Arad, Romania


From top, left to right: Arad City Hall, Cenad Palace, The Red Church, St. Anthony of Padua Church, Moise Nicoara National College, Ioan Slavici National Theatre, Statue of St. Nepomuk's, Aurel Vlaicu University


Coat of arms

Location of Arad, Romania

Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317
Country  Romania
County Arad County
Status Municipality
  Mayor Gheorghe Falcă (Democratic Liberal Party)
  Total 46.18 km2 (17.83 sq mi)
Elevation 117 m (384 ft)
Population (2011 census)[1]
  Total 159,704
  Density 3,500/km2 (9,000/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 31xxx
Area code(s) (+40) 02 57
Vehicle registration AR
Climate Cfb
Arad on an 18th-century map

Arad (Romanian pronunciation: [aˈrad]; Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the region of Crişana, and having recently extended on the left bank of the Mureș river, in Banat region of western Romania.

An important industrial center and transportation hub on the Mureș River, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary and a training school for teachers. It had one of the first music conservatories in Europe.[2][3] The city has a population of 159,704, making it the 12th largest city in Romania. Arad is the third largest city in the western part of the country, behind Timișoara and Oradea.


Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Șoimoș, Șiria, and Dezna. The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kacaș, Beşlek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians (Serbian Militia under command of Subota Jović) during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683–1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. At the beginning of 18th century, Arad became center of Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Arad. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.[4]

The first Jew allowed to settle inside the city was Isac Elias in 1717.[5] Eventually the Jewish population of Arad numbered over 10,000 people, more than 10% of the population, before the Second World War.[6]

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.

Courageously defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now Şiria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artúr Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.

Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureș river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.[7]


 → 1868 – Romanian poet Mihai Eminescu came to Arad as a prompter for Matei Millo's theatre company.

 → 1846 – Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Franz Liszt performed.

 → 1847 – Johann Strauss the Son performed.

 → 1877 – Pablo Sarasate and Henryk Wieniawski performed.

 → 1922 – Romanian composer and violin virtuoso George Enescu performed.

 → 1924 – Hungarian composer Béla Bartók performed.


Historical population of Arad
Year Population
1900 53,903[8]
1912 census Increase 63,166
1930 census Increase 77,181
1948 census Increase 87,291
1956 census Increase 106,460
1966 census Increase 126,000
1977 census Increase 171,193
1992 census Increase 190,114
2002 census Decrease 172,827
2011 census Decrease 159,704

According to the 2011 census, the municipality of Arad was home to 159,704 inhabitants. The ethnic split of the city was as follows: 126,075 Romanians (85.19%); 15,695 Hungarians (10.06%); 2,535 Romani (1.71%); 1,256 Germans (0.84%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%). [1]

The principal religious groups were the Romanian Orthodox (72.7%), Roman Catholic (12.1%), Baptist (4.5%), Pentecostal (4.4%), Reformed (3.1%), and Greek-Catholic (1.1%) churches.


Arad has a continental climate with cool and damp winters. The summers are warm to hot. In the summer months of June, July and August there are 60 days above 32 °C (90 °F). The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[9]

Climate data for Arad, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18
Average high °C (°F) 1
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
Average low °C (°F) −3
Record low °C (°F) −25
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.8
Average rainy days 11 11 11 10 12 11 9 8 7 9 12 12 123
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 84 124 150 248 270 279 279 210 155 60 62 1,983
Source: Weatherbase[10] MSN Weather[11] BBC Weather [12]


With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous cities in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments in industry and commerce, Arad has a booming economy.

The main industries are: railroad cars, food processing, furniture and household accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, instrumentation, clothing and textiles, and footwear.


Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive tram network and several bus lines covering most of the city's neighbourhoods and suburbs. Arad International Airport (IATA: ARW, ICAO: LRAR), with the largest and most modern cargo terminal in western Romania, is situated only 4 km west from central Arad and is directly connected to the Arad west bypass road, part of the A1 Motorway.

Employees by occupation


  1. Aradul Nou
  2. Centru
  3. Aurel Vlaicu
  4. Micălaca
  5. Grădiște
  6. Alfa
  7. Bujac
  8. Confectii
  9. Functionarilor
  10. Gai
  11. Parneava
  12. Sânnicolaul Mic
  13. Colonia
  14. Subcetate

Tourist attractions

Architectural monuments

Ioan Slavici Classic Theatre
Neumann Palace

Historic buildings


The Lutheran Red Church in Arad

Religious tourism

Roman Catholic Cathedral St. Anthony of Padua

Recreational tourism

Culture and education


Arad has two universities, the private "Vasile Goldiş" Western University, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University founded in 1991. Also the "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the Moise Nicoară National College, the Pedagogical High School "Dimitrie Țichindeal", "Elena Ghiba-Birta" National College, the Economics College, the Technical College for Constructions and Environmental Protection Arad, and the Vasile Goldiș theoretical lyceum. High schools in minority languages include the Hungarian Csiky Gergely College and the German Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn theoretical lyceum.

Cultural life

Museums and exhibitions

Arad town hall square

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Arad is twinned with:[13]

Partner cities


The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1945 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. As of the 2009-10 season, it plays in the second national league, Liga II. The team is the most successful team from Romania that is not based in Bucharest, after Steaua and Dinamo; it is the 3rd more successful modern team in the country and 4th counting Venus Bucharest, a team from the Inter-War period. The team's most notable performance on the international stage is the elimination from the European Champions Cup of Ernst Happel's Feyenoord in the 1970–71 season, when the Dutch team were defending European champions and later won the Intercontinental Cup.

In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002). In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division. The men's rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reaching the playoff final in 2006.

World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.



  1. 1 2 "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  2. Dorin Frandeş, Spaţii arădene care au găzduit muzică – Piteşti : Nomina 2011 ISBN 978-606-535-327-5;
  3. Consiliul Judeṭean Arad - Arad, spirit și cultură
  4. Dr Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990, page 326.
  5. Lakatos Otto - Aradi története
  6. (Romanian) "Sinagoga din Arad - Misterul din spatele usilor : Stiri Arad," (13 mar 2008). Retrieved 11-08-2013.
  7. Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó
  8. Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  9. Climate Summary for Arad
  10. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Arad, Romania".
  11. "MSN Weather Averages for Arad".
  12. "BBC Weather Averages for Arad". BBC News.
  13. Galeria orașelor înfrățite și partenere

External links

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