Not to be confused with caffeine.
Clinical data
Routes of
ATC code A08AA07 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 1.8-8.6 h[1]
CAS Number 492-39-7 YesY
PubChem (CID) 441457
DrugBank DB01486 YesY
ChemSpider 390189 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.050
Chemical and physical data
Formula C9H13NO
Molar mass 151.206 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Cathine, also known as d-norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat), and contributes to its overall effects.[2] It has approximately 10-14% the potency of amphetamine.[2]


Like amphetamines, cathinone, and ephedrine, cathine acts as a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA).[2] It also acts as a dopamine releasing agent (DRA) to a lesser extent.[2]


Cathine is one of the enantiomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA).


The World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances (used for the Olympic Games among other athletic events) bars cathine in concentrations of over 5 micrograms per milliliter in urine. Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance.

In Australia, Cathine is officially a schedule 4 drug but is not yet available or approved for any use.

Cathine is found in shrub Catha edulis.

In Hong Kong, cathine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Unlawful possession is punishable by severe fines and imprisonment.

See also


  1. Toennes SW, Harder S, Schramm M, Niess C, Kauert GF (2003). "Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 56 (1): 125–130. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01834.x. PMC 1884326Freely accessible. PMID 12848785.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Hoffman, R; Al'Absi, M (December 2010). "Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies." (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 132 (3): 554–63. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.033. PMC 2976806Freely accessible. PMID 20553832.
  3. "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-31.

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