amadeo, Malibiclibic Falls in General Aguinaldo-Magallanes border, Mts. Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod National Park in Ternate and Maragondon, Sitio Buhay Unclassified Forest in Magallanes and flowers, vegetables and coffee farms.
The Aguinaldo Shrine and Museum in Kawit is where the independence of the Philippines was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 by General Aguinaldo, the Philippines’ first president.
The Andrés Bonifacio House in General Trias is the former home of the country's revolutionary leader The site of his court martial in Maragondon is also preserved. Other historical sites include the Battle of Alapan and Battle of Julian Bridge Markers, the House of Tirona, and Fort San Felipe.
The main churches of the province are the Imus Cathedral, San Roque Parish in Cavite City where the miraculous image of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga enshrined., Bacoor, Silang, Naic, Tanza, Ternate, Indang, General Trias, Kawit and Maragondon Catholic Churches. The Shrines of Our Lady of La Salette in Silang, and St. Anne, Tagaytay, also attract pilgrims.
Corregidor is an island fortress where Filipino and American forces fought against the Japanese invaders in 1942. It has become a tourist attraction with tunnels, cannons and other war structures still well-preserved. The famous line of General Douglas McArthur said is associated with Corregidor: "I shall return!"
There are first class hotels, inns and lodging houses to accommodate both foreign and local tourists. Conference facilities can be found in several convention centers, hotels and resorts in the province. Restaurants and specialty dining places offer mushroom dishes, native delicacies and exotic cuisines. Seafoods, fruits, coffee, organic vegetables, tinapa, handicrafts, ornamental plants also abound in the province.
Mountain climbing is also one of the outdoor activities in Cavite. This includes the famous Mount Pico De Loro which is within the towns of Ternate and Maragondon (and some parts of it are already part of Batangas), which is a part of the Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod protected landscape. Mt. Pico De Loro is the highest part of Cavite at 664 meters above sea level and is noted for its 360 degree view at its summit and a cliff known as Parrot's Beak or Monolith that mountaineers would also like to climb. Mt. Marami, within the same mountain range, located at Magallanes town is also a famous mountaineer location due to its "silyang bato" (en. Chair of rocks) at its summit.
There are twenty-two (22) accredited tourism establishments and three (3) accredited tour guides. There are also tour packages being arranged with the Department of Tourism. Centuries old traditions and the very rich culture of Cavite have been the source of great pride to Caviteños.
Cavite's total road network comprises roughly 1,973 kilometers (1,226 mi). Of these, the 407.7-kilometre (253.3 mi) national roads are mostly paved with concrete or asphalt and are relatively in good condition with some portions in need of rehabilitation. Provincial roads stretches to an approximate total length of 335.1 kilometers (208.2 mi). Most of these roads are concrete, some are paved with asphalt and the rest remain gravel roads. Majority of the municipal/city roads are paved with concrete, while barangay roads consist of 46.7% concrete and asphalt roads and 53.3% earth and gravel roads.
There are three main highways traversing the province: Aguinaldo Highway runs in a general north-south direction; the Governor's Drive runs in a general east-west direction and the A. Soriano Highway runs within the coastal towns on the west. The existing road length computed in terms of road density with respect to population at the standard of 2.4 kilometers per 1,000 population has a deficit of 3,532.71 kilometers.
In 2011, the Cavite Expressway (CAVITEX) was opened, which lessened the heavy volume of vehicles on Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor. This project decreased the traffic congestion in Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor, so travel time from Imus to Baclaran/Pasay is lessened to only one hour.
In 2013, the Kaybiang Tunnel, the country's longest underground highway tunnel at 300 meters was opened along the Ternate-Nasugbu Road piercing through Mt. Pico De Loro's north ridge, tunnels'drainage system are designed thru this link, that shortens the travel time from Manila to the western coves of Cavite and Nasugbu, Batangas.
Last July 24, 2015, the Muntinlupa–Cavite Expressway, a 4 km (2 mi) (2.5 mi) long access-controlled toll expressway linking the southern province of Cavite to Muntinlupa in the Philippines, was opened to the public. The road is expected to reduce travel time by an average of 45 minutes from Daang Hari to Alabang Interchange as well as decongest traffic in Cavite, Las Piñas and Muntinlupa.
Proposed/ongoing transportation projects
The Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAX) is a proposed expressway that will cross the provinces of Cavite and Laguna in the Philippines. The construction of the four-lane 47-kilometre-long (29 mi) expressway will connect CAVITEX in Kawit, Cavite to SLEX-Mamplasan Interchange. When constructed, it is expected to ease the traffic in the Cavite–Laguna region, particularly in Aguinaldo Highway, Sta. Rosa-Tagaytay Road and Governor's Drive.
LRT Line 1 Extension Project
The LRT Line 1 South Extension Project, through southern Metro Manila to the Province of Cavite has been identified as an integral link of the Rail Transit Network by Metro Manila Urban Transportation Integration Study (MMUTIS). It is one of the priority projects of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) and LRTA. It is also a flagship project of the Office of the President.
The project aims to expand the existing LRT Line 1 service southward to the cities of Parañaque and Las Piñas and the city of Bacoor in the Cavite Province. The 27-km route of the light railway system was planned to carry a capacity of 40,000 passengers per direction per hour. The extension will have 48 air-conditioned coaches, 12-four car trains, 10 passenger stations and a satellite depot in Cavite. The said project will serve approximately 1.9 million commuters based in Pasay, Paranaque, Las Piñas and Bacoor.
LRT Line 6 Project
The mass transit system would pass along the Aguinaldo Highway and would have stations in Niog, Tirona, Imus, Daang Hari, Salitran, Congressional Avenue, and Governor's Drive. The project will improve passenger mobility and reduce the volume of vehicular traffic in the Cavite area by providing a higher capacity mass transit system. It also aims to spur economic development along the extension corridor.
Note: Partido Magdalo is a local political party in Cavite which is a coalition of Nacionalista Party, Lakas-CMD (LAKAS), United Nationalist Alliance (UNA), Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino, Nationalist Peoples Coalition (NPC) and National Unity Party (NUP) (with the 4th district being an exemption since its representatives caucuses with the Liberal).
:^1 Term has ended since SK has been defunct October 2013
- 1st District: Francis Gerard A. Abaya (Liberal)
- 2nd District: Edwin "Strike" Revilla (LAKAS/Magdalo)
- 3rd District: Alex L. Advincula (Liberal)
- 4th District: Jennifer Barzaga (NUP)
- 5th District: Atty. Roy M. Loyola (Liberal)
- 6th District: Luis A. Ferrer IV (NUP)
- 7th District: Abraham N. Tolentino (Liberal)
Colleges and universities
- Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies in Silang
- Adventist University of the Philippines in Silang
- AMA Computer College in Dasmariñas
- Cavite State University with ten campuses in the province
- City College of Tagaytay in Tagaytay City
- De La Salle University in Dasmariñas
- De La Salle Health Sciences Institute in Dasmariñas
- Eulogio "Amang" Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology in General Mariano Alvarez
- Emilio Aguinaldo College in Dasmariñas
- Far Eastern University in Silang
- Far East Asia Pacific Institute of Tourism Science and Technology - FEAPITSAT Colleges in Tanza, Dasmariñas and Maragondon
- Five Star Standard College in Bacoor
- Imus Computer College with ten branches in the province
- Imus Institute in Imus
- Lyceum of the Philippines University-Cavite in General Trias
- National College of Science and Technology in Dasmariñas
- Olivarez College in Tagaytay
- Philippine Christian University in Dasmariñas
- Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Maragondon
- Philippine Nautical Training Center in Dasmariñas
- Rogationist College in Silang
- St. Joseph College in Cavite City
- Saint Francis of Assisi College System in Bacoor and Dasmariñas
- Saint Gregory College of Science and Technology in Cavite City
- Saint Jude College in Dasmariñas
- San Sebastian College–Recoletos de Cavite in Cavite City
- STI College with four campuses in the province
- St. Dominic College Of Asia in Bacoor Cavite
- Technological University of the Philippines in Dasmariñas
- University of Perpetual Help System in General Mariano Alvarez and Bacoor
- International School for Hotel and Restaurant Management Bacoor and Dasmariñas
- Kaye Abad, actress.
- Joseph Emilio Abaya, Department of Transportation and Communications secretary and former representative 1st District of Cavite
- Nash Aguas, Teen Actor and Star Circle Kid Quest Grand Questor
- Baldomero Aguinaldo, Philippine Revolutionary leader
- Emilio Aguinaldo, first President of the Philippines
- Mariano Trias, first Vice President of the Philippines
- Mariano Álvarez, Philippine Revolutionary general
- Ernie Baron, Weather Forecaster and Host
- Román Basa, second president of the Katipunan
- Christian Bautista, singer, actor, and host
- Joseph Eric Buhain, chairman of the Philippines' Games and Amusement Board. swimmer
- George Canseco, composer, songwriter
- Juan Cailles, educator, governor of Laguna
- Felipe Calderón y Roca, lawyer, considered the Father of the Malolos Constitution
- Paulo C. Campos, Scientist, 1988 National Scientist in medical science
- Josefino Cenizal, composer
- Olivia Cenizal, actress
- Sugar Mercado-Go, actress, former SexBomb Girls member
- Lourdes J. Cruz, biochemist, 2006 National Scientist
- Serafin R. Cuevas, esteemed lawyer and former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (1984–1986) and Secretary of Justice (1998–2000)
- Ranidel de Ocampo, Professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association, currently plays for the Talk 'N Text Tropang Texters
- Yancy de Ocampo, athlete
- Bugoy Carino, Child Actor
- Gloria Diaz, actress and 1969 Miss Universe winner
- Ladislao Diwa, one of the founders of Katipunan
- Mart Escudero, actor
- Pedro F. Espiritu, Governor of the Province of Cavite (1931–1934)
- Heart Evangelista-Escudero, actress
- Julián Felipe, composer of the Philippine National Anthem & Reina de Cavite
- Lyca Gairanod, The Voice Kids (Philippines season 1) Champion
- Roxanne Guinoo, actress and Star Circle Teen Quest Finalist
- Leon Guinto, former mayor of the City of Manila during the Japanese occupation
- (Sgd.) Danilo T. Lara, former Undersecretary for Legal Affairs, Department of Agrarian Reform
- Hilario Lara - 1985 National Scientist in public health
- Panfilo Lacson, senator and former Philippine National Police chief
- Celeste Legaspi, singer, actress
- Jose C. Lamangan, film director, television director and actor
- Xian Lim, actor, musician, and singer
- Pablo "Boy" Logro, Chef, TV Host
- Edna Luna, actress
- Irineo "Ayong" Maliksi, PCSO Chairman, former Representative 3rd District of Cavite, former Cavite Governor and former City Mayor of Imus
- Leonardo Manicio, aka Nardong Putik Filipino gangster turned folk hero
- Lily Marquez, actress
- Lani Mercado, actress, Bacoor City Mayor and former representative 2nd District of Cavite
- Julian Montalan, General, Republika ng Katagalugan
- Justiniano S. Montano, former senator and representative 6th District of Cavite
- Gregoria Montoya – Considered as the Joan of Arc of the Philippine Revolution
- Mariano Noriel, served as general under Emilio Aguinaldo's revolutionary army during the 1896 Philippine Revolution
- Diether Ocampo, actor, singer, and model
- Manuel R. Pamaran, esteemed lawyer and former presiding justice of the Sandiganbayan from 1978 to 1986, known as "The Hanging Judge" for deciding over high-profile cases using death penalty
- Rey D. Pagtakhan, Canadian physician, professor and politician. He was a cabinet minister in the governments of Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin, and served as a member of parliament from 1988 until his defeat in the 2004 election.
- Ollie de la Peña, actress.
- Efren Peñaflorida, CNN Hero of the Year for 2009.
- Marcelito Pomoy, singer, Pilipinas Got Talent grand winner
- Mars Ravelo, graphic novelist
- Gilbert Remulla, TV host, news anchor, reporter, former representative 1st District of Cavite
- Bong Revilla, actor, former senator Cavite governor and vice governor
- Jolo Revilla, actor and vice governor
- Ram Revilla, actor
- Ramon Revilla, Sr., actor and former Senator
- Strike Revilla, Representative 2nd District of Cavite former councilor & mayor of Bacoor and former Cavite board member & former PCSO Chairman
- Marian Rivera-Dantes, actress, TV Host
- Hilarion Francisco Rubio, director of the Centro Escolar University Conservatory of Music, a full professor of the UP Conservatory of Music, founder and the first president of the Philippine Bandmaster's Association, founder, D' Original Band
- Leopoldo Salcedo, actor
- Luciano San Miguel, Philippine–American War General
- Jose P. Santillan, 1971-1973 Constitutional Convention Delegate
- Cesar N. Sarino, former Secretary of Interior and Local Government and former General Manager of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS)
- Bernadette Sembrano-Aguinaldo, news anchor, TV/Radio host
- Wesley So, chess grandmaster and 8th youngest chess grandmaster in history
- Fatima Soriano, TV/Radio Host and Singer
- Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle, Archbishop of Manila,former Bishop of Imus and President, Caritas Internationalis
- Miguel Tanfelix, actor
- Candido Tirona - first revolutionary capitan general in the Philippines
- Rolando Joven Tria Tirona OCD, D.D., Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Caceres and former Bishop of Prelature of Infanta and Diocese of Malolos
- Francis Tolentino, Former Metropolitan Manila Development Authority chairman and mayor of Tagaytay City
- Soxy Topacio, Director and Actor
- Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite, Filipino patriots
- Jasmine Trias, singer, American Idol finalist
- Divina Valencia, actress (real name: Connie Fuller)
- Epimaco Velasco, former DILG secretary, NBI director and Cavite governor
- Jose R. Velasco, plant physiologist and agricultural chemist
- Cesar Virata, former Prime Minister of the Philippines
- Terrence Romeo, Professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA). Currently playing for the GlobalPort Batang Pier and Gilas Pilipinas. Former college player of the FEU Tamaraws
- Tejero, Constantino C. (16 August 2015). "Cavite and what they're selling there". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
Caviteños take pride in claiming an assortment of titles for their province: Historical Capital of the Philippines, Home of the Brave, Heartland of the Philippine Revolution, Cradle of Noble Heroes.
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- "Official Provincial 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
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- "Mount Sungay elevation". Google maps. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Census of the Philippine Islands (1920). "Census of the Philippine Islands Vol. I, 1918", pg. 131. Bureau of Printing, Manila.
- "Ternate Website". Ternate Cavite Website. Retrieved on 2011-10-28.
- "History". Island Cove Hotel and Leisure Park. Retrieved on 2011-10-28.
- U.S. Army (1916). "United States military reservations, National cemeteries, and military parks", p. 344. Government Printing Office, Washington.
- "General Information". Cavite Official Website.
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- Census of Population and Housing (2010): Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF) (Report). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Climate Summary for Cavite
- "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on August 3, 2013.
- Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite - Cavite City
- Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59.
- Fish, Shirley (2011). The Manila-Acapulco Galleons: The Treasure Ships of the Pacific. AuthorHouse. p. 65,69,128–132,274. ISBN 9781456775421.
- (2001). "Merriam-Webster Geographical Dictionary, 3rd Edition.", pg. 119. Google Books.
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- Official website
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