Army Reserve (United Kingdom)
Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve
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The Army Reserve (previously known as the Territorial Force, Territorial Army (TA) and the Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve (TAVR) from 1920 to 2014) is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army. The Army Reserve was created as the Territorial Force in 1908 by the Secretary of State for War, Richard Haldane, when the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 combined the previously civilian-administered Volunteer Force, with the mounted Yeomanry (at the same time the Militia was renamed the Special Reserve). Most Volunteer infantry units had unique identities, but lost these in the reorganisation, becoming Territorial battalions of Regular Army infantry regiments. Only one infantry unit, the London Regiment, has maintained a separate identity.
Its original purpose was home defence, although the establishment of the Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve in 1967 involved a restructuring and revised doctrine leading to the provision of routine support for the regular army overseas. Reservists in the past also served as constables or bailiffs, even holding positions of civic duty as overseer of their parish. The more modern Yeomen of the 18th century were cavalry-based units, which were often used to suppress riots (see the Peterloo Massacre). Several units that are now part of the Army Reserve bear the title "militia", reflecting their origins as part of that organisation prior to the formation of the Special Reserve in 1907.
During periods of total war, the Army Reserve is incorporated by the Royal Prerogative into Regular Service under one code of Military Law for the duration of hostilities or until de-activation is decided upon. After the Second World War, for example, the Army Reserve - or Territorial Army as it was known then - was not demobilised until 1947. Army Reservists normally have a full-time civilian job or career, which in some cases provides skills and expertise that are directly transferable to a specialist military role, such as NHS employees serving in Reservist Army Medical Services units. All Army Reserve personnel have their civilian jobs protected to a limited extent by law should they be compulsorily mobilised. There is, however, no legal protection against discrimination in employment for membership of the Army Reserve in the normal course of events (i.e. when not mobilised).
Formation to First World War
The Territorial Force was originally formed by the Secretary of State for War, Richard Burdon Haldane, following the enactment of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 which combined and re-organised the old Volunteer Force with the Yeomanry. As part of the same process, remaining units of militia were converted to the Special Reserve. The TF was formed on 1 April 1908 and contained fourteen infantry divisions, and fourteen mounted yeomanry brigades. It had an overall strength of approximately 269,000.
The individual units that made up each division or brigade were administered by County Associations, with the county's lord lieutenant as president. The other members of the association consisted of military members (chosen from the commanding officers of the units), representative members (nominated by the county councils and county boroughs in the lieutenancy county) and co-opted members (often retired military officers). Associations took over any property vested in the volunteers or yeomanry under their administration. Each regiment or battalion had a Regular Army officer attached as full-time adjutant.
The use of the word territorial signified that the volunteers who served with the force were under no obligation to serve overseas—in 1910, when asked to nominate for Imperial Service overseas in the event of mobilisation, less than 10% of the Force chose to do so. In August 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War, territorial units were given the option of serving in France and, by 25 August, in excess of seventy battalions had volunteered. This question over the availability of territorial divisions for overseas service was one of Lord Kitchener's motivations for raising the New Army separately.
Territorial formations initially saw service in Egypt and British India and other Empire garrisons such as Gibraltar, thereby releasing regular units for service in France and enabling the formation of an additional five regular army divisions (for a total of eleven) by early 1915. Several reserve units were also deployed with regular formations and the first territorial unit to see action on the Western Front was the Glasgow Territorial Signallers Group, Royal Engineers at the First Battle of Ypres on 11 October 1914. The first fully Territorial division to join the fighting on the Western Front was the 46th (North Midland) Division in March 1915, with divisions later serving in Gallipoli and elsewhere. As the war progressed, and casualties mounted, the distinctive character of territorial units was diluted by the inclusion of conscript and New Army drafts. Following the Armistice all units of the Territorial Force were gradually disbanded.
Interwar re-establishment and the Second World War
New recruiting started in early 1920, and the Territorial Force was reconstituted on 7 February 1920. On 1 October 1920, the Territorial Force was renamed the Territorial Army. The 1st Line divisions (that were created in 1907 or 1908) were reconstituted in that year. However, the composition of the divisions was altered, with a reduction in the number of infantry battalions required. There was also a reduced need for cavalry, and of the 55 yeomanry regiments, only the 14 most senior retained their horses. The remaining yeomanry were converted to artillery or armoured car units or disbanded. The amalgamation of 40 pairs of infantry battalions was announced in October 1921. As part of the post-war "Geddes Axe" financial cuts, the TA was further reduced in size in 1922: artillery batteries lost two of their six guns, the established size of infantry battalions was cut and ancillary medical, veterinary, signals and Royal Army Service Corps units were either reduced in size or abolished. The bounty was also reduced to £3 for trained men and £2.10s 0d for recruits, which resulted in finding £1,175,000 of the total savings required from the army as a whole. An innovation in 1922 was the creation of two Air Defence Brigades to provide anti-aircraft defence for London.
On 29 March 1939, it was announced that the size of the TA was to be doubled by the reforming of the 2nd line units. The total strength of the TA was to be 440,000: the field force of the Territorial Army was to rise from 130,000 to 340,000, organised in 26 divisions, while an additional 100,000 all ranks would form the anti-aircraft section. When the 2nd Line was reformed, they were a little different from their First World War predecessors. They had slightly different names and the regiments assigned were different. After VJ Day in August 1945, the Territorial Army was significantly reduced, with all 2nd Line and several 1st Line Divisions once again disbanded.
List of Territorial Army Divisions, Second World War
The Territorial Army armoured and infantry divisions during the Second World War were:
- 1st Line:
- 1st Cavalry Division (1st Line Yeomanry)
- 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division
- 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division
- 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division
- 48th (South Midland) Infantry Division
- 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division
- 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
- 51st (Highland) Infantry Division
- 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division
- 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division
- 54th (East Anglian) Infantry Division
- 55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division
- 56th (London) Infantry Division
- 2nd Line
- 9th (Highland) Infantry Division
- 12th (Eastern) Infantry Division
- 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division
- 18th Infantry Division
- 23rd (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
- 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division
- 45th Infantry Division
- 46th Infantry Division
- 47th (London) Infantry Division
- 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division
- 61st Infantry Division
- 66th Infantry Division
Postwar reforms and Cold War
In 1947, the TA was restructured and expanded through the reactivation of some of the 1st Line divisions that were initially disbanded after the war, keeping its former role of supplying complete divisions to the regular Army until 1967. For the first time, TA units were formed in Northern Ireland. The manoeuvre divisions established or re-established in 1947 were:
- 42nd (Lancashire) Infantry Division
- 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division
- 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division
- 49th (West Riding & North Midland) Armoured Division (49th (West Riding and North Midland) Division/District in 1961)
- 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division (50th Northumbrian District by 1966)
- 51st/52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division
- 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division (until 1968, when superseded by Wales District)
- 56th (London) Armoured Division
The 16th Airborne Division, a totally TA formation, was also raised at this time, under the command of Major-General Robert E. "Roy" Urquhart. 52nd (Lowland) Division was re-established as a tenth, 'mixed' division in March 1950.
The territorials also provided much of the anti-aircraft cover for the United Kingdom until 1956. In that year, Anti-Aircraft Command and 15 anti-aircraft regiments of the Royal Artillery were disbanded, with nine others passing into "suspended animation" as new English Electric Thunderbird Surface to Air Missile units replaced them. On 20 December 1955, the Secretary of State for War informed the House of Commons that the armoured divisions and the 'mixed' division were to be converted to infantry, and the 16th Airborne Division reduced to a parachute brigade group. Only two divisions (43rd and 53rd), two armoured brigades, and a parachute brigade were to remain allocated for NATO and the defence of Western Europe; the other eight divisions were placed on a lower establishment for home defence only. The territorial units of the Royal Armoured Corps were also reduced in number to nine armoured regiments and eleven reconnaissance regiments. This was effected by amalgamation of pairs of regiments, and the conversion of four RAC units to an infantry role. The new parachute brigade group become the 44th Independent Parachute Brigade Group.
British forces contracted dramatically as the end of conscription in 1960 came in sight as announced in the 1957 Defence White Paper. On 20 July 1960, a reorganisation of the TA was announced in the House of Commons. The territorials were to be reduced from 266 fighting units to 195. There was to be a reduction of 46 regiments of the Royal Artillery, 18 battalions of infantry, 12 regiments of the Royal Engineers and two regiments of the Royal Corps of Signals. The reductions were carried out in 1961, mainly by amalgamation of units. Thus, on 1 May 1961, the TA divisional headquarters were merged with regular army districts, which were matched with Civil Defence Regions to aid mobilisation for war. The number of infantry brigades were reduced from 31 to 23, and the two armoured brigades were disbanded.
This was followed by a complete reorganisation announced in the 1966 Defence White Paper from 1 April 1967, when the title Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve (TAVR) was adopted, that abolished the former regimental and divisional structure of the TA. Units in the new TAVR were divided into four categories:
- TAVR I: Units available for all purposes
- TAVR II: Units with a NATO role, specifically support for the British Army of the Rhine
- TAVR III: Home Defence units
- TAVR IV: Consisting of bands and the University-based Officer Training Corps
TAVR I and II units were known as "Volunteers", and those in TAVR III as "Territorials". These terms were often incorporated into the unit titles.
The TAVR III was disbanded in 1969, with the units being reduced to eight-man "cadres". The cadres became part of a "sponsoring" TAVR II unit, although continuing to wear the badges and perpetuating the traditions of their forebears. An increase in the size of the TAVR in 1971 led to the formation of a number of battalions based on these cadres.
In 1979, the Territorial Army title was restored and, in the following years, its size was somewhat increased, with the regimental system being progressively reinstated. Although, due to its decreased established size, Brigades rather than Divisions were used at a manoeuvre formation level.
The TA was thus re-roled into its modern form. Instead of supplying complete combat divisions, its function was to round out regular formations by supplying units of up to battalion size (including infantry, light artillery and formation reconnaissance), and to supply extra support functions such as engineers, medical units and military police.
After the Strategic Defence Review of 1998, the TA's size of around 56,200 was further reduced. The Infantry suffered most, with 87 companies in 33 battalions reducing to 67 companies in 15 battalions. As of 2006, the Territorial Army has an authorised strength of 42,000 though recruiting difficulties put the actual strength of the TA significantly below that figure (manning is currently at approx 82% across the board which equates to 34,000 while the actual strength of certain units is almost a skeleton crew, making them unsustainable without direct intervention by full-time personnel).
Army Reservists have seen service in a number of conflicts that the UK has been involved with since 1945. However, they served in particularly large numbers in two conflicts: the Korean War and the Suez Crisis; both occurred during the 1950s and, on each occasion, the entire TA was called up. Throughout the Cold War, however, the Territorial Army was never regarded as a particularly usable force overseas, either by the Government of the day or by the Regular Army. This was due to the fact that the entire Territorial Army had to be mobilised by Royal Prerogative in a wartime scenario, as occurred in the World Wars, with no flexibility to use smaller formations or specialists if required and, as a result, relied purely on territorials willing to volunteer their services. Therefore, its role was, at least unofficially, seen as home defence and, as a result, the TA was not used in conflicts such as the 1982 Falklands War and 1991 Gulf War (205 Scottish General Hospital was mobilised as a unit based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the 1991 Gulf War and a number of TA staff officers and others volunteered and served during the conflict, either in supporting roles in Germany or within 1 (UK) Armoured Division in the Middle East.) Some 550 TA personnel volunteered for and deployed on Op RESOLUTE in December 1995; the UK's contribution to the NATO mission to enforce peace in the Former Yugoslavia. The Government subsequently passed the Reserve Forces Act 1996, which enables individual Reservists to be compulsorily called up for deployment, with certain caveats exempting those in full-time education and other compassionate reasons, as well as providing protection by employment law for members' civilian jobs should they be mobilised, which has led to the Army Reserve increasingly providing routine support for the Regular Army overseas including delivery of composite units to release regular units from standing liabilities; including Bosnia, Kosovo, Cyprus and the Falkland Islands.
In 2003, 9,500 reservists, the vast majority of them from the Reserve, were mobilised to take part in Operation TELIC, the invasion of Iraq; in contrast only some 420 Regular Reservists were called-up. Approximately 1,200 members of the Army Reserve deployed annually on tours of duty in Iraq, Operation HERRICK in Afghanistan and elsewhere, normally on six month-long roulements. They cannot be used in operations for more than twelve months in any three-year period - making most of those who have already served ineligible for call up for two years afterwards, although reservists may choose to volunteer for additional deployments.
Army Reservists have a minimum commitment to serve 27 training days per annum, or 19 days for some national units. This period normally includes a two-week period of continuous training either as an Army Reserve unit, on courses or attached to a Regular unit. Army Reserve soldiers are paid at a similar rate as their regular equivalents while engaged on military activities. Soldiers of the Army Reserve are often serving alongside their regular counterparts, including operations in Afghanistan where 1,000 out of the total 10,100 deployed have been Reservists, around 10% of the total. The annual budget of the Army Reserve is approximately £350 million – around 1.3% of the total defence budget.
2011 onwards and renaming
Under the "Future Reserves 2020" (FR20) plan outlined by then Secretary of State for Defence Liam Fox on 18 July 2011, the Ministry of Defence will provide more money to train more Army Reservists with the objective of more frequently deploying entire Army Reserve units (much like United States Army Reserve and Army National Guard units). Under the reform plan, the total force will be restructured so that, by 2020, the British Army will have 120,000 soldiers, of which 84,000 will be Regulars and 35,000 Reservists (a ratio of 70/30). The Territorial Army was renamed under that plan, becoming the Army Reserve.
In Phase 1, recruits cover the Common Military Syllabus (Reserve)14 (CMS(R)14). Phase 1 A is a series of 4 training weekends at regional Army Training Units (ATUs), or the recruit could attend a consolidated Phase 1 A week long course. Phase 1 training concludes with a two-week Phase 1 B training course normally held at the Army Training Centre, Pirbright or the Army Training Regiment, Winchester, or Grantham. Recruits to the 4th Battalion, The Parachute Regiment and the Honourable Artillery Company complete their equivalent of CMS(R) within their own units.
Phase 1 is followed by Phase 2, a further period of specialist training specific to the type of unit the recruit is joining. This is normally conducted by the Arm or Service that the recruit is joining, for example for infantry units, Phase 2 consists of the two-week Combat Infantryman's Course (TA) (CIC (TA)) held at the Infantry Training Centre, Catterick.
To gain a commission, Potential Officers have to pass through four modules of training, which together form the Army Reserve Commissioning Course.
Module A consists of basic field training and elementary military skills. This can be completed at either a UOTC over a number of weekends, or over 2 weeks at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS)
Module B covers training in Tactics, Leadership, Doctrine and Navigation, both in theory and in practice, with a focus on the section battle drills and the platoon combat estimate. This training can either be spread over 10 weekends at a UOTC, or 2 weeks at the RMAS.
Module C builds on the Tactics, Leadership, Doctrine and Navigation taught in Module B, with a greater focus on the theory behind these constructs. CBRN training is also added at this point, and Officer Cadets undergo a number of field exercises to test their military and leadership skills. Module C can only be undertaken at the RMAS.
Module D Once the Officer Cadet has completed their ArmyOfficer Selection Board, they can complete this final module, after which they will become commissioned officers in the British Army. Based at the RMAS, this module consists primarily of a prolonged field exercise, followed by drill training in preparation for the passing out parade.
On successful completion of Module D, the Officer Cadets receive their Commission and become Second Lieutenants. Further training that is required prior to them being considered for operational deployment and promotion to Lieutenant includes:
Post Commissioning Training (formerly known as Module 5), again run at an OTC, over 3 weekends.
Special To Arm training is specific to the type of unit the Subaltern is joining, and covers a 2-week period. This is increasingly integrated with the tactics phase of a Regular training course. For example, the Platoon Commander's Battle Course held at the Infantry Battle School in Brecon which is integrated with Regular training, or the Yeomanry Tactics Course held at the Land Warfare Centre in Warminster which is not.
- e.g. Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers (Militia), The Jersey Field Squadron (Militia), The Royal Militia of the Island of Jersey, 4th (Volunteer) Battalion, the Royal Irish Rangers (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th) (North Irish Militia) (until 1993)
- New Territorial Army – The Government Scheme, The Times, January 31, 1920
- New Citizen Army – 2nd Line Defence Scheme, The Times, January 31, 1920
- Territorial Army Reduction, The Times, July 15, 1921
- Territorial Army Amalgamations – 40 Battalions Affected The Times, October 5, 1921
- Territorial Army Reductions - £1,650,000 to be saved, The Times, March 4, 1922
- Ian F.W. Beckett, 'Territorials: A Century of Service,' First Published April 2008 by DRA Printing of 14 Mary Seacole Road, The Millfields, Plymouth PL1 3JY on behalf of TA 100, ISBN 978-0-9557813-1-5, 102.
- The Territorial Army and Air Defence of Great Britain, (United Kingdom Reserve Forces Association), accessed August 28, 2007 Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Air Defence of London – Two Brigades of Ground Troops, The Times, July 12, 1922
- Territorial Army - Establishment doubled, The Times, March 30, 1939
- 13 Additional Divisions - Method of Expansion, The Times, March 30, 1939
- Charles Messenger, A History of the British Infantry: Volume Two 1915-94, Leo Cooper, London, 1996, 157.
- Beckett, 2008, 178.
- Napoleonic war links to go, The Times, August 30, 1955.
- Yourdemocracy.newstatesman.com Archived April 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Beckett 2008, 180.
- TA replanning complete, The Times, May 6, 1956
- Reorganizing Territorials, the Times, July 21, 1960
- Beckett 2008, 183, 185.
- "Regiments of the British TERRITORIAL & ARMY VOLUNTEER RESERVE 1967 at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 2007-07-15. Retrieved 2015-02-13.
- Lineage of British Army Regiments 1967 - 2000 by Wienand Drieth
- TA History Archived May 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Reserve Forces Act 1996". Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "British Army - Reserve Forces - Types of Reservist and Manpower Strength - Armed Forces - a11a3". Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Territorial Army 'to be renamed the Army Reserve'". BBC News. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "TA Recruit Training Structure & Overview". Ministry of Defence.
- "Phase One: The Build Up". 4th Battalion, The Parachute Regiment. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". HAC. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- Beckett, Ian F.W. Territorials: A Century of Service, first published April 2008 by DRA Printing of 14 Mary Seacole Road, The Millfields, Plymouth PL1 3JY on behalf of TA 100, ISBN 978-0-9557813-1-5
- Heyman, M. A. Heyman. "The Territorial Army - 1999 - An archive document of The TA in 1999 before the implementation of The Strategic Defence Review".
- Messenger, Charles. A History of the British Infantry: Volume Two 1915–94, Leo Cooper, London, 1996
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Territorial Army (United Kingdom).|
- Army Reserve
- Army Reservist Support Service
- The All Party Parliamentary Reserve Forces Group - see their most recent report on the TA
- The Territorial Army 1967-2000 by Wienand Drenth