Ban (title)

Ban /ˈbɑːn/ was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. In English, common term for the province governed by ban is banate and term for the office of ban is banship.

Origin of the title

The first known mention of the title ban is in the 10th century by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, in the work De Administrando Imperio, in the 30th and 31st chapter "Story of the province of Dalmatia" and "Of the Croats and of the country they now dwell in", dedicated to the Croats and the Croatian organisation of their medieval state. In the 30th chapter, describing how the Croatian state was divided into eleven ζουπανίας (zoupanias; župas), the ban βοάνος (Boanos), καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ (rules over) τὴν Κρίβασαν (Krbava), τὴν Λίτζαν (Lika) καὶ (and) τὴν Γουτζησκά (Gacka).[1] In the 31st chapter, describing the military and naval force of Croatia, "Miroslav, who ruled for four years, was killed by the βοέάνου (boeanou) Πριβονυία (Pribounia, ie. Pribina)", and after that followed a temporary decrease in the military force of the Croatian Kingdom.[2]

In 1029 was published a Latin charter by Jelena, sister of ban Godemir, in Obrovac, for donation to the monastery of St. Krševan in Zadar.[3] In it she is introduced as "Ego Heleniza, soror Godemiri bani...".[3] Franjo Rački noted that if is not an original, then is certainly a transcript from the same 11th century.[4][5]

In the 12th century, the title was mentioned by Byzantine historian John Kinnamos, anonymous monk of Dioclea, and in the Supetar Cartulary.[3] The Byzantine historian John Kinnamos wrote the title in the form μπάνος (mpanos).[6] In the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, which is dated to 12th and 13th century, in the Latin redaction is written as banus, banum, bano, and in the Croatian redaction only as ban.[3] The Supetar Cartulary includes information until the 12th century, but the specific writing about bans is dated to the late 13th and early 14th century, a transcript of an older document.[7] It mentions that there existed seven bans and they were elected by the six of twelve Croatian noble tribes, where the title is written as banus and bani.[7]


The Late Proto-Slavic word *banъ is not of native Slavic lexical stock and is generally considered to be a borrowing from a Turkic language.[8][6][9] The title's origin among medieval Croats is not completely understood,[10] and as much is hard to determine the exact source and to reconstruct the primal form of the Turkic word it is derived from.[11] It is generally explained as a derivation from the Avar name Bayan,[6][9][12][13][14] which is a derivation of the Proto-Turkic root *bāj- "rich, richness, wealth; prince; husband".[15][6] The Proto-Turkic root *bāj- is sometimes explained as a native Turkic word,;[16] however, it is generally considered a borrowing from the Iranian bay (from Proto-Iranian *baga- "god; lord").[6] Within the Altaic theory, the Turkic word is inherited from the Proto-Altaic *bēǯu "numerous, great".[17] The title word ban was also derived from the name Bojan,[18] and there were additionally proposed Iranian,[nb 1] and Indo-European (Gothic),[nb 2] language origin.

The Avar nameword bajan, which some scholars trying to explain title's origin interpreted with alleged meaning of "ruler of the horde",[9] itself is attested as the 6th century name of Avar khagan Bayan I which led the raids on provinces of the Byzantine Empire.[6] Some scholars assume that the name was a possible misinterpretation of a title,[6][14] but Bayan already had a title of khagan, and the name, as well its derivation, are well confirmed.[6]

However, the title ban among the Avars has never been attested to in the historical sources.[36]

Research history

The title origin is unknown.[19] It was used as "evidence" throughout the history of historioraphy to prove ideological assumptions on Avars,[37] and specific theories on the origin of early medieval Croats.[13][14][20] The starting point of the debate was year 1837, and the work of historian and philologist Pavel Jozef Šafárik, whose thesis has influenced generations of scholars.[38] In his work Slovanské starožitnosti (1837), and later Slawische alterthümer (1843) and Geschichte der südslawischen Literatur (1864), was the first to connect the ruler title of ban, obviously not of Slavic lexical stook, which ruled over župas of today Lika region, with the Eurasian Avars.[38] He concluded how Avars lived in that same territory, basing his thesis on a literal reading of the statement from Constantine VII's 30th chapter, "there are still descendants of the Avars in Croatia, and are recognized as Avars".[39] However, modern scholars until now proved the opposite, that Avars never lived in Dalmatia proper, and that statement occurred somewhere in Pannonia.[40]

Šafárik assumed that the Avars by the nameword bayan called their governor, and in the end concluded that the title ban derives from the "name-title" Bayan, which is also a Persian title word (see Turkish bey for Persian bag/bay), and neglected that it should derive from the Slavic name Bojan.[41] His thesis would be later endorsed by many historians, and both South Slavic titles ban and župan were asserted as Avars official titles, but it had more to do with the scholars ideology of the time than actual reality.[42]

Franc Miklošič wrote that the word, of Croatian origin, probably was expanded by the Croats among the Bulgarians and Serbs, while if is Persian, than among Slavs is borrowed from the Turks.[43] Erich Berneker wrote that became by contraction from bojan, which was borrowed from Mongolian-Turkic bajan ("rich, wealthy"), and noted Bajan is a personal name among Mongols, Avars, Bulgars, Altaic Tatars, and Kirghiz.[44] Đuro Daničić decided for an intermediate solution; by origin is Avar or Persian from bajan (duke).[45]

J. B. Bury derived the title from the name of Avar khagan Bayan I, and Bulgarian khagan Kubrat's son Batbayan, with which tried to prove the Bulgarian-Avar (Turkic) theory on the origin of early medieval Croats.[13][46] Historian Franjo Rački didn't discard the possibility South Slavs could obtain it from Avars, but he disbelieved it had happened in Dalmatia, yet somewhere in Pannonia, and noticed the existence of bân ("dux, custos") in Persian language.[47] Tadija Smičiklas and Vatroslav Jagić thought that the title should not derive from bajan, but from bojan, as thus how it is written in the Greek historical records (boan, boean).[48]

Vjekoslav Klaić pointed out that the title before 12th century is only among Croats documented,[49] and did not consider a problem that Bajan was a personal name and not a title, as seen in the most accepted derivation of Slavic word *korljь (kral/lj, krol).[32][49] He mentioned both thesis (from Turkic-Persian, and Slavic "bojan, bojarin"), as well the German-Gothic theory derivation.[32] Gjuro Szabo shared similar Klaić's viewpoint, and emphasized the widespread distribution of a toponym from India to Ireland, and particurarly among Slavic lands, and considered it as an impossibility that had derived from a personal name of a poorly known khagan, yet from a prehistoric word Ban or Fan.[50][51]

Ferdo Šišić considered that is impossible it directly originated from a personal name of an Avar ruler because the title needs a logical continuity.[46] He doubted its existence among Slavic tribes during the great migration, and within early South Slavic principalities.[46] He strongly supported the Šafárik thesis about Avar descendants in Lika, now dismissed by scholars, and concluded that in that territory they had a separate governor whom they called bajan, from which after Avar assimilation, became Croatian title ban.[46] The thesis of alleged Avar governor title Šišić based on his personal derivation of bajan from the title khagan.[52] Nada Klaić advocated the same claims of Avars descendants in Lika, and considered bans and župans as Avar officials and governors.[53]

The later conclusion by Šišić and Klaić was previously loosely opposed by Rački, who studying old historical records observed that ban could only be someone from one of the twelve Croatian tribes according Supetar cartulary.[54] This viewpoint is supported by the Chronicle of Duklja; Latin redaction; Unaquaque in provincia banum ordinavit, id est ducem, ex suis consanguineis fratribus ([Svatopluk] in every province allocated a ban, and they were duke's consanguin brothers); Croatian redaction defines that all bans need to be by origin native and noble.[3]

The mainstream view of the time was mainly opposed by Stjepan Krizin Sakač, who emphasized that the word bajan is never mentioned in historical sources as a title, the title ban is never mentioned in such a form, and there's no evidence that Avars and Turks ever used a title closely related to the title ban.[18] Sakač connected the Croatian bân with statements from two Persian dictionaries (released 1893 and 1903); the noun bàn (lord, master, illustrious man, chief), suffix bân (guard), and the Sasanian title merz-bân (مرزبان marz-bān, Marzban).[55][56][52] He considered that the early Croats originated from the Iranian-speaking Sarmatians and Alans.[57][20] The view of the possible Iranian origin (from ban; keeper, guard), besides Avarian, was shared by the modern scholars like Vladimir Košćak, Horace Lunt and Tibor Živković.[20][58][19]

Recently historian Tomislav Bali noted the possible connection of the title with the military and territorial administrative unit bandon of the Byzantine Empire.[59] The unit term derives like the Greek bandon (from the 6th century) and Latin bandus and bandum (from the 9th century; banner) from the Gothic bandwō, a military term used by the troops who had Germanic or fought against Germanic peoples.[59] He considered that the Croatian rulers possibly were influenced by the Byzantine model in the organization of the territory and borrowed the terminology.[59]

Uses of the title

Main article: Ban of Croatia
The Seal of Paul I Šubić of Bribir, ban of Croatia (1275–1312).

Recent studies suggest that the title was used for local land administrators in the Southern Slavic areas, mainly in Duchy of Croatia (8th century–c. 925), Kingdom of Croatia, personal union with Hungary (1102–1526) and later parts of the Hungarian kingdom, the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377), and Banate of Macsó (1254–1496). The title was later used in the historical Kingdom of Hungary and its dependencies.

The title was also used in Wallachia from the 13th century up to the 19th century (where it was associated with the highest boyar office and the region of Oltenia or Banate of Severin), the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.

The meaning of the title changed with time: the position of a ban can be compared to that of a viceroy or a high vassal such as a hereditary duke, but neither is accurate for all historical bans. In Croatia a ban reigned in the name of the ruler, he is the first state dignitary after King, the King's legal representative, and had various powers and functions.[60]

In South Slavic languages, the territory ruled by a ban was called Banovina (or Banat), often transcribed in English as Banate or Bannate, and also as Banat or Bannat.

Medieval bans

References from the earliest periods are scarce, the De Administrando Imperio recalls the Croatian ban Pribina in the 10th century, while the 1067/1068 charter by King Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia; bans Pribina, Godemir during the reign of Michael Krešimir II (949–969) and Stephen Držislav (969–997), bans Gvarda/Varda, Božeteh, Stjepan Praska during the reign of Svetoslav (997–1000), Gojslav (1000–1020), Krešimir III (1000–1030) and Stephen I (1030–1058), and later bans Gojčo and Dmitar Zvonimir serving under King Peter Krešimir IV (1058–1074/5).

After the Croats elected Hungarian kings as kings of Croatia in 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy because the bans were appointed by the king, though Croatia, remaining a kingdom in personal union with Hungary, was not referred to as a banovina (banate). Croatia was governed by the 'viceregal' ban as a whole between 1102 and 1225, when it was split into two separate banovinas: Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. The institution of ban in Croatia would persist until the 20th century (see below).

Earliest mentioned Bosnian bans are Borić (1154–1163) and Kulin (1163–1204),[60] when the medieval Bosnia had a similar suzerain status that Croatia had towards the king of Hungary. Nevertheless, the Bosnian bans weren't viceroys in the sense they were appointed by the king. Sometimes their title is translated as duke.

The region of Mačva (now in Serbia) was also ruled by bans. Mačva (Macsó) was part of the medieval Hungarian kingdom though under various levels of independence; some of the bans were foreign viceroys, some were native nobles, and one even rose to the status of a royal palatine.

Ban was also the title of the medieval rulers of parts of Wallachia (Oltenia and Severin) since the 13th century. The Wallachian bans were military governors; their jurisdictions in Wallachia were called banat or bănie. The main Wallachian ruler was titled voivod, the position bans aspired to.

The title ban was also awarded in the Second Bulgarian Empire on several occasions, one example being the 14th-century governor of Sredets (Sofia) Ban Yanuka.[61]

Strahinja Banović (died 1389) was a "Ban" of Serb Epic Poetry.

Habsburg-era Croatia

Josip Jelačić, ban of Croatia (1848–1859).

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (called banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office.


The word ban is preserved in many modern place names in the regions where bans once ruled, and the personal names;

A region in central Croatia, south of Sisak, is called Banovina or Banija.[60] The region of Banat in the Pannonian Basin between the Danube and the Tisza rivers, now in Romania, Serbia and Hungary. In the toponymy of names Bando, Bandola, Banj dvor and Banj stol and Banovo polje in Lika,[62] Banbrdo, village Banova Jaruga, city Banovići, and possibly Banja Luka.[60][63]

The term ban is still used in the phrase banski dvori ("ban's court") for the buildings that host high government officials. The Banski dvori in Zagreb hosts the Croatian Government, while the Banski dvor in Banja Luka hosts the President of Republika Srpska (a first-tier subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The building known as Bela banovina ("the white banovina") in Novi Sad hosts the parliament and government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia. The building received this name because it previously hosted the administration of Danube Banovina (1929–1941). Banovina is also the colloquial name of the city hall building in Split, and of the administrative building (rectorate and library) of the University of Niš.

In Croatian Littoral banica or banić signified "small silver coins", in Vodice banica signified "unknown, old coins".[63] The Banovac was a coin struck between 1235 and 1384. In the sense of money it also meant in Romania, Bulgaria (bronze coins), and Old Polish (shilling).[63]

The term is also found in personal surnames; Ban, Banić, Banović, Banovac.[60]

See also


  1. The Iranian theory besides the already mentioned,[19][20][21] according some modern scholars additionally notes;[22] the Persian-English dictionary by E. H. Palmer, where is mentioned that noun suffix bàn or vàn derives from verb (meaning "keeping, managing"), composing bâgh-ban (gardener), der-bân (gate keeper), nigah-bàn (records keeper), raz-bàn (vineyard keeper), galah-bàn (pastor), shahr-bān (town keeper), kad-bánú (lady; shahbanu) as well the verb baná (build), báni; banná (builder).;[23][24] the title ba(n)daka (henchman, loyal servant, royal vassal),[25][26][27] a epithet of high rank in the Behistun Inscription used by Achaemenid king Darius I for his generals and satraps (Vidarna, Vindafarnā, Gaubaruva, Dādṛši, Vivāna, Taxmaspāda, Vaumisa, Artavardiya[28]),[25] and the bandag in the Paikuli inscription used by Sasanian king Narseh.[25] The Old Persian bandaka derives from banda, from Old Indian noun bandha, "bond, fetter", from Indo-European root bhendh, in Middle Iranian and Pahlavi bandag (bndk/g), Sogdian βantak, Turfan bannag.;[25] the name Artabanus of Persian and Parthian rulers; the Elam royal rulers name Hu(m)ban, carried in honour of god Khumban,[29] and the city Bunban; the title ubanus denoted to Prijezda I (1250–1287) by Pope Gregory IX.
  2. The Indo-European (Gothic) theory was emphasized by Vjekoslav Klaić, and Gjuro Szabo who developed the view by philologist Johann Georg Wachter from his Glossarium Germanicum (1737), and the similar viewpoint by Friedrich Kluge in his Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (1883).[30] V. Klaić noted the relation between Gothic word bandvjan (bandwjan[31]) and the widespread bannus, bannum, French ban, German bann, Spanish and Italian bando, with all to denote the office power grant or banner (see Ban (medieval) and King's ban).[32] G. Szabo noted the Hesychius commentary banoi ore strongila (rounded hills), and Wachter's consideration that Ban signifies "hill, peak, height", and as such was transferred to the meaning of "high dignity".[33] I. Mužić cites Korčula codex (12th century); Tunc Gothi fecerunt sibi regem Tetolam qui fuerat aliis regibus banus et obsedebat undique Romanis.[34] I. Mužić additionally noted the consideration by Celtologist Ranka Kuić (Crveno i crno Srpsko-keltske paralele, 2000, pg. 51), who considered Ban a Celtic designation for "hill peak", while Banat as "hilly region".[35]



  1. Živković 2012, p. 144.
  2. Živković 2012, p. 81.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Sakač 1939, p. 389.
  4. Rački, Franjo (1877), Documenta historiae chroaticae periodum antiquam illustrantia (in Latin), Zagreb: JAZU, p. 38
  5. Ostojić, Ivan (1967), "Religiozni elementi u diplomatičkim izvorima stare Hrvatske (2)", Church in the World (in Croatian), 2 (4): 49
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gluhak 1993, p. 123-124.
  7. 1 2 Švob, Držislav (1956), Pripis Supetarskog kartulara o izboru starohrvatskog kralja i popis onodobnih banova (PDF) (in Croatian), Zagreb: Školska Knjiga
  8. Matasović et al. 2004, p. 55.
  9. 1 2 3 Skok 1971, p. 104-105.
  10. Živković 2012, p. 144–145 (I):The title of ban is probably close to the personal name of Bayan (Avar) and could be of Turkic origin; cf. DAI II, 121. However, the title of ban among the Avars has never been attested to in historical sources, only qagan. It is probable that ban was a military commander of a high rank, similar to that of tudun mentioned in the ARF in 795, 796, 811; cf. ARF, 96, 98, 135. An Iranian origin of this word should not be ruled out – ban = keeper, guard; cf. H. G. Lunt, Old Church Slavonic Grammar, Berlin 2001, 256. Whether the Avars introduced this title into Europe, or the Croats and the Serbs (due to their highly probable Iranian origin) remains yet to be solved.
  11. Matasović 2008, p. 55: U većini je slučajeva vrlo teško utvrditi točan izvor i rekonstruirati praobilk takvih turkijskih riječi iz kojih su nastali npr. stsl. kniga, byserь, hrv. bán, hmềlj, hrền itd."
  12. Heršak, Nikšić 2007, p. 259.
  13. 1 2 3 Heršak, Silić 2002, p. 213.
  14. 1 2 3 Pohl 1995, p. 94.
  15. Sevortyan 1978, p. 27–29.
  16. Clauson 1972, p. 384.
  17. Starostin, Dybo 2003, p. 340.
  18. 1 2 Sakač 1939, p. 391-394.
  19. 1 2 3 Živković 2012, p. 144, 145.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Košćak 1995, p. 114.
  21. Sakač 1939, p. 396-397.
  22. Marčinko 2000, p. 29-32, 326, 328-329, 366, 414-417.
  23. Marčinko 2000, p. 29.
  24. Palmer, Edward H. A concise dictionary of the Persian language. HathiTrust. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  25. 1 2 3 4 Eilers, Wilhelm; Herrenschmidt, Clarisse (15 December 1988). "Banda". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  26. Dandamayev, Muhammad A. (15 December 1988). "Barda and Barda-Dāri: Achaemenid Period". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  27. Macuch, Maria (15 December 1988). "Barda and Barda-Dāri: In the Sasanian period". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  28. Lendering, Jona. "The Behistun inscription: Column 2, lines 18-28 (to see others move forward)". pp. 2, 18–28: 2, 29–37: 2, 46–54: 2, 79–88: 3, 11–19: 3, 29–37: 3, 49–57: 3, 84–92: 5, 1–10. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  29. F. Vallant (15 December 1998). "Elam". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  30. Mužić, Ivan (2001). Hrvati i autohtonost: na teritoriju rimske provincije Dalmacije [Croats and autochthony: in the territory of the Roman province of Dalmatia]. Split: Knjigotisak. p. 421. ISBN 953-213-034-9.
  31. Lambdin, Thomas O. (2006). An Introduction to the Gothic Language. Wipf and Stock. pp. 315–316.
  32. 1 2 3 Klaić, Vjekoslav (1889). "Porieklo banske časti u Hrvata". Zagreb: Vjesnik: 21–26.
  33. Szabo 2002, p. 103-104.
  34. Mužić, Ivan (2011). Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća [Croatian history of ninth century] (PDF). Split: Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments. pp. 132–133.
  35. Szabo 2002, p. 103.
  36. Živković 2012, p. 144–145 (II).
  37. Štih 1995, p. 125.
  38. 1 2 Sakač 1939, p. 391.
  39. Živković 2012, p. 117.
  40. Živković 2012, p. 51, 117-118: pg. 51 "It must be the case then that the anonymous author of Constantine’s major source on the Croats was the same one who wrote that the Avars lived in Dalmatia, since he overstretched Dalmatia as far as up to Danube to be able to include the territory of Lower Pannonia recorded in the DCBC. It was then this same anonymous author who made this confusion about the Avars living in Dalmatia, not Constantine."
  41. Sakač 1939, p. 391-392.
  42. Štih 1995, p. 125-127, 129-130.
  43. Miklošič, Franc (1886), Etymologisches Wörterbuch der slavischen Sprachen (in German), Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, p. 169
  44. Berneker, Erich (1924), Slavisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, I [A-L] (2 ed.), Heidelberg, p. 42
  45. Daničić, Đuro (1882), Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika [Croatian or Serbian Dictionary] (in Serbo-Croatian), I, JAZU, p. 169
  46. 1 2 3 4 Šišić, Ferdo (1925), Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara [History of the Croats at the time of national rulers] (in Croatian), Zagreb, pp. 250 (Bury), 276, 678–680
  47. Rački, Franjo (1889), Porieklo banske časti u Hrvata (in Serbo-Croatian), I, Vjestnik Kr. hrvatsko-slavonsko-dalmatinskog zemaljskog arkiva, pp. 25–26
  48. Smičiklas, Tadija (1882), Povjest Hrvatska (in Serbo-Croatian), I, Zagreb, p. 136
  49. 1 2 Szabo 2002, p. 102.
  50. Szabo, Gjuro (1919), O značenju topografskog nazivlja u južnoslavenskim stranama (in Serbo-Croatian), III (30), Zagreb, pp. 477–478
  51. Szabo 2002, p. 102-104.
  52. 1 2 Bechcicki, Jerzy (2006). "O problematici etnogeneze Bijele Hrvatske" [About the issue of ethnogenesis of White Croatia]. In Nosić, Milan. Bijeli Hrvati I [White Croats I] (in Croatian). Maveda. pp. 7–8. ISBN 953-7029-04-2.
  53. Mužić, Ivan (2013), Hrvatski vladari od sredine VI. do kraja X. stoljeća [Croatian rulers from the middle of VI. century until end of X. century] (PDF) (in Croatian), Split: Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments, pp. 47–48
  54. Rački, Franjo (1888), Nutarnje stanje Hrvatske prije XII. Stoljeća, III: Vrhovna državna vlast... rad 91 (in Croatian), p. 143
  55. Sakač 1939, p. 396-397 (I): Paul Horn was a german philologist of Iranian and Turkish languages. In his Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie (Strassburg, 1893) cited the word "ban" with the meaning of "Herr" (master), and added it never comes alone in that form. J. J. P. Desmaison was a French diplomat and didactic director who lived and worked in Russia. In his Dictionnaire Persan-Français (Rome, 1903) cited; بان bàn, seigneur, maitre, homme illustre, chef (lord, master, illustrious man, chief); bân, ajouté à un mot signifie (as supplement can also mean), garde (guard), gardien (guardian), ex. bàgh-bân, jardinier (gardener); der-bân, portier (gatekeeper), and in the third edition cited the title merz-bân (boundary guardian, principality guvernour, guardian).
  56. Gluhak 1990, p. 253.
  57. Sakač 1939, p. 397.
  58. Lunt, Horace (2001), Old Church Slavonic Grammar, Walter de Gruyter, p. 256, ISBN 9783110162844
  59. 1 2 3 Bali, Tomislav (2013), "Review of Paul Stephenson, ur., The Byzantine World", Historical Journal (in Croatian), Croatian Historical Society, 66 (2): 462
  60. 1 2 3 4 5 Gluhak 1993, p. 124.
  61. Plamen Pavlov - Car Konstantin II Asen (1397–1422) - posledniyat vladetel na srednovekovna Bulgariya (Bulgarian)
  62. Šimunović, Petar (2010). "Lička toponomastička stratigrafija". Folia onomastica Croatica (in Croatian) (19).
  63. 1 2 3 Skok 1971, p. 104.


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