|Country||Great Britain, United States|
|Allegiance||Great Britain, United States|
|Branch||colonial militia, independent volunteers, military association, refugees, partisans, (auxiliary troops)|
|Type||infantry, dragoons (mounted infantry), artillery|
Maryland Protestant Revolution (1649-1692)
King George's War (1744-1748)
French and Indian War (1754-1763)American Revolutionary War (1775-1783)
Associators were members of 17th and 18th century, volunteer, military associations, in the British American Thirteen Colonies and British Colony of Canada, more commonly known as, Maryland Protestant, Pennsylvania, and American Patriot and British Loyalist, colonial militias. There were other names, used to describe associators, such as "Associations", "Refugees", and "Volunteers", and "Partisans". The term, "Non-Associators", applied to American colonists, who refused to support and sign "military association" charters, were not affiliated with associators, or would choose instead, to pay a fine and suffer possible retaliation.
Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Associators
During King George's War, Benjamin Franklin, in 1747, wrote and published the pamphlet, Plain Truth, calling for a voluntary association to defend Philadelphia. This was in line with his earlier formation of volunteer fire-companies. This organization was formed and approved by the Council and the officers would be commissioned by the Council President. The 111th Infantry Regiment (United States) traces their lineage to these Pennsylvania Associators. In 1755 these groups were re-established in response to Braddock's Defeat.
Associators in American Revolutionary War
American Patriot Associators
State of Pennsylvania
In 1776, Pennsylvania, Patriot, volunteer, military groups, in the tradition of earlier, colonial, associator militias, used the name the Pennsylvania Associators and in 1777, were renamed the Pennsylvania State Militia.
- Bucks County Associators (1775-1776)
- Lancaster County Associators (1775)
- Northumberland County Associators (1776)
- Artillery Battalion, Pennsylvania Militia (Philadelphia) (1747)
- 4th Battalion of Philadephia County Militia (1776)
- Philadelphia Brigade of Militia (1747)
- 2nd Battalion, Philadephia Associators
- 3rd Battalion, Philadelphia Associators
British Loyalist Associators
Many, Loyalist irregulars, who fought with the British, in the American Revolutionary War, were "associators". These units were sometimes commissioned, by the commander in chief, but could also, be commissioned by the commander of a garrison or a royal colonial governor. They received no pay, and often no uniforms; they were usually issued provisions, but relied on labor or looting to earn money. Loyalist Associators often served in mixed-race units, composed of whites, escaped slaves, and even American Indians.
Perhaps, one of, the most famous, Loyalist associators was Colonel Tye, a former slave and leader of the infamous, "Black Brigade"; the first known, black officer, in North American military history.
Province of Georgia
- Augusta Associators (Augusta) (1781)
Province of Massachusetts
- Loyal American Association (Boston) (1775-1776)
- Loyal Associated Refugees (1779)
- Loyal Irish Volunteers (Boston) (1775-1776)
- Pepperell's Corps (Boston) (1779-?)
- Royal North British Volunteers (Boston) (1775-1776)
Province of Maryland
- Maryland Royal Retaliators (raised in Philadelphia) (1780-1781)
Province of New Jersey
- Associated Loyalists (also, known as Governor Franklin's Associated Loyalists) (1780-1782)
- Black Brigade (Loyalist) (Led by Colonel Tye and later, Colonel Stephen Blucke) (Monmouth County) (1779-1783)
Province of New York
- Associated Refugees (also, known as the King's American Regiment) (Long Island) (1776-1783)
- Brant's Volunteers (1777-1779)
- Brookhaven Association (Brookhaven, Suffolk County) (1775-?)
- De Lancey's Refugees (also, known as "Cowboys" and part of De Lancey's Brigade) (Long Island) (1776-1783)
- Hatfield's Company of Partisans (partisans irregulars led by Captain Cornelius Hatfield, and part of the New Jersey Volunteers (Skinner's Greens) (Long Island) (1779-1782)
- Hazard's Corps of Refugees (Long Island) (1780-1782)
- King’s Militia Volunteers (1779-1780)
- Loyal Refugee Volunteers (Albany) (1779-1782)
Province of Rhode Island
- Loyal Newport Associators (Newport) (1777-1779)
Other Loyalist Associators
- Black Loyalists (1775-1784)
- Robins Company of Partisans (partisan irregulars) (1780-1782 ?)
- Sharp's Refugee Marines (marines), naval-based infantry force) (1779)
- James Stewart's Company of Refugees (1780-1781)
- Uzal Ward's Company of Refugees (1780-1783)
- Nehemiah Blakiston
- Colonel Tye
- John Coode
- Joseph Brant
- Oliver De Lancey
- Benjamin Franklin
- Cortlandt Skinner
- Newland, Samuel J. The Pennsylvania Militia:Defending the Commonwealth and the nation, 1669-1870 Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Military and Veterans Affairs (2002)pp36-45
- The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography, Volume 26. Retrieved Feb 27, 2010.
- Farrelly, Maura Jane. Papist Patriots: The Making of an American Catholic Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Newland, Samuel J. The Pennsylvania Militia: Defending the Commonwealth and the nation, 1669-1870. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Military and Veterans Affairs, 2002.
- Ryan, William R. The World of Thomas Jeremiah: Charles Town on the Eve of the American Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Seymour, Joseph. The Pennsylvania Associators, 1747-1777. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-1594161605.
- Verenna, Thomas. "Explaining Pennsylvania's Militia", Journal of the American Revolution, June 17, 2014.
- History of (Pennsylvania) Associators and the Military Association 1775-1777 - The Associators of the Revolution
- List of British Loyalist Associators - The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies
- "Loyalist Muster Rolls" Revolutionary War Oaths of Allegiance and Non-Associators