Big Boy Restaurants

Big Boy Restaurants
Big Boy Restaurants International, LLC
Limited liability company
Industry Casual dining restaurant

Elias Brothers

Restaurants, Inc.;

The Marriott Corporation;
Robert C. Wian Enterprises;
Bob's Pantry

Founded Glendale, California, United States, (August 6, 1936 (1936-08-06))[1]
Founder Bob Wian
Headquarters Warren, Michigan, U.S.A
Number of locations
90 (USA);
279 (Japan)[2]
Area served
Michigan (80), California (6), Ohio (2), Illinois (1), North Dakota (1) and Japan (279).
Key people

Robert Liggett, Jr.,

(Chairman and President)

Keith E. Sirois, (CEO)
Bruce Ferguson, (CFO)


Big Boy Restaurants International, LLC is an American restaurant chain headquartered in Warren, Michigan, in Metro Detroit.[3] Frisch's Big Boy Restaurants is a restaurant chain with its headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Big Boy name, design aesthetic, and menu were previously licensed to a number of regional franchisees.

Big Boy was started as Bob's Pantry in 1936 by Bob Wian in Glendale, California.[4] The restaurant became known as "Bob's, Home of the Big Boy Hamburger" then as Bob's Big Boy. It became a local chain under that name and nationally under the Big Boy name, franchised by Robert C. Wian Enterprises. Marriott Corporation bought Big Boy in 1967. One of the larger franchise operators, Elias Brothers, purchased the chain from Marriott in 1987, moved the headquarters of the company to Warren, Michigan, and operated it until bankruptcy was declared in 2000. Following the bankruptcy, the chain was sold to investor Robert Liggett, Jr., who took over as Chairman, renamed the company Big Boy Restaurants International and maintained the headquarters in Warren. The company is the operator or franchisor for 90 Big Boy restaurants in the United States.[5] Big Boy Restaurants International also licenses 279 Big Boy restaurants operating in Japan.[2][6]

Immediately after Liggett's purchase, Big Boy Restaurants Internationalthen known as Liggett Restaurant Enterprisesnegotiated an agreement with the other large franchise operator, Frisch's Restaurants. The Big Boy trademarks in Kentucky, Indiana, and most of Ohio and Tennessee transferred to Frisch's ownership; all other Frisch's territories transferred to Liggett.[7][8] (The bankruptcy threatened Frisch's future use of the Big Boy trademark.) Thus Frisch's is no longer a franchisee, but Big Boy Restaurants International and Frisch's are now co-registrants of the Big Boy name and trademark.[9] Frisch's operates or franchises 121 Big Boy restaurants in the United States.[10][11][12]


Big Boy statue
A Big Boy statue common to many restaurants in the chain.

The Big Boy mascot

The chain is best known for its trademark chubby boy in red-and-white checkered overalls holding a Big Boy sandwich (double-decker cheeseburger). The inspiration for Big Boy's name, as well as the model for its mascot, was Richard Woodruff (19321986) of Glendale, California.[13] When he was six years old, Woodruff walked into the diner Bob's Pantry as Bob Wian was attempting to name his new hamburger. Wian said, "Hello, Big Boy" to Woodruff, and the name stuck. Warner Bros. animation artist Ben Washam sketched Richard's caricature, which became the character seen on the company trademark. The Big Boy character was revised in 1955 by an artist working for Ken Bird, a Big Boy paper products supplier and Manfred Bernhard, son of legendary graphic designer Lucian Bernhard.[14] This 1955 Big Boy figure was used for large painted fiberglass (or sometimes steel) statues outside the restaurants, and was featured in The Adventures of [the] Big Boy comic book, a promotional giveaway for children visiting the restaurants. Bernhard produced the comic book for 40 years until 1997, and the comic book has since been produced by Craig Yoe's Yoe! Studio.[15] Another longtime promotion was the Big Boy Club, a kids club offering coupons and premiums to children, who joined by sending in an application from the comic book.

Changing Big Boy logos
The changing Big Boy
  1. 1937. The first Big Boy (left) was drawn by Warner Brothers animation artist Bennie Washam in 1937. A frequent customer, Washam sketched the character on a napkin for Bob Wian for a free lunch.[16] The logo, redrawn holding a hamburger (right), was typically used by Wian and several early franchisees: Parkette (Shoney's),[17] Elias Brothers[18] and Frejlach's.[19] The orientation was also reversed.
  2. 1952. Wian's first franchisee, David Frisch, developed his own Big Boy character. Dated 1952, the design was copyrighted in 1951 and became known as the East Coast Big Boy. He was the model for fiberglass statues used by Frisch's, and subfranchises Azar's and Manners. This Big Boy varied between blond and reddish blond hair. Unlike West Coast designs (A) and (C), he held the hamburger in both hands and was always running to his left.
  3. 1956. This design introduced the modern Big Boy character and is the model for the iconic fiberglass statues. It replaced Wian's original figure (A), and was actually seen in 1955 Shoney's advertisements. Typically drawn with the hamburger atop his right arm, occasionally the hamburger was raised atop his left arm.[20] Shown is a common version of the several renderings used. By 2016, a new styled version is sometimes being used.
  4. 1969. Revised East Coast Big Boy...
  5. 1969. Revised West Coast Big Boy...
    Differences between the East and West Coast designs, including the statues, created confusion along the Ohio-Michigan border where Frisch's and Elias Brothers operated. This motivated a common Big Boy mark, derived with elements of both predecessors, (B) and (C). He retained the look of the West Coast figure (C) but assumed the running pose and orientation of the East Coast figure (B). Nonetheless similar West and East Coast versions were realized, maintaining the facial style of the previous marks, respectively. Frisch's continued to use (D) through 2016.
  6. 1981. To emphasize a full menu the hamburger was removed from the West Coast design.
  7. 1988. After buying Big Boy, Elias Brothers lowered the left arm completely.

In 1951, Bob Wian's original franchisee Dave Frisch developed a slightly different Big Boy character. He was slimmer, wore a side cap and was portrayed in a running pose, with "Big Boy" written on the sleeve rather than the chest of his shirt. (The side cap allowed space for the franchise name.) He wore striped overalls and had reddish or blond hair. Known as the "East Coast Big Boy", he was copyrighted by Frisch's and used for statues and comic books for Frisch's, and its subfranchisees Manners and Azar's. Before 1956, some franchisees, such as Parkette (Shoney's), would use both versions, though never together.[17][21] Since 1956, the Wian "West Coast Big Boy" design was used exclusively by all franchisees other than Frisch's, Manners and Azar's. In the late 1960s both characters were redrawn to appear similar, incorporating the checkered outfit and darker hair from the West Coast design and the running pose and direction of the East Coast design. In the 1980s, the West Coast design lost the hamburger. Representing a de-emphasis of the hamburger in North American Big Boy restaurants, it also accommodated the Japanese Big Boy restaurants, which do not serve hamburgers on a bun.

Big Boy statues

Early versions of the West Coast Big Boy statues were gigantic, measuring up to 14 feet tall with later versions as short as 4 feet.[22] The early statues always included the Big Boy hamburger above mascot's raised right arm; much later versions eliminated the hamburger with both arms clutching the suspenders instead. The hamburger remained a part of the Frisch's East Coast statues, though the slingshot was eliminated from the figure's back pocket. Although still used by that chain, some Frisch's restaurants currently display the West Coast statue instead.

In recent years, Big Boy statues have come into conflict with local zoning ordinances. In 2002 Tony Matar, a Big Boy franchisee in Canton, Michigan was cited in violation of local sign ordinances. The town claimed the statue was a prohibited second sign; Matar asserted that the 7 foot statue was a sculpture, not a sign.[23] A 2004 compromise allows the existing statue to remain with the words "Big Boy" removed from the figure's bib.[24] When a Brighton, Michigan franchise closed in early 2015 for financial reasons, zoning codes caused the entire sign—topped with a rotating Big Boy statue—be taken down before the restaurant could be reopened.[25] In contrast the planning commission in Norco, California (known as Horsetown USA) was concerned that the statue was not western enough. In response, the restaurant's Big Boy statue is now outfitted wearing a cowboy hat and boots.[26]

A few other modified statues are in official use. In Cincinnati's Great American Ball Park a Frisch's statue is painted wearing a 1970s Reds' uniform with a Reds' ball cap added. Frisch's Big Boy hamburgers are sold at two of the park's concession booths.[27] Rather than modifying a typical statue, the Big Boy restaurant in Manistique, Michigan displays a full scale moose statue dressed in checkered overalls with "Big Boy" printed across the chest. To conform with Gaylord, Michigan's Alpine theme, the local restaurant's statue previously wore a green Tyrolean hat.[28] (The restaurant was rebuilt in 2016, and no longer displays the modified statue.)

Because of the closing or separation of former Big Boy restaurants, many West Coast statues were acquired by private individuals, often traded through eBay. Smaller versions of the statues are sold as coin banks and bobblehead figures.[29] The three dimensional Big Boy figure was also used on early ash trays, salt and pepper shakers, wooden counter displays and as small unpainted pewter models.

Gigantic air inflatable Big Boy figures are available and typically used for restaurant openings and special promotions, where permitted.[30]

The Big Boy hamburger

The signature Big Boy hamburger which is the original double decker hamburger started as a joke. In February 1937, members of the Glendale High School Orchestra, who were regular customers, visited Bob’s Pantry, one asking, “How about something different, something special?” Bob Wian improvised, creating the first (then unnamed) Big Boy, intending the thing “look ridiculous, like a leaning tower”. Demand for the unique burger took off and Wian sought a "snappy" name, which became Big Boy.[31] Some reports say Richard Woodruff was nicknamed "Fat Boy" and the Big Boy was first called the Fat Boy hamburger until discovering Fat Boy was a protected trademark.[32]

The Big Boy consists of two thin beef patties placed on a three layer bun with lettuce, a single slice of cheese, and either mayonnaise with red relish (as Wian made it), Big Boy special sauce (thousand island dressing) or (in some locations) tartar sauce on each slice of bun. (Regardless, the Big Boy condiment used was often simply referred to as "special sauce" on menus chainwide.) Wian used a sesame seed bun while Frisch's used a plain bun and included pickles. The Big Boy hamburger originally called for a quarter pound (4 ozs.) of fresh ground beef, but later, franchisees were permitted to use frozen beef patties, and the minimum content reduced to a fifth of a pound to offset increasing food costs.

Core menu items

Just as Bob Wian's Big Boy hamburger was served by all franchises, the early franchises also contributed signature menu items. Frisch's provided the "Brawny Lad" and "Swiss Miss" hamburgers, Shoney's contributed the "Slim Jim" sandwich and Hot Fudge Ice Cream Cake, while Strawberry Pie was introduced by Eat'n Park. Hot Fudge Cake and Strawberry Pie remain popular dessert items chainwide but other items were not necessarily offered by all franchises, and franchises would sometimes change the item's name: The "Slim Jim" became the "Buddie Boy" at Frisch's, and Elby's renamed the "Swiss Miss" as the "Brawny Swiss".[33][34] Similarly, when franchisees left Big Boy, they would typically rebrand the Big Boy hamburger: it became the "Superburger" (Eat'n Park),[35] the "Buddy Boy" (Lendy's),[36] the "Big Ben" (Franklin's),[37] the "Classic Double Decker" (Shoney's),[38] and the "Elby Double Deck hamburger" (Elby's).[39]

Big Boy offers breakfast, burgers and sandwiches, salads, dinner combinations, and various desserts.[33][40]

Regional franchises

In addition to the Bob's Big Boy name, the "Big Boy" concept, menu, and mascot were originally licensed to a wide number of regional franchise holders (listed in the next section: Roster of named franchisees). Because many of the early franchisees were already in the restaurant business when joining Big Boy, "Big Boy" was added to the franchisee name just as the Big Boy hamburger was added to the franchisee's menu. In this sense it is confusing when referring to a chain, as each named franchisee was itself a chain and Big Boy could be considered a chain of chains. People tend to know Big Boy not simply as Big Boy but as the franchise from where they lived such as Bob's Big Boy in California, Shoney's Big Boy in the south or Frisch's Big Boy in much of Ohio, among the many others.

Each regional franchisee typically operated a central commissary which prepared or processed foods and sauces to be shipped fresh to their restaurants. Other items were prepared at the restaurants daily, such as soups and breading of seafood and onion rings.

Through the 1950s and 1960s the emphasis changed from drive-in restaurant to coffee shop and family restaurant. New franchisees without existing restaurants signed on. A larger standard menu was developed. Most adopted a common graphic design of menus and promotional items, offered by Big Boy but personalized to the franchise. Stock plans of restaurant designs were provided by Los Angeles architects Armet and Davis or Chicago architectural designer Robert O. Burton, and modified as needed.

In the 1960s, Big Boy and other drive-in restaurants could not compete with the spreading fast food restaurants such as McDonald's and Burger King. Big Boy built its last drive-in in 1964 and by 1976 only 5 of the chain's 930 restaurants offered curb service.[1][41] Big Boy redefined itself as full service in contrast to fast food. However, in the late 1960s and 1970s Bob's, Shoney's and JB's also opened Big Boy Jr. stores, designed as fast food operations which offered a limited menu. Sometimes called drive-ins, these junior stores did not use carhops.[42] In 1993 Marc's Big Boy similarly developed Big Boy Express stores using dual drive-thrus and no interior dining area.[43] Two Express stores were built, offered for sale a year later and closed in 1995.[44][45]

Several franchises also joined and concurrently sold Kentucky Fried Chicken in their Big Boy restaurants; these included Marc's,[46] McDowell's,[47][48] Lendy's and one or more other Shoney's subfranchises. The practice was discouraged and Big Boy eventually provided a similar scheme of selling buckets of take out chicken, marketed as Country Style[49] or Country Cousin Chicken.[50] Franchises who resisted the change were forced to remove Kentucky Fried Chicken menu items and physically relocate those operations.[48]

Big Boy's origins as a drive in restaurant, required a much smaller investment to open and much lower costs to operate: a small building having no dining room or limited counter space. Thus persons of modest assets could become Big Boy operators. It was the profits from these operations which allowed not only additional drive ins, but operators to build the modern restaurants with large pleasant dining rooms. Many of the early successful franchisees would probably not have assets (converted to present value) sufficient to join Big Boy today.

By 1979 there were more than a thousand Big Boy restaurants in the U.S. and Canada, and about 20 franchisees. Shoney's, Elias Brothers and Frisch's—charter franchisees—controlled the vast majority.[51] These mega franchisees paid practically no fees, e.g., Frisch paid $1 per year for its core four state territory. After Bob's, the four original franchisees (in order) were Frisch's, Eat'n Park, Shoney's (originally called "Parkette") and Elias Brothers, all clustered near the state of Ohio. All, including Bob's, remain in operation today, albeit Elias Brothers is simply known as Big Boy, and Eat'n Park and Shoney's dropped Big Boy affiliation in the 1970s and 1980s.

Big Boy developed named franchisees in several ways. Very quickly the Big Boy name and even the Big Boy character were being widely used without permission. Bob Wian, needing diverse exposure for national (U.S.) trademark protection, offered very generous franchise agreements to Frisch's, Eat'n Park and Parkette (Shoney's). In 1952, Wian instituted a formal franchise process and Elias Brothers became the first such "official" franchisee. Bob Wian also settled trademark infringements allowing the rogue operator to become a licensed franchisee, such as McDowell's Big Boy in North Dakota.[52] Subfranchisees often used their own name and operated independently: Frisch's licensed Manners and Azar's; Shoney's licensed Elby's, Becker's, Shap's, Lendy's and Yoda's. Elby’s licensed Franklin’s Big Boy in eastern Pennsylvania. Acquisitions and mergers also occurred. In the early 1970s Frisch's acquired Kip's Big Boy; JB's acquired Vip's, Kebo's, Leo's and Bud's which were rebranded JB's. After buying Big Boy, Elias Brothers bought Elby's and TJ's. Elby's was unique in leaving and rejoining the Big Boy system. When Marriott purchased Big Boy (Wian Enterprises) in 1967, this included Bob's Big Boy. The name “Bob’s” would be used by all Marriott owned Big Boys and became common in parts of the eastern U.S. and elsewhere, far away from Bob’s historic territory.

Frisch's now owns the "Big Boy" name in a defined four state region, and Azar's and Bob's are licensed by Frisch's Big Boy and Big Boy Restaurants International, respectively. Many of the other former franchise owners (Shoney's, particularly) have expanded into the former territories of other franchise holders. Prohibiting franchisees from publicly using their own names is intended to strengthen the trademark but also prevent defections, such as happened with Shoney's Big Boy retaining identity as Shoney's.[53][54] The same occurred with Eat'n Park, Elby's, Lendy's, JB's, and Abdow's who kept their names after leaving Big Boy. Big Boy now permits operators to informally identify by location such as Tawas Bay Big Boy in East Tawas, Michigan.[55]

Unlike most modern franchises, the historic Big Boy franchisees differed somewhat from one another in pricing and menus. When Elias Brothers purchased Big Boy in 1987, intentions were to standardize the name and menu, but Bob's, Frisch's and McDowell's (now known as Bismarck Big Boy) continue to offer distinctions from the standard Big Boy menu.[56]

Roster of named franchisees

Named Big Boy franchisees are listed below with territories, time span, founders and additional notes, as known:

Historic Big Boy franchisee logos
Logos of historic Big Boy franchisees.
Franchisees were once required to use their own name with the Big Boy name and character. Some changed logos periodically and these show designs used while a Big Boy affiliate, most dating from the mid 1950s to the mid 1960s. Eat'n Park, Shoney's and JB's are no longer affiliated with Big Boy. Logos for Arnold's, Bud's and Chez Chap were not available to the artist.
A Big Boy Restaurant in Chōfu, Tokyo, Japan.

Mady's Big Boy of Windsor, Ontario was not a franchisee, though sometimes identified as one and using a similar looking mascot.[114] In 1965 Bob Wian sued Mady's for trademark infringement but failed because (his) Big Boy was judged not widely known in Canada. The case is considered important in Canadian and international trademark law.[115] In 1973 Elias Brothers bought Mady's and established an Elias Big Boy on Mady's original site.[116] John Bitove, Sr. owned the rights to Big Boy for the remainder of Canada, which he sold to Elias Brothers in 1979.[84]

Outside of North America, Big Boy Japan owns and operates 279 Big Boy Hamburger Steak & Grill Restaurants throughout Japan. Founded in 1977, Big Boy Japan now also operates 45 Victoria Station restaurants in Japan and is a subsidiary of Zénsho Holdings Co., Ltd.[2][6][117] The Japanese Big Boy Restaurants do not offer the Big Boy hamburger or most other American Big Boy menu items, offering a distinct menu instead.[118] They also offer beer and wine.[118]

Big Boy also operated (or planned to open) restaurants in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, the Philippines and Thailand.[119]

In addition, Big Boy established @burger, a new concept casual dining restaurant in Ann Arbor, Michigan, which is now closed.[120]

See also


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  54. Frisch's Restaurant, Inc. v. Shoney's Inc., 759 F.2d 1261, 1265-6 (6th Cir. 1985) (“In the case at bar, the district court concluded that the "Big Boy" mark was neither an indicator of origin nor distinctive, but was "a relatively weak mark". ... By emphasizing "Shoney's Big Boy Restaurants", as it did in its advertising, Shoney's has identified itself as the source of the services.”).
  55. "Tawas Bay Big Boy". Tawas Bay Big Boy. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
  56. "Bismarck Big Boy Restaurant". BisManCafe. Retrieved March 22, 2016.) continue to offer distinctions from the standard Big Boy menu.
         "Around the Mountain State". Point Pleasant Register. August 4, 1988. p. 14. Retrieved June 27, 2013. [A]ll restaurants in the chain will operate under the Big Boy name with standardized menus across the nation. Individual franchise names will be phased out gradually.
         "Menu". Bob's Big Boy. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
         "Menu". Frisch's Big Boy. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
         "Big Boy Restaurant menu: Bismarck, ND". All Menus. Retrieved March 22, 2016."Food". Big Boy. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
  57. "George Abdow, co-founder of Springfield-area Abdow's Big Boy restaurant chain, dies at 82". The Republican. Springfield, MA. May 29, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  58. Massachusetts Secretary of State Corporate Search: Abdow's Big Boy of Riverdale, Inc.
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  61. "Presenting the taste sensation you'll never forget! [Advertisement]". Chester Times. Chester, PA. July 1, 1955. p. 5. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  62. "Formal Opening". Valparaiso Vidette Messenger. Valparaiso, Indiana. August 13, 1970. p. 20. Retrieved April 29, 2016 via Azar's was started in Fort Wayne in 1953...
         Seltzer, Debra Jane. "Big Boy (page 2)". Retrieved March 3, 2013. In 1954, the first Azar's opened in Fort Wayne
  63. Wyche, Paul (December 1, 2013). "Azars shifting family business from food to property". The Journal Gazette. Fort Wayne: Fort Wayne Newspapers. Archived from the original on 2014-04-18. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  64. 1 2 3 4 Schaffer, Frank (April 17, 1962). "Charleston Drive-In Zooms To Huge 10-State Business". Charleston Daily Mail. pp. 12, 17. Retrieved February 26, 2013 via Then came the expansion outside West Virginia with franchised stores. Before 1956, Shoney's restaurants were operating in Richmond, Salem, Hampton, Norfolk and Newport News, Va., Rochester, N. Y., Philadelphia, Chattanooga, Charlotte and Wheeling [WV]. [In this list, the Rochester franchise is Becker's, the Wheeling franchise is Elby's, the Philadelphia franchise is Tune's and the Chattanooga franchise is Shap's.]
  65. Baker, Jim (March 18, 2010). "Out of the Past: Johnson's Drive-In, Route 5 in Athol Springs, 1957" (PDF). The Sun. Hamburg (NY). p. 12. Retrieved April 12, 2013. The Johnson family continued to run the business until 1959 ... When the Johnson's left the business, they sold out to the Becker family of Rochester who owned the "Big Boy" franchise restaurants. They had successful restaurants in Buffalo, but for whatever reason, they never re-opened the former drive-in at the circle. It is believed that they tried to expand too fast and fell on hard financial times.
  66. Rickner, Amanda (March 15, 2012). "JB's Restaurant being demolished, property listed for $1.2 million". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Bozeman MT: Pioneer News Group. Retrieved October 8, 2013. The restaurant was constructed in the early 1970s, according to city building records. For a time, it was a Bud’s Big Boy restaurant before becoming JB’s.
  67. Rochester, Helen (August 9, 1978). "Lunch in Westmount: Modified Big Boy is no treat". The [Montreal] Gazette. Southam Press. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  68. "Peters, co-founder of Eat'n Park, dead at 87", Nation's Restaurant News, August 28, 2000.
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  70. Kapner, Suzanne, "After 46 years, Eat'n Park still revs sales, appetites", Nation's Restaurant News, Sept 18, 1995.
  71. "The Elby's Empire: Part 1 - Weelunk". Weelunk. Retrieved February 17, 2016.  'It wasn't all about naming it [Elby's] after my Uncle Ellis even though that makes the most sense to people because of the possible combination,' Gregg [Boury] said. 'The story that I was told by my dad was that they were sitting around a desk one day trying to come up with a name for the restaurant, and they were making all kinds of combinations with their names, and Ellis Boury did come up. But it just so happened that they had a bottle of simple syrup there that they sold to bars because it was a lot of what grenadine is today.' 
  72. 1 2 3 4 Frisch's Restaurant, Inc. v. Elby's Big Boy, 661 F.Supp. 971 (S.D. Ohio, E.D. 1987).
  73. "Advertisement: Grand opening our 16th special". Cambridge Daily Jeffersonian. January 11, 1971. p. 9. Retrieved September 7, 2016 via
  74. "Narcotics Evidence Is Found Illegal". Cumberland Evening Times. August 1, 1973. p. 27. Retrieved September 7, 2016 via
  75. "Elby's Big Boy Strawberry Festival (Advertisement)". Observer Reporter. Washington, PA: Observer Publishing Company. April 26, 1994. p. B-2. Retrieved February 14, 2013 via Google news.
  76. Hansen, Christian (2002). The Big Boy Story: "King of Them All". Santa Barbara: Haagen Printing. p. 111. ISBN 978-0967194363.
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         "Opens 16th Elby's". The Gettysburg Times. September 7, 1970. p. 3. Retrieved November 10, 2016 via
  78. Dino, Jim (August 28, 2015). "Former Friendly's sold to investors". Standard Speaker. Hazelton, PA: Times-Shamrock Communications. Retrieved November 10, 2016. In the late 1970s, Marvin Franklin changed 13 Elby’s restaurants he owned in Pennsylvania and elsewhere on the East Coast into Franklin’s Family Restaurants, with a menu similar to its predecessor.
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  80. 1956 Oak Park Telephone Directory. 1956. p. 133.
  81. Kosdrosky, Terry (February 2001). "New Owner of Big Boy Gobbles Up Franchise Rights". Crain's Detroit Business. 17 (7). p. 32.
  82. "Frisch's Big Boy Celebrates Founder's Day May 3". [Official] Frisch's Big Boy of Northwest Ohio. Retrieved July 29, 2013. Toledo brothers Milton & David Bennett purchased the franchise rights to build and operate Frisch’s Big Boy restaurants in Northwest Ohio. Bennett Enterprises owns and operates 13 family-style restaurants with drive-thru service under the name Frisch’s Big Boy.
  83. 1 2 Big Boy Restaurants 1986 50th Anniversary Western-Central US Road Map (Map) (1986 ed.). Big Boy Restaurants. § back cover. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  84. 1 2 "Executive Summary: John Bitove, Sr.". Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  85. "White Log Coffee Shop, Los Angeles, CA". Pacific Coast Architecture Database. Retrieved March 22, 2016. Designed for the chain of coffee shops started by Kenneth Bemis
  86. "EZ's Coffee Shop (formerly Kip's Big Boy) at Northwest Highway & Hillcrest, North Dallas To Be Demolished?". Preservation Dallas. Archived from the original on 2010-12-12. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  87. "Lendy's Web Page, part 4". Archived from the original on August 5, 2011.
  88. 1 2 "Lendy's Web Page, part 2". Archived from the original on August 5, 2011.
  89. "Owner Realizes Early Ambitions". Spokane Daily Chronicle. May 1, 1970. p. 23. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  90. Bette Lou, Higgins (August 9, 2009). "Restaurants". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved September 9, 2016. The first California-style drive-in in the Cleveland area, Manners Drive In, opened in 1939 (17655 Lake Shore Blvd.). It operated 7 days a week, 24 hours a day and was opened by Robert L. and Mona Manners. Manners introduced the double-decker hamburger in 1954. By 1964 there were 30 Manners Big Boy Restaurants in northeast Ohio ... In 1968 Manners merged with Consolidated Food Corp. of Chicago. In 1974 Marriott purchased 39 Manners Drive Ins from Consolidated Foods.... In 1995 the Big Boy Corp. was operating under the Elias Big Boy name.
  91. Feran, Tom (September 2, 2005). "Manners Big Boy's secret is on the tip of my tongue". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland: Newhouse Newspapers. Archived from the original on April 21, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  92. "Milwaukee Welcomes BIG BOY [Advertisement]". The Milwaukee Journal. November 21, 1958. A free Coca-Cola with every food order during our opening week. Just clip the Marc's symbol from this ad and turn it in with your order.
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  94. "New Hampshire Corporate Record: Keene Big Boy, Inc.". Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  95. Hansen, Christian (2002). The Big Boy Story: "King of Them All". Santa Barbara: Haagen Printing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0967194363. On a plane trip to Keene, New Hampshire ... to visit with [Big Boy] franchisee Manfred Bernhard, creator of the Big Boy Comic Book. ... Manfred greeted us at the plane in his car, loaded us in, and we drove in an opposite direction to his restaurant, Mr. "B's".
  96. Glassett, Janie. "(Mr. B's Image at) Janies's Big Boy Webpage". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  97. Jolley, Harmon (July 16, 2002). "What Did That Building Used To Be? - Shap's". The Retrieved September 30, 2013.
  98. "The Parkette at the Beginning". Parkette Drive-In. Retrieved December 4, 2016. Joe Smiley opened the Parkette [Drive-In] on November 11, 1951.... Joe created his own version of the Double-Decker hamburger called the 'Poor Boy'. Joe brought this burger idea with him from West Virginia.
  99. "Print ads in The Contest of the Century", The Charleston Gazette and The Charleston Daily Mail, Charleston, WV, 1952–55, retrieved June 27, 2012
  100. Zuckerman, David (May 7, 1984). "Shoney's secedes from Big Boy system". Nation's Restaurant News. Penton Media. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  101. "Graph of Shoney's net income since 1974; At Shoney's, details count". The New York Times. June 8, 1984. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 29, 2016. Shoney's started expanding outside of its franchise territory in 1982 by opening coffee shops without Big Boy markings in neighboring states. A fellow Big Boy franchisee sued to stop the move, but after Shoney's won a favorable court ruling in March, Marriott quickly agreed to scrap the franchise agreement for $13 million in cash.
  102. "91 A.D.2d 860 (1982): Gazda v. Kolinski"
  103. "Obituary: Lucian Frejlach". Oshkosh Northwestern. Gannett. February 9, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
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  105. "[Advertisement] We Are Famous!" (PDF). Philadelphia Inquirer. September 18, 1959. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  106. "Levittown's Newest Citizen is here [Advertisement]". Bristol Daily Courier. December 5, 1957. p. 34. Retrieved November 2, 2016 via
  107. "Big Boy Restaurant Discontinues Operation". Bristol Daily Courier. April 15, 1959. p. 3. Retrieved November 2, 2016 via
  108. "Restaurant Chain Expands to E.P.". El Paso Herald Post. August 29, 1963. p. 32. Retrieved September 9, 2016 via VIP's Big Boy restaurants of New Mexico, Inc. today announced a merger with the Big Boy restaurant organization in El Paso, which will serve as headquarters for expansion throughout West Texas. ... The firm has taken over a restaurant as 8409 Dyer Street formerly known as KIP's Big Boy Restaurant.
  109. "Matchbook - Vip's Big Boy Hamburgers Cheyenne Torrington WY FULL". ebay. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  110. "New Restaurant Is Planned Here". Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque: Journal Publishing Co. January 19, 1962. p. 2. Retrieved October 19, 2012 via
  111. "JB's Big Boy Plans Fall Stock Offering". The Deseret News. Salt Lake City. September 1, 1972. p. 4T. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  112. "Children's project gets $1,000 gift". Santa Fe New Mexican Sun. August 15, 1982. p. 4. Retrieved November 2, 2016 via Commenting on the name change from VIP's Big Boy to JB's Big Boy, Clark D. Jones, president of the Salt Lake City-based restaurant chain, said it was done with several new changes in the restaurants and to add more cohesiveness to the operation of the company.
  113. "VIP's officials announce sale of restaurants". The Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. August 18, 1984. p. 9B. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  114. "[Advertisement] Mady's Big Boy Turns Back the Clock on Food Prices!". The Windsor Star. March 23, 1968. p. D3. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  115. McDonald's Corporation v Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd. and Another; McDonald's Corporation v Dax Prop CC and Another; McDonald's Corporation v Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd. and Another [1996] ZASCA 82 (27 August 1996), Supreme Court of Appeal (South Africa)
  116. Kent, Jack (December 26, 1973), "Business Highlights: Elias Big Boy to open here", The Windsor Star, Windsor, ON, Canada, p. 20
  117. Matsutani, Minoru (January 25, 2011). "Family restaurants falling from flavor". Japan Times. Tokyo: Toshiaki Ogasawara. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  118. 1 2 "Big Boy Japan Menu Items". Big Boy Japan. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  119. Weir, Nancy (April 1, 1992). "Memories of unforgettable food". Gadsden Times. p. C1. Retrieved March 22, 2016. [T]oday there are 963 franchise units in the United States, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia
         "Big Boy restaurant returns to Owosso". The Argus-Press (180 ed.). Owosso, MI: The Argus-Press Company. July 1, 1998. p. 1. Retrieved March 23, 2016 via Google News Archive. Today, Elias Brothers Restaurants, based in Warren, franchises nearly 900 units in the United States, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Brazil and the Philippines.
         "Big Boy comic book contest announced". The Argus-Press. Owosso, MI: The Argus-Press Company. June 20, 2001. p. 6. Retrieved March 23, 2016 via Google News Archive. Big Boy Restaurants International LLC is the exclusive worldwide franchiser of more than 455 Big Boy Restaurants in the United States, Japan and Egypt.
  120. Alfs, Lizzy (June 27, 2011). "Big Boy's @burger restaurant closes on East Liberty Street in Ann Arbor". Ann Arbor News.

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