Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)

This article is about the former Cardinal Octavianus, antipope from 1159 to 1164. For the previous reigning antipope, see Antipope Victor IV (1138).

Victor IV (born Octavian or Octavianus: Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli) was the cardinal priest of Santa Cecilia before he was elected as a Ghibelline antipope in 1159, following the death of Pope Adrian IV and the election of Alexander III. His election was supported by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He took the name Victor IV, not accounting for Antipope Victor IV of 1138 because of that antipope's short tenure.

He was described by John of Salisbury as eloquent and refined, but petty and parsimonious. When he was sent with Cardinal Jordan of Santa Susanna as a papal legate to summon Conrad III of Germany to Italy to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, he quarreled with his co-legate and, in the words of Salisbury, "made the Church a laughingstock."[1]

He died at Lucca on 20 April 1164.


  1. Norwich, 149–150 and note.


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