11,21 hours (in humans),|
7 hours (in rats)
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||306.246 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|(what is this?)|
Bromantane (brand name Ladasten, also known in Russia as adamantylbromphenylamine) is an atypical psychostimulant and anxiolytic drug of the adamantane family that is used in Russia in the treatment of neurasthenia. Although the effects of the bromantane have been determined to be dependent on the dopaminergic and possibly serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, its exact mechanism of action is unknown, and it is distinct in its properties relative to typical psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Because of its unique aspects, bromantane has sometimes been described instead as an adaptogen and actoprotector.
In the 1960s, the adamantane derivative amantadine (1-aminoadamantane) was developed as an antiviral drug for the treatment of influenza. Other adamantane antivirals subsequently followed, such as rimantadine (1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) and adapromine (1-(1-aminopropyl)adamantane). It was serendipitously discovered in 1969 that amantadine possesses central dopaminergic psychostimulant-like properties, and subsequent investigation revealed that rimantadine and adapromine also possess such properties. Amantadine was then developed and introduced for the treatment of Parkinson's disease due to its ability to increase dopamine levels in the brain. It has also notably since been used to help alleviate fatigue in multiple sclerosis.
With the knowledge of the dopaminergic psychostimulant effects of the adamantane derivatives, bromantane, which is 1-amino-2-bromophenyladamantane, was developed in the 1980s at the Zakusov State Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in Moscow as "a drug having psychoactivating and adaptogen properties under complicated conditions (hypoxia, high environmental temperature, physical overfatigue, emotional stress, etc.)". It was found to produce more marked and prolonged psychostimulant effects than the other adamantanes, and eventually entered use. The drug was notably given to soldiers in the Soviet and Russian militaries to "shorten recovery times after strong physical exertion". After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, bromantane continued to be researched and characterized but was mainly limited in use to sports medicine (for instance, to enhance athletic performance). In 1996, it was encountered as a doping agent in the 1996 Summer Olympics when several Russian athletes tested positive for it, and was subsequently placed on the World Anti-Doping Agency banned list in 1997 as a stimulant and masking agent. Bromantane was eventually repurposed in 2005 as a treatment for neurasthenia. It demonstrated effectiveness and safety for the treatment of the condition in extensive, including large-scale clinical trials, and was approved for this indication in Russia sometime around 2009.
The therapeutic effects of bromantane in asthenia are said to onset within 1- to 3-days. It has been proposed that the combination of psychostimulant and anxiolytic activity may give bromantane special efficacy in the treatment of asthenia.
In a large-scale, multi-center clinical trial of 728 patients diagnosed with asthenia, bromantane was given for 28 days at a daily dose of 50 mg or 100 mg. The impressiveness were 76.0% on the CGI-S and 90.8% on the CGI-I, indicating broadly-applicable, high effectiveness. The therapeutic benefit against asthenia was notably observed to still be present one-month after discontinuation of the drug, indicating long-lasting positive effects of bromantane. Quality of life was significantly increased by bromantane, and this increase remained at one-month after withdrawal of bromantane. 3% of patients experienced side effects; none of the adverse effects were serious; and 0.8% of patients discontinued treatment due to side effects. Bromantane was also noted to normalize the sleep-wake cycle. The authors concluded that "[Bromantane] in daily dose from 50 to 100 mg is a highly effective, well-tolerated and [safe] drug with a wide spectrum of clinical effects. Therefore, this drug could be recommended for treatment of asthenic disorders in neurological practice."
Bromantane is described primarily as a mild psychostimulant and anxiolytic. It is also said to possess antiasthenic properties. Bromantane is reported to improve physical and mental performance, and hence could be considered a performance-enhancing drug.
Bromantane has been found to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17 and IL-4 and to normalize behavior in animal models of depression, and may possess clinical efficacy as an antidepressant. It has also been found to increase sexual receptivity and proceptivity in rats of both sexes, which was attributed to its dopaminergic actions. It has been proposed that bromantane may suppress prolactin levels by virtue of its dopaminergic properties as well. Bromantane has been found to "agonize" amphetamine-induced stereotypies in vivo, suggesting that it might potentiate certain effects of other psychostimulants.
Dopamine synthesis enhancement
Although it is frequently labeled as a psychostimulant, bromantane is distinct in its pharmacology and effects relative to typical psychostimulants, such as the phenethylamines (e.g., amphetamine and its derivatives) and their structural analogues (e.g., methylphenidate, cocaine, mesocarb, etc.). Whereas the latter directly act on the dopamine transporter to inhibit the reuptake and/or induce the release of dopamine, bromantane instead acts via indirect genomic mechanisms to produce a rapid, pronounced, and long-lasting upregulation in a variety of brain regions of the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) (also known as DOPA decarboxylase), key enzymes in the dopamine biosynthesis pathway. For instance, a single dose of bromantane produces a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in TH expression in the rat hypothalamus 1.5- to 2-hours post-administration. The biosynthesis and release of dopamine subsequently increase in close correlation with TH and AAAD upregulation. Enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission is observed in the hypothalamus, striatum, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and other regions. As such, the key mechanism of the pharmacological activity and psychostimulant effects of bromantane is activation of the de novo synthesis of dopamine via modulation of gene expression. In contrast, typical psychostimulants do not affect TH or AAAD expression and thus have no effect on dopamine biosynthesis.
"Bromantane [does] not concede well-known psychostimulant of phenylalkylamine structure and its analogs (amphetamine, [mesocarb], [methylphenidate], etc.) by specific activity. In contrast, bromantane has neither addictive potential nor reveals redundant and exhausting activation of sympaticoadrenergic system, or decelerates the restoring of work capacity at preventive application before forthcoming activity in complicated conditions (hypoxia, high environmental temperature, physical overfatigue, emotional stress, etc.). Bromantane has no prohypoxic activity.""The use of the drug, in contrast to the action of a typical psychostimulant, is not associated with the phenomenon of hyperstimulation and causes no consequences such as functional exhaustion of the body.""Bromantane administration in therapeutic doses is characterized by the almost full absence of side effects including manifestations of withdrawal syndrome and hyperstimulation.""[Bromantane] has low peripheral sympathomimetic effects. Moreover, no signs of [bromantane] dependence and withdrawal symptoms were found."
As such, bromantane has few to no side effects (including peripheral sympathomimetic effects and hyperstimulation), does not seem to produce tolerance or dependence, does not show withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation, and displays an absence of addiction potential, all of which are quite contrary to typical psychostimulants. In accordance with human findings, animals exposed to bromantane for extended periods of time do not appear to develop tolerance or dependence either.
The precise direct molecular mechanism of action by which bromantane ultimately acts as a dopamine synthesis enhancer is unknown. However, it has been determined that activation of certain cAMP-, Ca2+-, and phospholipid-dependent protein kinases such as protein kinase A and especially protein kinase C corresponds with the manifestation of the pharmacological effects of bromantane. As such, bromantane seems to be activating intracellular signaling cascades by some mechanism (e.g., agonizing some as-yet-undetermined receptor) to in turn activate protein kinases, which in turn cause increased transcription of TH and AAAD.
In 2004, it was discovered that amantadine and memantine bind to and act as agonists of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 7.44 µM and 2.60 µM, respectively), and that activation of the σ1 receptor is involved in the central dopaminergic effects of amantadine at therapeutically relevant concentrations. These findings may also extend to the other adamantanes such as adapromine, rimantadine, and bromantane, and could explain the psychostimulant-like effects of this family of compounds, possibly including those of bromantane.
Monoamine reuptake inhibition
Originally, bromantane was thought to act as a reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and dopamine. Indeed, bromantane does inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and to a lesser extent norepinephrine in vitro in rat brain tissue. However, the concentrations required to do so are extremely high (50–500 µM) and likely not clinically relevant. (Although one study found an IC50 for dopamine transport of 3.56 µM, relative to 28.66 nM for mesocarb; neither drug affected serotonin transport at the tested concentrations, in contrast.) In any case, the lack of typical psychostimulant-like effects and adverse effects seen with bromantane supports the notion that it is not acting significantly as a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, but rather via enhancement of dopamine synthesis.
Although not relevant at normal clinical dosages, bromantane has been found to produce anticholinergic effects, including both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic actions, at very high doses in animals, and these effects are responsible for its toxicity (that is, LD50) in animals.
The main metabolite of bromantane is 6β-hydroxybromantane.
- Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Sei-Kwan (2012). "The Pharmacology of Actoprotectors: Practical Application for Improvement of Mental and Physical Performance". Biomolecules and Therapeutics. 20 (5): 446–456. doi:10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.5.446. ISSN 1976-9148.
- "Ladasten (adamantylbromphenylamine) Tablets for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Russian State Register of Medicines (in Russian). Lekko CJSC. p. 1. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- Neild, PJ; Gazzard, BG (1997). "HIV-1 infection in China". The Lancet. 350 (9082): 963. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63309-0. ISSN 0140-6736.
- Grekhova, T. V.; Gainetdinov, R. R.; Sotnikova, T. D.; Krasnykh, L. M.; Kudrin, V. S.; Sergeeva, S. A.; Morozov, I. S. (1995). "Effect of bromantane, a new immunostimulating agent with psychostimulating activity, on the release and metabolism of dopamine in the striatum of freely moving rats. A microdialysis study". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 119 (3): 294–296. doi:10.1007/BF02445840. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Iezhitsa, Igor N.; Spasov, Alexander A.; Bugaeva, Lubov I. (2001). "Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes". Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 23 (2): 213–222. doi:10.1016/S0892-0362(01)00119-2. ISSN 0892-0362.
- Spasov, A. A.; Khamidova, T. V.; Bugaeva, L. I.; Morozov, I. S. (2000). "Adamantane derivatives: Pharmacological and toxicological properties (review)". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 34 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1007/BF02524549. ISSN 0091-150X.
- Morozov, I. S.; Ivanova, I. A.; Lukicheva, T. A. (2001). "Actoprotector and Adaptogen Properties of Adamantane Derivatives (A Review)". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 35 (5): 235–238. doi:10.1023/A:1011905302667. ISSN 0091-150X.
- Lionel Mandell; Mark Woodhead; Santiago Ewig; Antoni Torres (27 October 2006). Respiratory Infections. CRC Press. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-0-340-81694-3.
- Thomas Brandt (2003). Neurological Disorders: Course and Treatment. Gulf Professional Publishing. pp. 1047–. ISBN 978-0-12-125831-3.
- Lester Packer; Helmut Sies; Manfred Eggersdorfer; Enrique Cadenas (6 October 2009). Micronutrients and Brain Health. CRC Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-1-4200-7352-2.
- Krapivin, S. V.; Sergeeva, S. A.; Morozov, I. S. (1998). "Comparative analysis of the effects of adapromine, midantane, and bromantane on bioelectrical activity of rat brain". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 125 (2): 151–155. doi:10.1007/BF02496845. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Glen O. Gabbard (2007). Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-1-58562-216-0.
- Krapivin SV, Sergeeva SA, Morozov IS (1993). "[A quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalographic analysis of the action of bromantane]". Biull Eksp Biol Med (in Russian). 116 (11): 515–8. PMID 8312546.
- Burnat, Pascal; Payen, Alain; Brumant-Payen, Catherine Le; Hugon, Michel; Ceppa, Franck (1997). "Bromontan, a new doping agent". The Lancet. 350 (9082): 963–964. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63310-7. ISSN 0140-6736.
- Siuniakov SA, Grishin SA, Teleshova ES, Neznamov GG, Seredenin SB (2006). "[Pilot clinical trial of ladasten]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 69 (4): 10–5. PMID 16995430.
- Voznesenskaia TG, Fokina NM, Iakhno NN (2010). "[Treatment of asthenic disorders in patients with psychoautonomic syndrome: results of a multicenter study on efficacy and safety of ladasten]". Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova (in Russian). 110 (5 Pt 1): 17–26. PMID 21322821.
- Neznamov GG, Siuniakov SA, Teleshova SE, Chumakov DV, Reutova MA, Siuniakov TS, Mametova LE, Dorofeeva OA, Grishin SA (2009). "[Ladasten, the new drug with psychostimulant and anxiolytic actions in treatment of neurasthenia (results of the comparative clinical study with placebo)]". Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova (in Russian). 109 (5): 20–6. PMID 19491814.
- Mikhaylova, M; Vakhitova, J; Yamidanov, R; Salimgareeva, M; Seredenin, S; Behnisch, T (2007). "The effects of ladasten on dopaminergic neurotransmission and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats". Neuropharmacology. 53 (5): 601–608. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.07.001. ISSN 0028-3908.
- Tallerova AV, Kovalenko LP, Durnev AD, Seredenin SB (2011). "[Effect of antiasthenic drug ladasten on the level of cytokines and behavior in experimental model of anxious depression in C57BL/6 male mice]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 74 (11): 3–5. PMID 22288152.
- Tallerova, A. V.; Kovalenko, L. P.; Durnev, A. D.; Seredenin, S. B. (2011). "Effect of Ladasten on the Content of Cytokine Markers of Inflammation and Behavior of Mice with Experimental Depression-Like Syndrome". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 152 (1): 58–60. doi:10.1007/s10517-011-1453-2. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Tallerova, A. V.; Kovalenko, L. P.; Kuznetsova, O. S.; Durnev, A. D.; Seredenin, S. B. (2014). "Correcting Effect of Ladasten on Variations in the Subpopulation Composition of T Lymphocytes in C57Bl/6 Mice on the Experimental Model of an Anxious-Depressive State". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 156 (3): 335–337. doi:10.1007/s10517-014-2343-1. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Kuzubova EA, Bugaeva LI, Spasov AA (2004). "[The effect of bromantan on the sexual behavior and conception in rats]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 67 (3): 34–7. PMID 15341065.
- Iëzhitsa IN, Bugaeva LI, Spasov AA, Morozov IS (1999). "[The effect of the actoprotector preparation bromantane on the postnatal development of rat pups]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 62 (6): 39–44. PMID 10650526.
- Iezhitsa IN, Spasov AA, Bugaeva LI (2001). "Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes". Neurotoxicol Teratol. 23 (2): 213–22. doi:10.1016/s0892-0362(01)00119-2. PMID 11348840.
- Vakhitova, Yu. V.; Yamidanov, R. S.; Vakhitov, V. A.; Seredenin, S. B. (2005). "cDNA macroarray analysis of gene expression changes in rat brain after a single administration of a 2-aminoadamantane derivative". Molecular Biology. 39 (2): 244–252. doi:10.1007/s11008-005-0035-7. ISSN 0026-8933.
- Vakhitova IuV, Iamidanov RS, Seredinin SB (2004). "[Ladasten induces the expression of genes regulating dopamine biosynthesis in various structures of rat brain]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 67 (4): 7–11. PMID 15500036.
- Vakhitova, Yu. V.; Yamidanov, R. S.; Vakhitov, V. A.; Seredenin, S. B. (2005). "The effect of ladasten on gene expression in the rat brain". Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics. 401 (1-6): 150–153. doi:10.1007/s10628-005-0057-z. ISSN 1607-6729.
- Vakhitova IuV, Sadovnikov SV, Iamidanov RS, Seredenin SB (2006). "[Cytosine demethylation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter in the hypothalamus cells of the rat brain under the action of an aminoadamantane derivative Ladasten]". Genetika (in Russian). 42 (7): 968–75. PMID 16915929.
- Zimin IA, Abaimov DA, Budygin EA, Zolotarev IuA, Kovalev GI (2010). "[Role of the brain dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in psychopharmacological effects of ladasten and sydnocarb]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 73 (2): 2–5. PMID 20369592.
- Iëzhitsa IN, Bugaeva LI, Spasov AA, Morozov IS (2000). "[Effect of bromantane on the rat neurologic status in two month course]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 63 (5): 13–7. PMID 11109517.
- Vakhitova IuV, Salimgareeva MKh, Seredenin SB (2004). "[Effect of ladasten on the proteinase C activity in the rat brain cells]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 67 (2): 12–5. PMID 15188752.
- Peeters, Magali; Romieu, Pascal; Maurice, Tangui; Su, Tsung-Ping; Maloteaux, Jean-Marie; Hermans, Emmanuel (2004). "Involvement of the sigma1 receptor in the modulation of dopaminergic transmission by amantadine". European Journal of Neuroscience. 19 (8): 2212–2220. doi:10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03297.x. ISSN 0953-816X.
- Morozov IS, Pukhova GS, Avdulov NA, Sergeeva SA, Spasov AA, Iezhitsa IN (1999). "[The mechanisms of the neurotropic action of bromantan]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 62 (1): 11–4. PMID 10198757.
- Salimgareeva, M. Kh.; Yamidanov, R. S.; Vakhitova, Yu. V.; Seredenin, S. B. (2012). "Mechanisms of Action of Ladasten: Activation of Gene Expression for Neurotrophins and Mitogen-Activated Kinases". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 152 (3): 313–317. doi:10.1007/s10517-012-1516-z. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Bugaeva LI, Verovskiĭ VE, Iezhitsa IN, Spasov AA (2000). "[An acute toxicity study of bromantane]". Eksp Klin Farmakol (in Russian). 63 (1): 57–61. PMID 10763112.
- Iezhitsa, IN; Spasov, AA; Bugaeva, LI; Morozov, IS (2002). "Toxic effect of single treatment with bromantane on neurological status of experimental animals". Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 133 (4): 380–3. PMID 12124651.
- Iezhitsa, I. N.; Spasov, A. A.; Bugaeva, L. I.; Morozov, I. S. (2002). "Toxic Effect of Single Treatment with Bromantane on Neurological Status of Experimental Animals". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 133 (4): 380–383. doi:10.1023/A:1016206306875. ISSN 0007-4888.
- Athanasiadou, I; Angelis, YS; Lyris, E; Vonaparti, A; Thomaidis, NS; Koupparis, MA; Georgakopoulos, C (2012). "Two-step derivatization procedures for the ionization enhancement of anabolic steroids in LC–ESI-MS for doping control analysis". Bioanalysis. 4 (2): 167–175. doi:10.4155/bio.11.308. ISSN 1757-6180.