Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases BSG, 5F7, CD147, EMMPRIN, M6, OK, TCSF, basigin (Ok blood group)
External IDs OMIM: 109480 MGI: 88208 HomoloGene: 1308 GeneCards: BSG
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 19: 0.57 – 0.58 Mb Chr 10: 79.7 – 79.71 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Basigin (BSG) also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BSG gene.[3][4][5] This protein is a determinant for the Ok blood group system. Basigin has been shown to be an essential receptor on red blood cells for the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.[6]


Basigin is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, with a structure related to the putative primordial form of the family. As members of the immunoglobulin superfamily play fundamental roles in intercellular recognition involved in various immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development, basigin is thought also to play a role in intercellular recognition (Miyauchi et al., 1991; Kanekura et al., 1991).[7][8]

It has a variety of functions. In addition to its metalloproteinase-inducing ability, basigin also regulates several distinct functions, such as spermatogenesis, expression of the monocarboxylate transporter and the responsiveness of lymphocytes.[4] Basigin is a type I integral membrane receptor that has many ligands, including the cyclophilin (CyP) proteins Cyp-A and CyP-B and certain integrins.[9][10][11] It is expressed by many cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells and leukocytes. The human basigin protein contains 269 amino acids that form two heavily glycosylated C2 type immunoglobulin-like domains at the N-terminal extracellular portion. A second form of basigin has also been characterized that contains one additional immunoglobulin-like domain in its extracellular portion.[4]


Basigin has been shown to interact with Ubiquitin C.[12]

Basigin has been shown to form a complex with monocarboxylate transporters in the retina of mice. Basigin appears to be required for proper placement of MCTs in the membrane. In the Basigin null mouse, the failure of MCTs to integrate with the membrane may be directly linked to a failure of nutrient transfer in the retinal pigmented epithelium (the lactates transported by MCTs 1, 3, and 4 are essential nutrients for the developing RPE), resulting in loss of sight in the null animal.[13]

Role in malaria

It has recently (November 2011) been found that basigin is a receptor that is essential to erythrocyte invasion by most strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent species of the plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. It is hoped that by developing antibodies to the parasite ligand for Basigin, Rh5, a better vaccine for malaria might be found.[6] Basigin is bound by the PfRh5 protein on the surface of the malaria parasite.


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse basigin, and chicken HT7 molecule". J Immunol. 149 (3): 847–54. PMID 1634773.
  4. 1 2 3 Yurchenko V, Constant S, Bukrinsky M (2006). "Dealing with the family: CD147 interactions with cyclophilins". Immunology. 117 (3): 301–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2005.02316.x. PMC 1782239Freely accessible. PMID 16476049.
  5. Miyauchi T, Masuzawa Y, Muramatsu T (1992). "The basigin group of the immunoglobulin superfamily: complete conservation of a segment in and around transmembrane domains of human and mouse basigin and chicken HT7 antigen". J. Biochem. 110 (5): 770–4. PMID 1783610.
  6. 1 2 Crosnier C, Bustamante LY, Bartholdson SJ, Bei AK, Theron M, Uchikawa M, Mboup S, Ndir O, Kwiatkowski DP, Duraisingh MT, Rayner JC, Wright GJ (November 2011). "Basigin is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum". Nature. 480 (7378): 534–7. doi:10.1038/nature10606. PMC 3245779Freely accessible. PMID 22080952.
  7. "Entrez Gene: BSG basigin (Ok blood group)".
  8. Kanekura T, Chen X, Kanzaki T (2002). "Basigin (CD147) is expressed on melanoma cells and induces tumor cell invasion by stimulating production of matrix metalloproteinases by fibroblasts". Int. J. Cancer. 99 (4): 520–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.10390. PMID 11992541.
  9. Yurchenko V, Zybarth G, O'Connor M, Dai W, Franchin G, Hao T, Guo H, Hung H, Toole B, Gallay P, Sherry B, Bukrinsky M (2002). "Active site residues of cyclophilin A are crucial for its signaling activity via CD147". J Biol Chem. 277 (25): 22959–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201593200. PMID 11943775.
  10. Yurchenko V, O'Connor M, Dai W, Guo H, Toole B, Sherry B, Bukrinsky M (2001). "CD147 is a signaling receptor for cyclophilin B". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 288 (4): 786–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5847. PMID 11688976.
  11. Berditchevski F, Chang S, Bodorova J, Hemler M (1997). "Generation of monoclonal antibodies to integrin-associated proteins. Evidence that alpha3beta1 complexes with EMMPRIN/basigin/OX47/M6". J Biol Chem. 272 (46): 29174–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.46.29174. PMID 9360995.
  12. Wang, Wen-Juan; Li Qing-Quan; Xu Jing-Da; Cao Xi-Xi; Li Hai-Xia; Tang Feng; Chen Qi; Yang Jin-Ming; Xu Zu-De; Liu Xiu-Ping (2008). "Interaction between CD147 and P-glycoprotein and their regulation by ubiquitination in breast cancer cells". Chemotherapy. Switzerland. 54 (4): 291–301. doi:10.1159/000151225. PMID 18689982.
  13. W.J. Philip; J.D. Ochrietor; C. Rudoy; T. Muramatsu; P.J. Linser (2003). "Loss of MCT1, MCT3, and MCT4 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium and neural retina of the 5A11/basigin-null mouse". Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. United States. 44 (3): 1305–1311. doi:10.1167/iovs.02-0552. PMID 12601063.

Further reading

  • Muramatsu T, Miyauchi T (2004). "Basigin (CD147): a multifunctional transmembrane protein involved in reproduction, neural function, inflammation and tumor invasion". Histol. Histopathol. 18 (3): 981–7. PMID 12792908. 
  • Yan L, Zucker S, Toole BP (2005). "Roles of the multifunctional glycoprotein, emmprin (basigin; CD147), in tumour progression". Thromb. Haemost. 93 (2): 199–204. doi:10.1160/TH04-08-0536. PMID 15711733. 
  • Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, et al. (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse basigin, and chicken HT7 molecule". J. Immunol. 149 (3): 847–54. PMID 1634773. 
  • Nabeshima K, Lane WS, Biswas C (1991). "Partial sequencing and characterization of the tumor cell-derived collagenase stimulatory factor". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 285 (1): 90–6. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(91)90332-D. PMID 1846736. 
  • Biswas C, Zhang Y, DeCastro R, et al. (1995). "The human tumor cell-derived collagenase stimulatory factor (renamed EMMPRIN) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Cancer Res. 55 (2): 434–9. PMID 7812975. 
  • Kaname T, Miyauchi T, Kuwano A, et al. (1993). "Mapping basigin (BSG), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, to 19p13.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 64 (3–4): 195–7. doi:10.1159/000133573. PMID 8404035. 
  • DeCastro R, Zhang Y, Guo H, et al. (1996). "Human keratinocytes express EMMPRIN, an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer". J. Invest. Dermatol. 106 (6): 1260–5. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12348959. PMID 8752667. 
  • Spring FA, Holmes CH, Simpson KL, et al. (1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, basigin and neurothelin, an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule that is widely expressed in human cells and tissues". Eur. J. Immunol. 27 (4): 891–7. doi:10.1002/eji.1830270414. PMID 9130641. 
  • Berditchevski F, Chang S, Bodorova J, Hemler ME (1997). "Generation of monoclonal antibodies to integrin-associated proteins. Evidence that alpha3beta1 complexes with EMMPRIN/basigin/OX47/M6". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (46): 29174–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.46.29174. PMID 9360995. 
  • Guo H, Majmudar G, Jensen TC, et al. (1998). "Characterization of the gene for human EMMPRIN, a tumor cell surface inducer of matrix metalloproteinases". Gene. 220 (1–2): 99–108. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00400-4. PMID 9767135. 
  • Guo H, Li R, Zucker S, Toole BP (2000). "EMMPRIN (CD147), an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase synthesis, also binds interstitial collagenase to the tumor cell surface". Cancer Res. 60 (4): 888–91. PMID 10706100. 
  • Kirk P, Wilson MC, Heddle C, et al. (2000). "CD147 is tightly associated with lactate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 and facilitates their cell surface expression". EMBO J. 19 (15): 3896–904. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.15.3896. PMC 306613Freely accessible. PMID 10921872. 
  • Yurchenko V, O'Connor M, Dai WW, et al. (2001). "CD147 is a signaling receptor for cyclophilin B". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 288 (4): 786–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5847. PMID 11688976. 
  • Yurchenko V, Zybarth G, O'Connor M, et al. (2002). "Active site residues of cyclophilin A are crucial for its signaling activity via CD147". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (25): 22959–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201593200. PMID 11943775. 
  • Major TC, Liang L, Lu X, et al. (2002). "Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is induced upon monocyte differentiation and is expressed in human atheroma". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 22 (7): 1200–7. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000021411.53577.1C. PMID 12117738. 
  • Taylor PM, Woodfield RJ, Hodgkin MN, et al. (2002). "Breast cancer cell-derived EMMPRIN stimulates fibroblast MMP2 release through a phospholipase A(2) and 5-lipoxygenase catalyzed pathway". Oncogene. 21 (37): 5765–72. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205702. PMID 12173047. 
  • Thorns C, Feller AC, Merz H (2002). "EMMPRIN (CD 174) is expressed in Hodgkin's lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. An immunohistochemical study of 60 cases". Anticancer Res. 22 (4): 1983–6. PMID 12174874. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241Freely accessible. PMID 12477932. 

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