Butwal Sub-metropolitan

बुटवल उप-महानगरपालिका

City at a Glance
Nickname(s): Batauli Bazaar

Location of Butwal in Nepal

Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450
Country    Nepal
Development Region Western
Zone Lumbini Zone
District Rupandehi District
Sub-Metropolitan Butwal
  Total 1,470 km2 (570 sq mi)
Population 118,462
  Nepal Census 2011[1]
Time zone NST (UTC+5:45)
Post code 32907
Area code(s) +071
Website www.butwalmun.org.np

Butwal (Nepali: बुटवल) is a sub-metropolitan city and the urban core of a rapidly growing urban agglomeration in Nepal. It lies in Western Development Region, Lumbini Zone in Rupandehi District and is the administrative headquarter for Lumbini Zone. It is situated at the bank of Tilottama River Tinau River, 265 km west of Kathmandu, 161 km south of Pokhara, 147 km east of Ghorahi, Dang and 22 km north of Siddharthanagar Bhairawaha, at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name, Butwal is derived from Batauli Bazaar, the town's oldest area which is located on the west side of Tinau river.

Geographically, Butwal is the intersection of Nepal's two different National Highways, Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway. It connects western Nepal with capital Kathmandu through highway and air links (via airport at Siddharthanagar). It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Nepal for education, infrastructure, highway, marketing, health and safety, communication, trade and banking sectors. It has highway connections to the Indian border at Sunauli and to the hilly towns in Tansen and Pokhara valley, and has held the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" four times in a row.

Some notable areas of Butwal are:

A few metres before the Butwal gate (The gate from which Butwal City commences), The Industrial Area accompanying 'Charange', a residential area, notable for ravishing natural beauty.

The following areas commence as the entry on Butwal Gate reading "Welcome to Butwal" Banner.

Butwal was officially declared a sub-metropolitan city on 2 December 2014 by combining two neighbouring VDCs Motipur and Semlar.



Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau (Tilottama) River as early as 1932, including a 10.1-million-year-old tooth.[2]

Modern history

As recently as 1950, Butwal was a minor village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau)

The area was a loose settlement famous as a trading post between the hill districts of Lumbini zone and the Indian plains. Thus, historically Butwal connected Nepali people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814-16.[3] [4]

When King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he travelled through Butwal. Then it was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau).

Butwal is a relatively newly urbanized area, emerging and growing rapidly only since about 1960. With completion in 1968 of Siddhartha Highway from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and then in the 1990's Mahendra Highway across the full east–west expanse of Nepal's Terai, Butwal has developed rapidly.


The population of Butwal is 118,462 (census 2011), according to present stage the population is highly increasing with around 150,000 above and consists of people of mixed groups and castes; these includes Pahari immigrants from nearby hill districts especially Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Parbat, Gulmi, Syangja and recently more from kathmandu at present, also others people from Terai origin. Butwal is an central or a hub of education in the region, which attracts a sizeable temporary population of students who choose to study here, migrating from the nearby districts. Butwal is also popular with ex-Gurkha soldiers commonly called Lahure (Nepali: लाहुरे) population due to historic reasons.

The population distribution in different wards in 2011 was as follows:[5]

Ward No. Households Population Male Female

The majority of the population is Hindu. They celebrate Holi, Teej, Maha Shivratri, Dashain, Tihar and Bhai Tika. Many Paharis go to their native villages during the month from Dashain through Tihar and the town becomes nearly deserted. There are also Buddhist and Muslims. There is a very good and harmonious relationship among different religious and ethnic community which can be seen during festivals.

Nepali and English are the common languages spoken in Butwal. Gurung, Magar and Tharu people speak native language in their community. Magar language is dominant in the hilly areas surrounding Butwal.

Most of the young generations and mid aged population can communicate well in English.


Butwal is mostly a commercial and trading city, and an upcoming link city for the nearby tourist spots. The economy of Butwal centers around trade, services and industries. The old trading districts are Traffic Chowk, B P Chowk, Amarpath and Nepalgunj Road. Numerous wholesale and retail shops sell Chinese and Indian goods in these markets. Presently, the main trading centre is located near Traffic Chowk, Puspalal Park, Milan Chowk and Raj Margh Chaurah. In recent times, the shopping district is expanding towards southern Butwal due to building up of new community and housing zones in the southern region. Besides modern shopping, a traditional form of market called Haat Bazar runs twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Butwal is regarded as an important city for trade and marketing and has the second largest vegetable market Butwal Sabji Mandi after Kathmandu. Usually, farmers sell directly to the retail customers in this market in a dusty and busy market setup. Butwal also has small and medium scale manufacturers involved in woodwork, iron-sheet, metal-ware and aluminium sheet. There are agro-processing industries that help create a market for the local and regional farmers.

Service aspects of the economy are centered on banking, education and health. An increasing number of people is involved in jobs in these sectors, and Butwal holds a reputation for some excellent institutions in the fields.

Butwal is also the urban core of an upcoming urban agglomerate comprising the nearby municipalities of Tilottama, Siddharthanagar, Saina Maina, Devdaha and Sunwal. Together, these make up an urban continuum and the region as a whole makes an increasingly large contribution to the national economy. Siddharthanagar has the international border and customs point with India at Belhiya, while also hosting a Special Economic Zone for industries. Siddharthanagar will also soon be getting an international airport to boost connectivity to the industrial and tourism region. The Butwal-Siddhathanagar corridor is a 25 km, 6-lane Trade Road, which is also a hot spot for investments in large scale industries. Semlar and Saina Maina are more of agricultural regions that are recently incorporated to urban areas, and are expected to speed up urbanization with residential, industrial and modern farming infrastructure.

Butwal is also a connecting city between nearby tourist towns of Tansen, Kapilvastu and Lumbini. It is the gateway to nearby cities of Sunwal, Pokhara and Bharatpur. It is also a busy land-route to enter Nepal from India for tourists and others. Thus, Butwal is witnessing huge investments in the hospitality sector as well. To boost up tourism and MICE opportunities, the government plans to set up an international conference centre at Ramnagar in Butwal. All these developments hint towards a large economic potential for development of the region.

The Mahendra Rajmarg (East-West-Highway) is an important thoroughfare in butwal

The private commerce and trade in Butwal is united under the umbrella of Butwal Chamber of Commerce & Industry (BuCCI) which is primarily involved in safeguarding the rights of private businesses. Audhyogig Byapar Mela-Butwal is a commercial festival held in Butwal where exhibition industries nationwide showcase and sell their products. This festival is organized annually in the month of Poush (generally December–January), and is one of the largest of its kind in Nepal.


Buses are the dominant form of transportation. Private operators offer service to various destinations. Until 2003 most of the fleet was older large buses; since then operators have added newer minibuses popularly called micro. Older jeeps are used to take people to nearby hilly regions. Rickshaws are used for short-distance urban transport, however taxicabs are gaining popularity with increasing affluence. Motorcycles are a common means of personal transportation around town. The number registered has increased from 1,200 in 1999 to 80,000 in 2008.

Nearly 100 buses depart to Kathmandu from Butwal bus station. Long-distance buses are also available to other major cities like Pokhara, Mahendranagar, Dang to west and Kakarbhitta in east.


The education sector in Butwal is recognised as second most popular mode after Kathmandu. Butwal is regarded as the most literate city in Nepal. Recently, the government of Nepal has declared the Butwal city 100% literate (considering the age group 15-60). It has held the record for Nepal Top students in SLC as well as HSEB examination numerous times.

Places of interest

The most historical and beautiful religious site of Nepal situated 13 km east of Butwal is best known for the maternal home of lord Gautam Buddha. It is a place of best natural beauty and pollution-free environment. Kheirani, Bhawanipur, Bairimai, Kan yamai, Khayardanda etc. are the places of interest.

An historic place for the Gurung community. This hill used to be called Gurung Dada because Gurungs were buried here. It separates the city into 2 parts and gives views of both sides.

A fortress during Angol Nepal war, Narayan temple built by (1864 B.S.) Hanuman temple and Shivalaya of Hanumagngadhi, Jalabinayak Mehadev temple, Siddababa temple, Nuwakot etc. are famous centres of attraction in Butwal.

About 13 km west from Butwal city. This place is known for secondary schools, rice and oil mills, temples and natural beauty. Temple of Lord Shiva (Parroha Parmeshower Bolbam Dham) is situated near by here with is internationally famous for receiving blessings from Lord of the Lord Shiva Shankar and temple of Goddess Durga at the center of town.

The winter palace of Palpali Sen clan is very fascinating from natural and archaeological values. There are ruins and antiquities of the majestic palace of Manimukunda Sen an ancient Palpali king containing 6 large rooms as well as royal residence, administrative and fascinating scenic grandeur of Butwal, Siddharthanagar and other neighbouring villages of Rupandehi district can be vividly seen from here at night also. His Majesty's Government, archaeological department has attempted to maintain it in 1991. Now Butwal municipality has formed council for the conservation of Manimukunda Sen Park to conduct Phulbari Development Programme and attempted to make it an amusing and a tourist resort.

Located about 12 km. west from Butwal and to North from Banakatti, Sainamaina as an open museum is very famous and fascinating resort from historical archaeological culture and natural points of view. Among the different Gramas villages of Shakya King, it was in the samgrama site. An Indian queen (Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh) because of the British disturbance in her kingdom came to this area with her soldiers and porters (‘Sena’ and Mena’) and finally this area came to be known as Saina Maina. It is an exquisite treasure trove of ancient ruins and antiquities: statues of dancing saints, ruins of palace, well etc.

Siddha Baba Temple

It is located on hills at the border of Butwal Municipality. Devotees believe that Siddha Baba will grant their wishes and offer pigeons at the temple. On Saturdays, the weekly holiday in Nepal, large numbers of devotees visit this temple and special Microbus services are offered.

It was very significant ruins of having the values of classical art are scattered here and there. This famous archaeological site is being occupied by homeless and landless people. Some of the antiquities of this site are seen thrown around the Lumbini museum.

The newly established religious placed constructed on the outskirt of city at Nayagoan, gives a feeling of the Vintage Temple of Muktinath at Mustang.

It's an newly born place in Butwal, and can be also called as symbol of peace. Many international celebrities, tourists and models are attracted here for its own beauty and excellence.

It's mostly famous by its decorating places, cute & beautiful animals. This is a one place to celebrate a picnic moment and many occasions to celebrate. Banbatika has many animals known as anaconda (अजिङ्गर), white mouses, ostrich, deer, leopards, rabbits and many more. Banbatika is one beautiful resort for a tourist.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Butwal.
  1. "Nepal Census 2011". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  2. Barry, J.C. (July 1984), "A Review of the Siwalik hominoids", in Else, James G.; Lee, Phyllis C., Primate Evolution., Vol. 1, Nairobi, Kenya: Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 93–106, retrieved April 13, 2011
  3. Handa, O.C. (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Co. pp. 170ff.
  4. Saugat, Om, ed. (2003). "Chapter 10: Relations with Nepal and Burma". Encyclopedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. New Delhi: saugat. pp. 280–282. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  5. Butwal, Municipality. "Butwal Nagarpalika". http://www.butwalmun.org.np. Archived from the original on 8 June 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014. External link in |website= (help)
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