Not to be confused with Vesak.

Birthplace of Khalsa. Anandpur Sahib. Punjab. India.
Also called Baisakhi, Vaisakhi, Khalsa Sirjana Divas.
Observed by Khalsa Sirjana Divas-Sikhs. Harvest festival/Punjabi new year- multi-faith.
Type Cultural
Significance The beginning of the harvest season, Punjabi New Year, Solar new year and birth of the Khalsa
Celebrations Parades and Nagar Kirtan. Fairs. Baptism ceremonies occurring worldwide at this time of year (Amrit Sanchaar Ceremony)
Observances Prayers, processions, raising of the Nishan Sahib flag, Fairs.

Vaisakhi (Punjabi: ਵਿਸਾਖੀ, visākhī), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi refers to the harvest festival of the Punjab region, the Punjabi new year falling on the first day of Vaisakh which is the first solar month of the Punjabi calendar, Khalsa Sirjana Divas which marks the birth of the Khalsa in the year 1699 and the Mesha Sankranti festival. It is celebrated on either 13 or 14 April.

Date and observance

The day represents the Spring equinox which normally occurs around 21 March but the day is marked on 13 April due to changes in the calendar.[1]

The festival is especially important for the Sikh community as it marks the establishment of the Khalsa which is also termed Khalsa Sirjana Divas [2] and falls on the first day of Vaisakh which is the second month of the Nanakshahi calendar. According to the Nanakshahi calendar, Khalsa Sirjana divas is marked on 14 April. [3]

In other cases, Vaisakhi falls on 13 April. Mesha Sankranti (the first of the solar month of Vaisakha) marks the start of the solar new year across many parts of the sub-continent using luni-solar calendars and is important for Hindus. In regions where the regional new year begins with the start of the lunar new year,[4] Mesha Sankranti is also considered to be an important day.

The festival also coincides with other new year festivals celebrated on the first day of Vaisakh 13 April, in some regions of the Indian Subcontinent such as Pohela Boishakh the Bengali New Year, Bohag Bihu of Assam or Puthandu, the Tamil New Year.

Punjab region

Harvest festival

Preparing field for a wheat crop before celebrating Vaisakhi harvest festival
Bhangra Dance Punjab

Vaisakhi is a Punjabi harvest festival for people of the Punjab region.[5] This day is also observed as a thanksgiving day by farmers whereby farmers pay their tribute, thanking God for the abundant harvest and also praying for future prosperity.

Punjabi New Year

According to the Punjabi calendar, Vaisakhi is also the Punjabi New Year (occurring on the first of the solar month of Vaisakh) based on the solar aspect of the Punjabi calendar which in turn is based on the Bikrami calendar and is used by all communities. The new year is observed throughout the Punjab region.[6] Hindus use the Punjabi calendar as their religious calendar too. Fairs are organised on Vaisakhi day in Punjabi villages.

Aawat pauni

A tradition associated with harvesting is Aawat pauni which involves people getting together to harvest the wheat. Drums are played whilst people work. At the end of the day, people sing dohay to the tunes of the drum.[7]

An example of a Punjabi dohah (couplet) is:

Kothey ute kothrhi, ute nar sukave kes
kite yaar dikhai dee gya badal ke bharava, gabhrua ohw bhes


The harvest festival is also characterised by the folk dance, Bhangra which traditionally is a harvest dance.

Punjab, Pakistan

Vaisakhi is observed as a harvest festival in Punjab, Pakistan and the local new year irrespective of faith.[8] Vaisakhi fairs are traditionally held in various places including Lahore.[9]

Punjab, India

Fairs are held in many parts of Punjab, India to mark the new year and the harvesting season.

Jammu Division

Vaisakhi fairs take place in various places, including Jammu City, Kathua, Udhampur, Reasi and Samba.[10]


Fairs are held to celebrate Vaisakhi in Haryana. Haryana Tourism organise a Vaisakhi mela in the Pinjore complex near Chandigarh.[11]

Himachal Pradesh

Vaisakhi fairs are held in many places of Himachal Pradesh including Rewalsar, Shimla, Mandi and Prashar Lakes.[12]

Khalsa Sirjana Divas

Importance for Sikhs

Main article: Khalsa
A depiction of Guru Gobind Singh initiating the first five members of the Khalsa

Vaisakhi is one of the three festivals chosen by Guru Amar Das to be celebrated by Sikhs (the others being Maghi and Diwali/Bandi Chhor Diwas[13] which later gave rise to the festival of Bandi Chor Divas during the times of the sixth Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji).

The festival bears a great significance for Sikhs because on the Vaisakhi 13. April[3] in the year 1699, the 10th Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh laid down the foundation of the Panth Khalsa, that is the Order of the Pure Ones giving rise to the festival of Khalsa Sirjana Divas. It is also used as a celebration for those accepting the five Ks.


Vaisakhi/Khalsa Sirjana Divas is celebrated on the first day of the second month of Vaisakh according to the Nanakshahi calendar. The festival is celebrated on 14 April,[3] with the era starting in 1699 A.D. The Birth of the Khalsa Panth was on 13. April 1699.

Punjab (India)

The main celebration takes place at Talwandi Sabo (where Guru Gobind Singh stayed for nine months and completed the recompilation of the Guru Granth Sahib),[14] and in the Gurudwara at Anandpur Sahib (see picture above), the birthplace of the Khalsa and at the Golden Temple in Amritsar.

Punjab (Pakistan)

Vaisakhi is widely celebrated by Sikhs in Western Punjab (Pakistan) as well, with festivities centered on the Panja Sahib complex in Hasan Abdal, numerous Gurudwaras in Nankana Sahib, and in various historical sites in Lahore.[15] It is culturally and traditionally regarded as an important and significant Punjabi festival, further exemplified by the thousands of Sikh pilgrims from around the world arriving each year to commemorate the day at the sacred Sikh sites of Nankana Sahib and Hasan Abdal.[16]

In United States, Canada, and United Kingdom

Vaisakhi parade in Surrey, BC, Canada
Handsworth Vaisakhi

In the United States, there is usually a parade commemorating the Vaisakhi celebration. In Manhattan, New York City[17] people come out to do "Seva" (selfless service) such as giving out free food, and completing any other labor that needs to be done. In Los Angeles, California, the local Sikh community consisting of many Gurdwaras[18] holds a full day Kirtan (spiritual music) program followed by a parade. The local Sikh community in Vancouver, Abbotsford and Surrey, British Columbia, Canada holds its annual Vaisakhi celebrations in April,[19] which often includes a Nagar Kirtan (parade) with the parade is Surrey involving 200,000 people in 2014.[20]

The United Kingdom has a large Sikh community originating from the Indian sub-continent, East Africa[21] and Afghanistan. The largest concentrations of Sikhs in the UK are to be found in the West Midlands (especially Birmingham and Wolverhampton) and London.[22] The Southall Nagar Kirtan is held on a Sunday a week or two before Vaisakhi. The Birmingham Nagar Kirtan is held in late April in association with Birmingham City Council,[23] and it is an annual event attracting thousands of people which commences with two separate nagar kirtans setting off from gurdwaras in the city and culminating in the Vaisakhi Mela at Handsworth Park.[24]

In Malaysia

A band performs at Vaisakhi day celebrations in Kuala Lumpur (2013).

The Sikh community, a subgroup of the Malaysian Indian ethnic minority race, is an ethnoreligious minority in Malaysia, which is why Vaisakhi is not a public holiday. However, in line with the government's efforts to promote integration among the country's different ethnic and religious groups, the prime minister, Najib Razak has announced that beginning 2013, all government servants from the Sikh Malaysian Indian community will be given a day off on Vaisakhi Day.[25] Vaisakhi 'open houses' are also held across the country during the day of the festival, or the closest weekend to it.

Spelling of Vaisakhi in Punjabi

The standard spelling of the festival in Punjabi is Vaisakhi with "V" not with "B" . ਵੈਸਾਖੁ ਸੁਹਾਵਾ ਤਾਂ ਲਗੈ ਜਾ ਸੰਤੁ ਭੇਟੈ ਹਰਿ ਸੋਇ ॥੩॥ Vaisaakh Suhaavaa Thaan Lagai Jaa Santh Bhaettai Har Soe ||3|| (Ank/Page: 134 SGGS)[26]

However, in the Doabi and Malwai dialects of Punjabi, it is common for speakers to substitute a "B" for a "V".[27] Therefore, the spelling used is dependent on the dialect of the writer.

Mesha Sankranti Festival

Ganges at Haridwar, Uttarakhand

The first day of Vaisakh is celebrated as Mesha Sankranti which marks the solar new year[28] and is celebrated by Hindus bathing in sacred rivers.[29] Mesha Sankranti is also referred to as Baisakhi but this event is distinct from the regional festival of Vaisakhi and is related to the marking of the start of the solar new year by people of the Punjab region and other regions of the sub-continent.[30]

Many Hindus travel to Haridwar to take a dip in the Ganges on Mesha Sankranti which is also called Vaisakha Sankranti.[31] In Himachal Pradesh, the Hindu Goddess Jwalamukhi is worshipped on the day.

In other regions of the Indian Subcontinent

The first day of Vaisakh marks the solar new year[32] but is not considered to be a New Year across India but only in some regions. Therefore, Vaisakhi coincides with the New Year's Day (according to the solar new year) celebrated by people across the Tamil Nadu, Assam Valley, Kerala, Odisha, West Bengal, the Kumaon region of Uttrakhand and Mithila region of Bihar (where the Sun-god Surya is honoured).[32] It is also celebrated outside India in Nepal and Sri Lanka & Bangladesh, where it is called pahela baishakh.

Vaisakhi almost coincides with the festival of 'Vishu' celebrated in Kerala a day after Vaisakhi. The festivities include fireworks, shopping for new clothes and interesting displays called 'Vishu Kani'. These are arrangements of flowers, grains, fruits, cloth, gold, and money are viewed early in the morning, to ensure a year of prosperity. The other festival Vaisakhi almost coincides with is Bohag Bihu which is celebrated in Assam a day after Vaisakhi where the community organizes massive feasts, music, and dancing.

Names of festivals by region

The following is a list of new year festivals:


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