Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases CD59, 16.3A5, 1F5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32, G344, HRF-20, HRF20, MAC-IP, MACIF, MEM43, MIC11, MIN1, MIN2, MIN3, MIRL, MSK21, p18-20, CD59 molecule
External IDs OMIM: 107271 MGI: 1888996 HomoloGene: 56386 GeneCards: CD59
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 33.7 – 33.74 Mb Chr 2: 104.07 – 104.09 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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CD59 glycoprotein also known as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD59 gene.[3] It belongs to the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family.[4]

CD59 attaches to host cells via a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. When complement activation leads to deposition of C5b678 on host cells, CD59 can prevent C9 from polymerizing and forming the complement membrane attack complex.[5] It may also signal the cell to perform active measures such as endocytosis of the CD59-CD9 complex.[4]

Mutations affecting GPI that reduce expression of CD59 and decay-accelerating factor on red blood cells result in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.[6]

Viruses such as HIV, human cytomegalovirus and vaccinia incorporate host cell CD59 into their own viral envelope to prevent lysis by complement.[7]


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. "Entrez Gene: CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein".
  4. 1 2 Maio M, Brasoveanu LI, Coral S, Sigalotti L, Lamaj E, Gasparollo A, Visintin A, Altomonte M, Fonsatti E (Aug 1998). "Structure, distribution, and functional role of protectin (CD59) in complement-susceptibility and in immunotherapy of human malignancies (Review)". international journal of oncology. 13 (2): 305–18. doi:10.3892/ijo.13.2.305. PMID 9664126.
  5. Huang Y, Qiao F, Abagyan R, Hazard S, Tomlinson S (September 2006). "Defining the CD59-C9 binding interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (37): 27398–27404. doi:10.1074/jbc.M603690200. PMID 16844690.
  6. Parker C, Omine M, Richards S, et al. (2005). "Diagnosis and management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria". Blood. 106 (12): 3699–709. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-04-1717. PMC 1895106Freely accessible. PMID 16051736.
  7. Bohana-Kashtan O, Ziporen L, Donin N, Kraus S, Fishelson Z (July 2004). "Cell signals transduced by complement". Mol. Immunol. 41 (6–7): 583–597. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2004.04.007. PMID 15219997.

Further reading

External links

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