Carol Danvers

Carol Danvers

Carol Danvers as Ms. Marvel on the cover of Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #1 (March 2006). Art by Frank Cho.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance as Carol Danvers:
Marvel Super-Heroes #13 (March 1968)
as Ms. Marvel:
Ms. Marvel #1 (January 1977)
as Binary:
Uncanny X-Men #164 (December 1982)
as Warbird:
The Avengers #4 (May 1998)
as Captain Marvel:
Avenging Spider-Man Vol. 1 #9 (September 2012)
Created by Roy Thomas (writer)
Gene Colan (artist)
In-story information
Full name Carol Susan Jane Danvers
Species Human / Kree hybrid
Team affiliations Avengers
United States Air Force
"Defenders for a Day"
Guardians of the Galaxy
Alpha Flight Space Program
Partnerships Araña
Notable aliases Ms. Marvel, Binary, Warbird, Catherine Donovan, Captain Marvel

Carol Danvers is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Roy Thomas and designed by artist Gene Colan, Major Carol Danvers first appeared as a member of the United States Air Force in Marvel Super-Heroes #13 (March 1968) and debuted as the first incarnation of Ms. Marvel in Ms. Marvel #1 (January 1977) after a fusion of alien Kree and human genes gives her superhuman powers, which occurred in Captain Marvel #18 (November 1969). Debuting in the Silver Age of comics, the character was featured in a self-titled series in the late 1970s before becoming associated with superhero teams the Avengers and the X-Men. The character has also been known as Binary, Warbird, and Captain Marvel at various points in her history, and has been featured in other Marvel licensed products including video games, animated television series, and merchandise such as trading cards.

Due to her long history in Marvel Comics, Carol Danvers has been highly regarded. She has been labeled "Marvel's biggest female hero,"[1] a "feminist icon,"[2] as "quite possibly Marvel's mightiest Avenger,"[3] She was ranked twenty-ninth in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list [4] and was ranked #11 on IGN's "Top 50 Avengers". Marvel Studios announced a live-action film featuring the character, titled Captain Marvel and starring Brie Larson, which is scheduled for release in 2019.

Publication history


The character debuted in the title Marvel Super-Heroes as an officer in the United States Air Force and Security Chief of a restricted military base, where Danvers meets Dr. Walter Lawson, the human alias of alien Kree hero Captain Marvel.[5] In a later story, Danvers is caught in the explosion of a Kree device, after trying to get close to Captain Marvel.[6] Although Captain Marvel manages to save her life, Danvers sustains serious injuries.[7]


Carol Danvers as Ms. Marvel on the cover of Ms. Marvel #1 (January 1977). Art by John Romita, Sr..

Danvers resurfaces with superhuman abilities and becomes the hero Ms. Marvel in a self-titled series in January 1977, at first written by Gerry Conway and later by Chris Claremont. In the series, it is revealed that the energy exposure from the explosion of a device called the "Psyche-Magnetron" caused Danvers's genetic structure to meld with Captain Marvel's, effectively turning her into a human-Kree hybrid.[8] Ms. Marvel guest-starred in Defenders[9] and Avengers.[10] The character then had a series of semi-regular appearances in The Avengers, with additional appearances with the Defenders,[11] Spider-Man,[12] the Thing,[13] and Iron Man.[14] In one of these stories, the mutant terrorist Mystique kills Michael Barnett, Ms. Marvel's lover.[15]

At the time of the publication of Ms. Marvel #1 in 1977, the title was self-consciously socially progressive for its time. This was reflected in the use of the word "Ms.", then associated with the feminist movement,[16] and in Danvers fighting for equal pay for equal work in her civilian identity.[17]


In The Avengers #200 (October 1980), Ms. Marvel is kidnapped by a character named Marcus (the apparent son of Avengers foe Immortus) and taken to an alternate dimension, where she is brainwashed, seduced, and impregnated. She gives birth on Earth to a child that rapidly ages into another version of Marcus, who is ultimately unable to remain on Earth after Hawkeye mistakenly damages his machine, takes Ms. Marvel back to the alternate dimension with no opposition from the Avengers claiming to have felt something between them. Comic book historian Carol A. Strickland criticized the storyline in an essay titled "The Rape of Ms. Marvel".[18] Citing Marcus' line, "Finally, after relative weeks of such efforts—and admittedly, with a subtle boost from Immortus' machines—you became mine," Strickland posited that Ms. Marvel's impregnation was simply rape by another name. As former writer of the solo title, Chris Claremont also commented on the inappropriateness of the storyline.[19]

Claremont effectively "undid" the Marcus story in Avengers Annual #10 (1981). In that story, Danvers is revealed to have returned to Earth—courtesy of Immortus's technology after Marcus continued to age and die of old age—but is attacked by the mutant Rogue, who permanently absorbs the character's abilities and memories. Danvers' memories are restored by Professor X, and an angry confrontation with the Avengers concerning their failure to realize Marcus had brainwashed her follows.[20] Claremont continued to develop the character in the title Uncanny X-Men. Danvers enters the Pentagon and, while wiping the government's files on the X-Men, also deletes all records of herself in a symbolic break with her life as Ms. Marvel.[21] During an adventure in space with the X-Men, Danvers is changed courtesy of experimentation by the alien race the Brood into a newly empowered character called "Binary".[22] Drawing on the power of a cosmic phenomenon called a white hole, Danvers becomes capable of generating the power of a star. As Binary, the character has a number of encounters with the X-Men,[23] New Mutants,[24] the British team Excalibur[25] as well as a solo adventure.[26]

Cover to Uncanny X-Men #164 (December 1982). Carol Danvers's first appearance as Binary. Art by Dave Cockrum.

Claremont expanded on the incident with the character Rogue by having the Carol Danvers persona manifest itself within Rogue's mind, sometimes overpowering Rogue's personality. This happens to Rogue on several occasions, which causes an uneasy armistice between them.[27][28] After Rogue passes through the ancient supernatural gateway called the Siege Perilous, the Ms. Marvel persona is separated from her as an independent entity. Within the same issue, the Ms. Marvel persona is killed by Magneto.[29]


The character continued to make sporadic appearances,[30] and two additional issues planned for the original title—prevented by cancellation—were printed in a quarterly anthology series.[31] The same year the character was also used extensively in the storyline "Operation Galactic Storm".[32] By the conclusion of the story the character had lost her connection to the white hole she drew her powers from, reverting to use of the original Ms. Marvel powers, but retaining the energy manipulation and absorption powers she had as Binary, albeit on a smaller scale.

After several more team and solo appearances[33] the character then rejoins the Avengers[34] with the new alias Warbird. Writer Kurt Busiek adds a new dimension to the character and casts her as an alcoholic, struggling to come to terms with the loss of her cosmic powers and memories. Danvers disgraces herself during the "Live Kree or Die" storyline[35] and is soon suspended from active duty.[36]

After a brief appearance in Marvel's alternate universe title What If?,[37] the character was featured in Iron Man,[38] Wolverine,[39] and The Avengers[40] before making a cameo appearance in Mutant X.[41]


The character was then featured as "Captain Marvel" in a false reality created by mutant the Scarlet Witch in limited series House of M.[42] This reality pandered to Danvers' subconscious desire to be accepted as she proved to be the most popular superhero on Earth. Ms. Marvel then came to prominence again when the character was launched in a second self-titled volume.[43] Together with fellow Avenger Iron Man, Danvers also becomes a principal advocate of the Superhuman Registration Act during the events of Civil War.[44] The story also continues in Ms. Marvel's own title as the character battles the anti-registration heroes led by Captain America.[45]

The storyline has major consequences for the New Avengers, causing the team to split and the pro–registration heroes—including Ms. Marvel—form their own team, debuting in The Mighty Avengers.[46] Danvers enters into a relationship with fellow member Wonder Man,[47] appears in a crossover series with the robot Transformers,[48] and becomes leader of the Mighty Avengers.[49] The character makes an agreement with Tony Stark, director of S.H.I.E.L.D., to lead a covert strike team called Operation: Lightning Storm, its designated mission being the elimination of supervillains before they become global threats.[50]

Ms. Marvel was captured by the Brood on Monster Island, whereupon she found the Brood Queen. An intense confrontation ensued during which Ms. Marvel was temporarily cut off from her powers and had to fight the Brood Queen as Carol Danvers and, at one point, she was stripped of her civilian clothing, forced to drift through space until she was able to access her powers.[51]

Ms. Marvel also plays a significant role in the limited series Secret Invasion[52] against the alien shapeshifting Skrulls. She befriends Captain Marvel's Skrull impostor and proves to him that she is not a Skrull by revealing intimate details about their life together. At the conclusion of the war with the Skrulls, Norman Osborn is placed in charge of the registered Avengers team. Refusing to serve under Osborn, Ms. Marvel flees Avengers Tower,[53] and joins the New Avengers,[54] becoming second-in-command.[55] Osborn appoints former Thunderbolt member Moonstone (Karla Sofen) as the "new" Ms. Marvel to his Dark Avengers team; Moonstone wears a variation of Ms. Marvel's original costume.[53] Osborn engineers a battle that results in Danvers's powers overloading, causing her apparent death. The character Moonstone takes over the title role in the ongoing Ms. Marvel series.[56] Danvers returns with the aid of the New Avengers, a group of MODOK embryos (creations of the organization Advanced Idea Mechanics [AIM]), and a character known as the "Storyteller" and reclaims the title of Ms. Marvel from Karla Sofen.[57]

The increased use of Carol Danvers as a prominent character in many story arcs throughout this decade eventually prompted one commentator to note that "she's now the House of Ideas' premier heroine."[58]


Carol Danvers as Captain Marvel on the cover of Captain Marvel #1 (August 2012). Art by Ed McGuinness.

In the conclusion of the second volume of Ms. Marvel, Carol Danvers battles her old nemesis Mystique and a clone of Captain Marvel created by the Skrulls during the Secret Invasion, after they carry out a series of tragedies at temples belonging to the Church of Hala, a church dedicated to Mar-Vell.[59] Danvers later aids the allied forces of Steve Rogers against Iron Patriot during the Siege of Asgard.[60][61][62] Danvers also begins to develop a friendship with Spider-Man. Though he infuriates her the first time they work together,[63] the two become closer when he helps her during the "Dark Reign" storyline, and she later admits to having feelings for him.[64] Following the conclusion of the "Siege" storyline, Ms. Marvel returns as a regular character in the second volume of The New Avengers.[65]

In July 2012, Carol Danvers assumed the mantle of Captain Marvel in an ongoing series written by Kelly Sue DeConnick with art by Dexter Soy. Danvers dons a jumpsuit and explores her own past. When describing her pitch for the series at WonderCon 2012 DeConnick said it could be "pretty much be summed up with 'Carol Danvers as Chuck Yeager.'" She said the series would contemplate what Captain Marvel's legend means to Danvers, how she will wield it, and how the rest of the Marvel Universe reacts.[66]

Danvers also rejoined the main Avengers team as Captain Marvel in vol. 5 of The Avengers and in the spin-off series, Avengers Assemble, also written by DeConnick.[67] Editor Lauren Sankovitch said that Marvel editors liked DeConnick's work and that adding her to the team would "get some lady power in the Avengers lineup." DeConnick said, "You might know this -- I have a certain affection for [Carol Danvers]. And I decided, 'Well, if I'm deciding, there will be a slot available for her as well.'"[68]

In 2013, Carol Danvers starred in the Captain Marvel / Avengers Assemble crossover storyline, "The Enemy Within". In the story, Danvers and her Avenger teammates battle Yon-Rogg, the Kree commander who was responsible for the explosion that caused Danvers to receive her powers, and in defeating the Kree Danvers loses her memories.[69] In November 2013, Marvel announced that Danvers would be joining the Guardians of the Galaxy beginning in Free Comic Book Day: Guardians of the Galaxy (May 2014) by Brian Michael Bendis and Sara Pichelli.[70] In March 2014, Marvel launched an eighth volume of Captain Marvel written again by DeConnick and starring Danvers in the title role but drawn by artist David López. DeConnick said, "The big difference is we were grounded in New York City for the previous volume; at least in the latter part of it. With the new Captain Marvel #1 we start in NYC but after that we're letting her go cosmic. Carol will be spending time off planet."[71]

During the 2015 Secret Wars crossover event, Danvers headlined her own tie-in series, Captain Marvel and the Carol Corps co-written by DeConnick and Kelly Thompson and drawn by López. In the series, Danvers leads an elite squadron of female fighter pilots stationed at an airbase called Hala Field, where she is the only superpowered being; this leads the corps to help Danvers answer questions about her origin, which puts her in conflict with the controlling forces of Battleworld.[72] Also during the Secret Wars event, Danvers appeared as a member of A-Force, Battleworld's all-female team of Avengers. The series, written by G. Willow Wilson, continued into the "All-New, All-Different Marvel" relaunch following the conclusion of Secret Wars with Danvers in a key role.[73]

Beginning in October 2015, Danvers starred in the ninth volume of Captain Marvel, written by Agent Carter showrunners Tara Butters and Michele Fazekas with artwork by Kris Anka, as part of the "All-New, All-Different Marvel" initiative. The series, set eight months after Secret Wars, sees Danvers taking over the responsibilities of S.W.O.R.D., the military agency that was previously designated to protect Earth from intergalactic threats. Editor Sana Amanat said, "This is really meant to be the next level for Captain Marvel. Carol is really meant to be a soldier and a commander, and also a diplomat. We're really trying to build up this space complex and this space world."[74] At this time, Danvers also joined The Ultimates. Series writer Al Ewing said, "Carol's currently running Alpha Flight, which is Earth's premier space agency. [She has] seen the highs and the lows of the superhero business, and come out the other side. Right now, Carol's in the ascendant, culturally, both in-universe and outside it... Carol's story in The Ultimates is very much about her links with the ordinary super-hero world, and about trying to form a bridge between that world and the world of The Ultimates."[75]

In 2016, Danvers played a predominant role in Civil War II, by Brain Michael Bendis and artist David Marquez, as the leader of a faction of superheroes who wish to use Ulysses' precognitive power to profile future crimes before they occur. About her position Bendis stated, "From Carol's point of view, she is like, 'You're telling me the world is still turning at the end of the day and everyone is safe? I don't care... If it keeps us safe, that's fine.'"[76] Following the conclusion of Civil War II, Danvers is scheduled to star in a tenth volume of Captain Marvel, by writer Margaret Stohl and artist Ramon Rosanas, which sees Danvers become a household name. Stohl explained, "She will be one of the most popular heroes on the planet—but that's not something she is very comfortable with. And of course she’s lost a lot of folks that she’s loved so she has to cope with that, too That being said, she still has a job to do as commander of the Alpha Flight. Her latest mission being recruiting and training new cadets. It'll also bring with it a mysterious danger that will threaten everything Carol has built."[77]


With Ms. Marvel #1 in 1977, writer Gerry Conway played a significant role in the character's development, writing in his introduction to the series, "you might see a parallel between her quest for identity, and the modern woman's quest for raised consciousness, for self-liberation, for identity".[78]

Ms. Marvel's uniform and abilities, however, were derived from the character's then-contemporary male counterpart: Captain Marvel. The Ms. Marvel letters page ("Ms. Prints") featured letters debating whether or not the character was feminist. Reader (and frequent letterhack) Jana C. Hollingsworth took issue with Ms. Marvel's entire origin:

For the eleven years I've been a comics fan, I've been proud of how Marvel resisted the temptation to create male-based heroines à la Supergirl. It's been proudly proclaimed that Ms. Marvel is not Marvel Girl; well, maybe the early Marvel Girl did have weak powers and an insipid personality, but at least her powers were her powers and her personality was her personality.... I hope you can change her costume if it's all possible, and keep her on her own instead of associating her with Captain Marvel....[79]

Another reader had issue with the character's outfit: "Question: where is a woman who wears long sleeves, gloves, high boots and a scarf (winter wear), and at the same time has a bare back, belly, and legs? The Arctic equator? That costume requires a few alterations."[80] These questions, and the controversial rape in Avengers #200, caused many readers to question the character's portrayal, and whether she was a good role model for female readers.[81]

It has been noted that "Danvers' initial appearances portrayed her as a strong character, but that changed over time—even after she gained super powers."[82] When Ms. Marvel received her own title in the 2000s, Marvel Comics was "determined to have the character take center stage in the Marvel Universe", with "Joe Quesada and the other powers [having] had the character play major roles in their huge 'House of M' crossover, in the 'New Avengers' and in the gargantuan success that is 'Civil War'."[83] "Writer Brian Reed has had Ms. Marvel overcome worthy challenges ranging from alien invasions, time-traveling sorcerers and former teammates turned enemy."[83] Brian Reed's characterization of Ms. Marvel (in the "War of the Marvels" story arc[57]) has been said to be "an engaging mix of bravado and aggression juxtaposed with compassion and empathy."[58]

Ms. Marvel was listed as #11 on IGN's "Top 50 Avengers",[84] and as #29 in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics".[85]

Powers and abilities

Carol Danvers initially possessed superhuman strength, endurance, stamina, flight, physical durability, a limited precognitive "sixth sense", and a perfectly amalgamated human/Kree physiology that rendered her resistant to most toxins and poisons. As Binary, the character could tap the energy of a "white hole", allowing full control and manipulation of stellar energies, and therefore control over heat, the electromagnetic spectrum and gravity. Light speed travel and the ability to survive in the vacuum of space were also possible.

Although the link to the white hole was eventually severed, Danvers retains her Binary powers on a smaller scale, enabling her to both absorb energy and project it in photonic form. She can still also survive in space. While she lacks a constant source of energy to maintain the abilities at their previous cosmic level, she can temporarily assume her Binary form if empowered with a high enough infusion of energy.

Danvers possesses superhuman strength and durability, can fly at roughly six times the speed of sound,[86] retains her sixth sense, and can discharge explosive blasts of radiant energy, which she fires from her fingertips. She also demonstrates the ability to absorb other forms of energy, such as electricity, to further magnify her strength and energy projection, up to the force of an exploding nuclear weapon.[47] When sufficiently augmented, she can withstand the pressure from a 92-ton weight, and strike with a similar level of force, although Hank Pym theorized that this likely was not her limit.[87] Danvers cannot absorb magical energy without consequence, though she aided Dr. Stephen Strange in the defeat of the mystic menace Sir Warren Traveler.[88]

Carol Danvers is also an exceptional espionage agent, pilot, hand-to-hand combatant and marksman.

Other versions

Age of Apocalypse

A powerless Carol Danvers helps Logan and Gateway escape at the price of her life, only to be "healed" and used by Pierce as a living weapon against her friends.[89]

Age of Ultron

In the Age of Ultron, a version of Captain Marvel was seen vacationing in London when the Ultron Sentinels arrive. Captain Marvel is assisted in the fight against the Ultron Sentinels by Captain Britain and MI-13. After Computer Graham and Magic Boots Mel are killed in battle, Captain Marvel and Captain Britain sacrifice their lives to stop the Ultron Sentinels that were invading London.[90]


In the Amalgam Comics universe, Carol was combined with Helena Bertinelli of DC Comics and became this reality's Huntress. She's a rogue ex-government solo agent (although that may merely have been a cover story for a deep mission) who uses her specialized skills and training as an agent for hire. Her crossbow was developed for her by Hawkeye (Clint Archer) of the Judgment League Avengers. She shows up in Dark Claw, where she discovers Dark Claw's secret identity and aids him in tracking down the Hyena.[91]


An evil version of the character features in the title Exiles, joining the alternate universe explorers Weapon X and becoming the lover of master villain Hyperion.[92]

Marvel Zombies

In Marvel Zombies, Ms. Marvel is one of the first on the scene when a zombified Sentry bursts onto Earth-2149, and was one of the first heroes to be infected. Ms. Marvel, and the rest of the Avengers continue their rampage until their appetite is sated, at which point their minds clear a little, and they decide to go back to Avengers Towers to work out how to beat the zombie plague. By the time they arrive back, the hunger has taken hold once more and they consume Jarvis. After this snack, and being joined by Giant Man, they are still hungry, and so send out an "Avengers Assemble" message, and wait for the others to arrive. Zombie Ms. Marvel infects Nova during a S.H.I.E.L.D. battle. Zombie Ms. Marvel then kills herself.

Marvel Mangaverse

Main article: Marvel Mangaverse

A version of Danvers appears in the title New Mangaverse: The Rings of Fate briefly using the callsign Warbird.[93] She later adopts the shield, costume, and name of Captain America at the end of the series.[94] She displays superhuman strength and a near-invulnerability in the miniseries. No genuine explanation is given to how her powers came to exist in the Mangaverse (though it is implied that she somehow gained them after exposure to attacks from the Rings of the Mandarin, as she claims she can feel the power of the Rings while climbing Mt. Fuji in the final issue of the series, indicating she followed them back to their present location on foot from the air base.), as she appears at first as a normal human, piloting what appears to be a variant design of an F-22 while assigned to the Yokota Air Force base and survives her plane being destroyed by agents of the Hand, as well as a number of direct attacks which leave her briefly hospitalized, only to awaken with her injuries more or less fully healed and exhibiting superhuman strength as she destroys a heart monitor and needle, then lifts up a bed one handed with no effort. She further displays this enhanced strength when she cleaves Elektra in half with a single swing after climbing Mount Fuji with little real effort, making handholds on her own due to her new strength.[95]


In one of the Secret Wars Battleworlds that serves as an alternate version of Spider-Island, Carol was transformed into one of the Spider Queen's minions until Agent Venom used Morbius, the Living Vampire's serum to transform Carol into a vampire. While she did crave for blood, she was free from the Spider Queen's control and joined the resistance.

Ultimate Marvel

The Ultimate Marvel imprint features a version of the character without superhuman abilities named Captain Carol Danvers in the Ultimate Galactus Trilogy. As an Air Force member, she was assigned to work on Mahr Vehl's security detail with General Nick Fury when Earth was threatened by Gah Lak Tus.[96][97][98] In the title Ultimate Power, the character becomes acting director of S.H.I.E.L.D. after Nick Fury's disappearance.[99] Her first missions involved working with the Fantastic Four and the X-Men opposing threats like Apocalypse,[100] and the Silver Surfer.[101] In Ultimate Spider-Man, she works on apprehending Norman Osborn after he escapes from the Triskelion.[102] Things got difficult for her when Norman lied to the press that S.H.I.E.L.D. wrongly imprisoned him for trying to make the world a safer place, putting the S.H.I.E.L.D. agents out of a job.[102]

She receives help from Spider-Man (Peter Parker) after she arrests him in public, hoping that it would lure Norman to her. She summoned a press release and had Harry Osborn tell the reporters the truth that Norman was a horrible person for experimenting on himself and killing his mother.[102] Outraged, Norman went to the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier and attacked his son along with her, Spider-Man, and the S.H.I.E.L.D. agents on board. Norman accidentally killed Harry and, feeling guilty, tells the S.H.I.E.L.D. agents to kill him. Spider-Man becomes angry at Danvers because Harry died on her watch and told her to stay out of his life. She did not do as he asked, but she still felt sorry for him.[103]

As S.H.I.E.L.D. Director, Danvers was put in command of the newly formed New Ultimates. When Loki attempted another invasion of Earth, Danvers and the women of the team (Zarda and Valkyrie) were placed under a spell by Amora. Danvers, using technology, was able to resist the spell and was able to free the rest of the team to battle Loki's forces.[104]

After Spider-Man was captured and replaced by the Chameleon, Danvers decided that having Peter, untrained, loose in the city was doing more harm than good. She approached May Parker and they both agreed that Peter would attend training lessons from individual members of the New Ultimates.[105]

Danvers and her New Ultimates battled Nick Fury and his Avengers while each side accused the other of being traitors to S.H.I.E.L.D. and the United States of America. During the fight, Danvers was hit by a Police Cruiser, leaving her in critical condition. Her role as S.H.I.E.L.D. Director was then passed on to Gregory Stark, the one that had in fact engineered the events from the start.[106] After Stark is killed, Fury replaced Danvers as director.[107]

X-Men: The End

The limited series X-Men: The End features a version of the character that exists as pure energy and controls the spaceship the Starjammer.[108]

In other media





Video games

Collected editions

See also


  1. "Oh Captain My Captain: How Carol Danvers Became Marvel's Biggest Female Hero". Comics Alliance. November 10, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  2. "Carol Danvers, Marvel's first female superhero, is also the most powerful". Mashable. October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  3. "Captain Marvel wants YOU for the Carol Corps". The Daily Dot. October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  4. Frankenhoff, Brent (2011). Comics Buyer's Guide Presents: 100 Sexiest Women in Comics. Krause Publications. p. 16. ISBN 1-4402-2988-0.
  5. Marvel Super-Heroes #13 (March 1968)
  6. Captain Marvel #1 (May 1967)
  7. Captain Marvel vol. 1, #18 (November 1969)
  8. Ms. Marvel #1-23 (January 1977 – April 1979)
  9. Defenders #57 (March 1978)
  10. The Avengers #171 (May 1978)
  11. Defenders #62-63 (August–September 1978)
  12. Marvel Team-Up #77 (January 1979)
  13. Marvel Two-in-One #51 (May 1979)
  14. Iron Man #125-126 (August–September 1979)
  15. Marvel Super-Heroes vol. 2 #11 (October 1992)
  16. Weeler, Andrew (November 10, 2014). "Oh Captain My Captain: How Carol Danvers Became Marvel's Biggest Female Hero Read More: How Carol Danvers Became Marvel's Biggest Female Hero". Comics Alliance. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  17. White, Brett (July 9, 2014). "MARVEL WOMEN OF THE 70'S: MS. MARVEL". Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  18. Strickland, Carol A. (January 1980). "The Rape of Ms. Marvel". LoC (1).
  19. Chris Claremont, quoted in X-Men Companion #2 (Fantagraphics Books, 1982): "Actually, my reaction was a lot stronger than that. But how callous! How cruel! How unfeeling! Considering that [the Avengers] must have seen Ms. Marvel only a couple of days before, or even a couple of months before. She wasn't pregnant then. How could she be eight months pregnant now?"
  20. Avengers Annual #10 (1981)
  21. Uncanny X-Men #158 (June 1982)
  22. Uncanny X-Men #164 (December 1982)
  23. Uncanny X-Men #166-167 (February–March 1983); #171, 174 (July, October 1983); #200-201 (December 1985 – January 1986)
  24. New Mutants #19 (September 1984); #50-51 (April–May 1987)
  25. Excalibur #17 (December 1989)
  26. Marvel Fanfare #24 (January 1986)
  27. Uncanny X-Men #182 (June 1984); #203 (March 1986); #235-239 (October 1988 – February 1989)
  28. Uncanny X-Men #246-247 (July–August 1989)
  29. Uncanny X-Men #269 (October 1990)
  30. X-Men Spotlight On... Starjammers #1-2 (May–June 1990)
  31. Marvel Super-Heroes vol. 2 #10-11 (July–October 1992)
  32. A multi-issue arc that was published from March to May, and spanned the titles Avengers and Avengers West Coast, and the individual hero titles Captain America, Iron Man, Quasar, Thor, and Wonder Man.
  33. Avengers #350-351 (both August 1992); Starblast #1 (January 1994); X-Men Unlimited #1 (December 1996); Excalibur #116 (January 1998)
  34. Avengers vol. 3 #4 (May 1998)
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  36. Avengers vol. 3 #8 (September 1998)
  37. What If? vol. 2 #111 (August 1998)
  38. Iron Man vol. 3 #12, 18 (January, July 1999)
  39. Wolverine #133-134 (January–February 1999)
  40. The Avengers vol. 3 #17-18, 21 (June–July, October 1999)
  41. Mutant X #14 (November 1999)
  42. House of M #1-8 (August–December 2005)
  43. Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #1 (March 2006)
  44. Civil War #1-7 (July 2006 – January 2007)
  45. Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #6-8 (October–December 2006)
  46. The Mighty Avengers #1 (May 2007)
  47. 1 2 The Mighty Avengers #6 (September 2007)
  48. New Avengers/Transformers #1-4 (September–December 2007)
  49. The Mighty Avengers #7 (October 2007)
  50. Ms Marvel vol. 2 #13 (May 2007)
  51. Ms Marvel vol. 2 #23
  52. Secret Invasion (June 2008 – January 2009)
  53. 1 2 Dark Avengers #1 (January 2009)
  54. New Avengers #48 (December 2008)
  55. New Avengers #51 (March 2009)
  56. Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #38 (June 2009)
  57. 1 2 "War of the Marvels" storyline in Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #41-47 (November 2009 – January 2010)
  58. 1 2 Wizard Magazine #220 (January 2010). Andy Serwin. No. 23.
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  60. Siege #2-3 (April–May 2010)
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  62. Richards, Dave (March 29, 2010). "Storming Heaven: Siege #3". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
  63. Ms. Marvel vol. 2 Annual (2008)
  64. The Amazing Spider-Man: Siege (June 2010)
  65. New Avengers #1 (June 2010)
  66. Beard, Jim (March 17, 2012). "WonderCon 2012: Captain Marvel". Marvel. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  67. The Avengers Vol. 5 #2 (December 2012)
  68. Schedeen, Jesse (August 13, 2012). "DeConnick and Caselli Assemble the Avengers". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
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